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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886791/environmental-exposures-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-challenge-for-health-and-development-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#1
REVIEW
Melissa S Burroughs Peña, Allman Rollins
Environmental exposures in low- and middle-income countries lie at the intersection of increased economic development and the rising public health burden of cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence suggests an association of exposure to ambient air pollution, household air pollution from biomass fuel, lead, arsenic, and cadmium with multiple cardiovascular disease outcomes, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. Although populations in low- and middle-income countries are disproportionately exposed to environmental pollution, evidence linking these exposures to cardiovascular disease is derived from populations in high-income countries...
February 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871757/an-approach-to-the-environmental-prioritisation-of-volatile-methylsiloxanes-in-several-matrices
#2
Vera Homem, Daniela Capela, José Avelino Silva, Alessandra Cincinelli, Lúcia Santos, Arminda Alves, Nuno Ratola
Siloxane-based compounds are widely used in personal care, pharmaceutical and household products as well as in industrial applications. Among the wide variety of these chemicals, special attention has been given to volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs). These compounds have been extensively detected in several environmental compartments, as they are not effectively removed from wastewater and may migrate through different matrices and being lipophilic, bioaccumulate and biomagnify in living organisms. In this work, a prioritisation methodology for several VMSs in different environmental matrices was applied, estimating a hazard quotient by combining exposure evaluation through measured or predicted environmental concentrations (MEC or PEC) and effects using ecotoxicity data to establish no effect concentrations (PNEC)...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859699/adolescent-lung-function-associated-with-incense-burning-and-the-other-environmental-exposures-at-home
#3
Yi-Chun Chen, Wen-Chao Ho, Yang-Hao Yu
Incense burning is a popular cultural and religious practice, but whether exposure to incense smoke has effects on lung function is unclear. We investigated association between lung function and incense burning exposure and other household exposures in adolescents who participated in a mass asthma-screening program. Information on asthmatic status and associated factors was obtained from parent completed questionnaires and student-completed video questionnaires. Approximately 10% of students received lung-function examinations...
November 17, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842959/indoor-secondary-organic-aerosols-formation-from-ozonolysis-of-monoterpene-an-example-of-d-limonene-with-ammonia-and-potential-impacts-on-pulmonary-inflammations
#4
Xinyi Niu, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Kin Fai Ho, Yu Huang, Junji Cao, Zhenxing Shen, Jian Sun, Xiumei Wang, Yu Wang, Shuncheng Lee, Rujin Huang
Monoterpene is one class of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) which widely presents in household cleaning products and air fresheners. It plays reactive role in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formation with ozone (O3) in indoor environments. Such ozonolysis can be influenced by the presence of gaseous pollutants such as ammonia (NH3). This study focuses on investigations of ozone-initiated formation of indoor SOAs with d-limonene, one of the most abundant indoor monoterpenes, in a large environmental chamber...
November 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812754/household-environment-lifestyle-behaviors-and-dietary-habits-in-relation-to-childhood-atopic-eczema-in-shanghai-china
#5
Jiao Cai, Wei Liu, Yu Hu, Zhijun Zou, Li Shen, Chen Huang
PURPOSES: We aim to investigate associations of the child's individual characteristics, building characteristics, home environmental exposures, family lifestyle behaviors, and dietary habits on childhood eczema during lifetime-ever and in the last year before the survey. METHODS: During April 2011-April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study and collected 13,335 parents-reported questionnaires of 4-6-year-old children from 72 kindergartens in Shanghai, China...
November 3, 2016: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806066/prevalence-and-predictors-of-malnutrition-among-guatemalan-children-at-2-years-of-age
#6
Jason M Nagata, James Gippetti, Stefan Wager, Alejandro Chavez, Paul H Wise
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and predictors of malnutrition among 2-year old children in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 852 Guatemalan children in San Lucas Toliman, Guatemala followed from birth to age 2 from May 2008 to December 2013. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and health data of children was collected at 2 month intervals. RESULTS: Among the 402 males and 450 females in the cohort, mean weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) declined from -0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801965/the-diversity-of-arthropods-in-homes-across-the-united-states-as-determined-by-environmental-dna-analyses
#7
Anne A Madden, Albert Barberán, Matthew A Bertone, Holly L Menninger, Robert R Dunn, Noah Fierer
We spend most of our lives inside homes, surrounded by arthropods that impact our property as pests and our health as disease vectors and producers of sensitizing allergens. Despite their relevance to human health and well-being, we know relatively little about the arthropods that exist in our homes and the factors structuring their diversity. Since previous work has been limited in scale by the costs and time associated with collecting arthropods and the subsequent morphological identification we used a DNA-based method for investigating the arthropod diversity in homes via high-throughput marker gene sequencing of home dust...
