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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934459/mild-respiratory-illness-among-young-children-caused-by-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5n1-virus-infection-in-dhaka-bangladesh-2011
#1
Apurba Chakraborty, Mahmudur Rahman, M Jahangir Hossain, Salah Uddin Khan, M Sabbir Haider, Rebeca Sultana, Nadia Ali Rimi, M Saiful Islam, Najmul Haider, Ausraful Islam, Ireen Sultana Shanta, Tahmina Sultana, Abdullah Al Mamun, Nusrat Homaira, Doli Goswami, Kamrun Nahar, A S M Alamgir, Mustafizur Rahman, Khondokar Mahbuba Jamil, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Natosha Simpson, Bo Shu, Stephen Lindstrom, Nancy Gerloff, C Todd Davis, Jaqueline M Katz, Andrea Mikolon, Timothy M Uyeki, Stephen P Luby, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez
Background: In March 2011, a multidisciplinary team investigated 2 human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection, detected through population-based active surveillance for influenza in Bangladesh, to assess transmission and contain further spread. Methods: We collected clinical and exposure history of the case patients and monitored persons coming within 1 m of a case patient during their infectious period. Nasopharyngeal wash specimens from case patients and contacts were tested with real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and virus culture and isolates were characterized...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934096/children-s-lead-exposure-a-multimedia-modeling-analysis-to-guide-public-health-decision-making
#2
Valerie Zartarian, Jianping Xue, Rogelio Tornero-Velez, James Brown
BACKGROUND: Drinking water and other sources for lead are the subject of public health concerns around the Flint, Michigan, drinking water and East Chicago, Indiana, lead in soil crises. In 2015, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC) recommended establishment of a "health-based, household action level" for lead in drinking water based on children's exposure. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to develop a coupled exposure-dose modeling approach that can be used to determine what drinking water lead concentrations keep children's blood lead levels (BLLs) below specified values, considering exposures from water, soil, dust, food, and air...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934093/combined-prenatal-pesticide-exposure-and-folic-acid-intake-in-relation-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Rebecca J Schmidt, Vladimir Kogan, Janie F Shelton, Lora Delwiche, Robin L Hansen, Sally Ozonoff, Claudia C Ma, Erin C McCanlies, Deborah H Bennett, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Daniel J Tancredi, Heather E Volk
BACKGROUND: Maternal folic acid (FA) protects against developmental toxicity from certain environmental chemicals. OBJECTIVE: We examined combined exposures to maternal FA and pesticides in relation to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Participants were California children born from 2000-2007 who were enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) case-control study at age 2-5 y, were clinically confirmed to have ASD (n=296) or typical development (n=220), and had information on maternal supplemental FA and pesticide exposures...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929406/pharmacopollution-and-household-waste-medicine-hwm-how-reverse-logistics-is-environmentally-important-to-brazil
#4
André Luiz Pereira, Raphael Tobias de Vasconcelos Barros, Sandra Rosa Pereira
Pharmacopollution is a public health and environmental outcome of some active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) dispersed through water and/or soil. Its most important sources are the pharmaceutical industry, healthcare facilities (e.g., hospitals), livestock, aquaculture, and households (patients' excretion and littering). The last source is the focus of this article. Research questions are "What is the Household Waste Medicine (HWM) phenomenon?", "How HWM and pharmacopollution are related?", and "Why is a reverse logistic system necessary for HWM in Brazil?" This article followed the seven steps proposed by Rother (2007) for a systematic review based on the Cochrane Handbook and the National Health Service (NHS) Center for Reviews Dissemination (CDR) Report...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926696/exposure-to-animal-feces-and-human-health-a-systematic-review-and-proposed-research-priorities
#5
Gauthami Penakalapati, Jenna Swarthout, Miranda J Delahoy, Lydia McAliley, Breanna Wodnik, Karen Levy, Matthew C Freeman
Humans can be exposed to pathogens from poorly managed animal feces, particularly in communities where animals live in proximity to humans. This systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature examines the human health impacts of exposure to poorly managed animal feces transmitted via water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related pathways in low- and middle-income countries where household livestock, small-scale animal operations, and free-roaming animals are common. We identify routes of contamination by animal feces, control measures to reduce human exposure, and propose research priorities for further inquiry...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919119/global-regional-and-national-comparative-risk-assessment-of-84-behavioural-environmental-and-occupational-and-metabolic-risks-or-clusters-of-risks-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#6
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888127/environmental-injustice-and-sexual-minority-health-disparities-a%C3%A2-national-study-of-inequitable-health-risks-from-air-pollution-among-same-sex-partners
#7
Timothy W Collins, Sara E Grineski, Danielle X Morales
Air pollution is deleterious to human health, and numerous studies have documented racial and socioeconomic inequities in air pollution exposures. Despite the marginalized status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, no national studies have examined if they experience inequitable exposures to air pollution. This cross-sectional study investigated inequities in the exposure of same-sex partner households to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. We examined cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs across 71,207 census tracts using National Air Toxics Assessment and US Census data...