November 1, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790340/pathways-of-job-style-and-preterm-low-birth-weight
#8
Katayoun Salehi, Zohreh Mahmoodi, Kourosh Kabir, Mahrokh Dolatian
INTRODUCTION: Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. METHODS: The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm...
September 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785006/socioeconomic-status-and-copd-among-low-and-middle-income-countries
#9
Matthew Grigsby, Trishul Siddharthan, Muhammad Ah Chowdhury, Ali Siddiquee, Adolfo Rubinstein, Edgardo Sobrino, J Jaime Miranda, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, Dewan Alam, William Checkley
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong social determinant of health. There remains a limited understanding of the association between SES and COPD prevalence among low- and middle-income countries where the majority of COPD-related morbidity and mortality occurs. We examined the association between SES and COPD prevalence using data collected in Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, Peru, and Uruguay. METHODS: We compiled lung function, demographic, and SES data from three population-based studies for 11,042 participants aged 35-95 years...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766144/household-medical-waste-disposal-policy-in-israel
#10
Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Tamar Berman, Itamar Grotto, Eyal Schwartzberg
BACKGROUND: Large amounts of expired and unused medications accumulate in households. This potentially exposes the public to hazards due to uncontrolled use of medications. Most of the expired or unused medications that accumulate in households (household medical waste) is thrown to the garbage or flushed down to the sewage, potentially contaminating waste-water, water resources and even drinking water. There is evidence that pharmaceutical active ingredients reach the environment, including food, however the risk to public health from low level exposure to pharmaceuticals in the environment is currently unknown...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761844/high-precision-mc-icpms-isotope-ratio-analysis-reveals-contrasting-sources-of-elevated-blood-lead-levels-of-an-adult-with-retained-bullet-fragments-and-of-his-child-in-milwaukee-wisconsin
#11
Kate E Smith, Martin M Shafer, Debora Weiss, Henry A Anderson, Patrick R Gorski
Exposure to the neurotoxic element lead (Pb) continues to be a major human health concern, particularly for children in US urban settings, and the need for robust tools for assessment of exposure sources has never been greater. The latest generation of multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) instrumentation offers the capability of using Pb isotopic signatures as a tool for environmental source tracking in public health. We present a case where MC-ICPMS was applied to isotopically resolve Pb sources in human clinical samples...
October 19, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760278/hazard-characteristics-and-patterns-of-environmental-injustice-household-level-determinants-of-environmental-risk-in-miami-florida
#12
Sara E Grineski, Timothy W Collins, Jayajit Chakraborty, Marilyn Montgomery
Limited systematic comparative knowledge exists about patterns of environmental injustices in exposure to varied natural and technological hazards. To address this gap, we examine how hazard characteristics (i.e., punctuated event/suddenness of onset, frequency/magnitude, and divisibility) influence relationships between race/ethnicity, nativity, socioeconomic status (SES), older age, housing tenure, and residential hazard exposure. Sociodemographic data come from a random sample survey of 602 residents of the tricounty Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (Florida)...
October 19, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751401/impact-of-air-pollution-on-the-burden-of-chronic-respiratory-diseases-in-china-time-for-urgent-action
#13
REVIEW
Wei-Jie Guan, Xue-Yan Zheng, Kian Fan Chung, Nan-Shan Zhong
In China, where air pollution has become a major threat to public health, public awareness of the detrimental effects of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing-particularly in relation to haze days. Air pollutant emission levels in China remain substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industry, traffic, and household biomass combustion have become major sources of air pollutant emissions, with substantial spatial and temporal variations. In this Review, we focus on the major constituents of air pollutants and their impacts on chronic respiratory diseases...
October 15, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750095/chronic-effects-of-triclocarban-in-the-amphipod-gammarus-locusta-behavioural-and-biochemical-impairment
#14
Susana Barros, Rosa Montes, José Benito Quintana, Rosario Rodil, Jorge M A Oliveira, Miguel M Santos, Teresa Neuparth
Triclocarban (TCC), a common antimicrobial agent widely used in many household and personal care products, has been widely detected in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Due to its high lipophilicity and persistence in the aquatic ecosystems, TCC is of emerging environmental concern. Despite the frequently reported detection of TCC in the environment and significant uncertainties about its long term effects on aquatic ecosystems, few studies have addressed the chronic effects of TCC in aquatic organisms at ecologically relevant concentrations...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744650/household-interventions-for-preventing-domestic-lead-exposure-in-children
#15
REVIEW
Barbara Nussbaumer-Streit, Berlinda Yeoh, Ursula Griebler, Lisa M Pfadenhauer, Laura K Busert, Stefan K Lhachimi, Szimonetta Lohner, Gerald Gartlehner
BACKGROUND: Lead poisoning is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioural impairment in children, and trials have tested many household interventions to prevent lead exposure. This is an update of the original review, first published in 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of household interventions for preventing or reducing lead exposure in children, as measured by improvements in cognitive and neurobehavioural development, reductions in blood lead levels and reductions in household dust lead levels...
October 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740932/determinants-of-ets-exposure-in-a-sample-of-slovak-pregnant-women
#16
Ľubica Argalášová, Ľudmila Ševčíková, Jana Jurkovičová, Jana Babjaková, Etela Janeková, Adrián Totka, Martin Šimko, Michael Weitzman
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the greatest and the most frequent environmental toxic exposures presenting a high risk to children and to their mothers as well. The aim of the study was to find determinants of the household ETS in the sample of pregnant women living in the household with smokers and to assess their physical and mental health. The survey was distributed to women being seen for follow-up at the obstetric/gynecology departments in hospitals and at gynecological out-patient departments in Bratislava, Slovakia...
October 14, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734610/multistate-outbreak-of-human-salmonella-typhimurium-infections-linked-to-pet-hedgehogs-united-states-2011-2013
#17
T C Anderson, N Marsden-Haug, J F Morris, W Culpepper, N Bessette, J K Adams, S Bidol, S Meyer, J Schmitz, M M Erdman, T M Gomez, C Barton Behravesh
Zoonotic Salmonella infections cause approximately 130 000 illnesses annually in the United States. Of 72.9 million US households owning at least one pet, five million own small mammals; 3000 hedgehogs were documented by USDA in USDA-licensed breeding facilities and pet stores in 2012. State health department collaborators and PulseNet, the national bacterial subtyping network, identified human infections of a Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak strain, which were investigated by CDC, USDA-APHIS and state public and animal health officials...
October 13, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733284/global-regional-and-national-comparative-risk-assessment-of-79-behavioural-environmental-and-occupational-and-metabolic-risks-or-clusters-of-risks-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and trends in exposure by age group, sex, year, and geography for 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725055/childhood-pneumonia-and-crowding-bed-sharing-and-nutrition-a-case-control-study-from-the-gambia
#19
S R C Howie, J Schellenberg, O Chimah, R C Ideh, B E Ebruke, C Oluwalana, G Mackenzie, M Jallow, M Njie, S Donkor, K L Dionisio, G Goldberg, K Fornace, C Bottomley, P C Hill, C C Grant, T Corrah, A M Prentice, M Ezzati, B M Greenwood, P G Smith, R A Adegbola, K Mulholland
SETTING: Greater Banjul and Upper River Regions, The Gambia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate tractable social, environmental and nutritional risk factors for childhood pneumonia. DESIGN: A case-control study examining the association of crowding, household air pollution (HAP) and nutritional factors with pneumonia was undertaken in children aged 2-59 months: 458 children with severe pneumonia, defined according to the modified WHO criteria, were compared with 322 children with non-severe pneumonia, and these groups were compared to 801 neighbourhood controls...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716804/the-sero-epidemiology-of-coxiella-burnetii-in-humans-and-cattle-western-kenya-evidence-from-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Nicola A Wardrop, Lian F Thomas, Elizabeth A J Cook, William A de Glanville, Peter M Atkinson, Claire N Wamae, Eric M Fèvre
Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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