September 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868814/exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-exclusive-breastfeeding-and-infant-adiposity-at-age-5%C3%A2-months-in-the-healthy-start-study
#8
B F Moore, K A Sauder, A P Starling, B M Ringham, D H Glueck, D Dabelea
BACKGROUND: Infant adiposity may be influenced by several environmental risk factors, but few studies have explored these interactions. OBJECTIVE: To examine the interaction between exposure to secondhand smoke and breastfeeding exclusivity on adiposity at age 5 months. METHODS: We studied 813 mother-offspring pairs from the longitudinal Healthy Start study. Fat mass and fat-free mass were measured by air displacement plethysmography. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the association between household smokers (none, any) with fat mass, fat-free mass, percent fat mass, weight-for-age z-score, weight-for-length z-score and BMI-for-age z-score as separate outcomes...
August 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867770/peri-urbanism-in-globalizing-india-a-study-of-pollution-health-and-community-awareness
#9
Linda Waldman, Ramila Bisht, Rajashree Saharia, Abhinav Kapoor, Bushra Rizvi, Yasir Hamid, Meghana Arora, Ima Chopra, Kumud T Sawansi, Ritu Priya, Fiona Marshall
This paper examines the intersection between environmental pollution and people's acknowledgements of, and responses to, health issues in Karhera, a former agricultural village situated between the rapidly expanding cities of New Delhi (India's capital) and Ghaziabad (an industrial district in Uttar Pradesh). A relational place-based view is integrated with an interpretive approach, highlighting the significance of place, people's emic experiences, and the creation of meaning through social interactions. Research included surveying 1788 households, in-depth interviews, participatory mapping exercises, and a review of media articles on environment, pollution, and health...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865141/hen-s-egg-allergen-in-house-and-bed-dust-is-significantly-increased-after-hen-s-egg-consumption-a-pilot-study
#10
Valérie Trendelenburg, Sebastian Tschirner, Bodo Niggemann, Kirsten Beyer
Environmental exposure to food allergens may be a risk factor for cutaneous sensitization. Previous studies could detect peanut allergen in house dust. In this pilot study, we wanted to investigate whether hen's egg allergen is detectable in house dust collected from different household areas and whether levels are increased after intentional hen's egg consumption. Hen's egg protein levels of dust samples were measured using ELISA. In 8/8 households, hen's egg was detectable in dust samples of eating area and bed...
September 2, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863372/are-organosilicon-surfactants-safe-for-bees-or-humans
#11
Jing Chen, Julia D Fine, Christopher A Mullin
Organosilicon surfactants are the most potent adjuvants available for formulating and applying agricultural pesticides and fertilizers, household cleaning and personal care products, dental impressions and medicines. Risk assessment of pesticides, drugs or personal care products that takes into account only active ingredients without the other formulation ingredients and adjuvants commonly used in their application will miss important toxicity outcomes detrimental to non-target species including pollinators and humans...
August 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855033/-risk-factors-of-lung-cancer-in-xuanwei-yunnan-province-china
#12
Liqun Liu, Xia Wan, Gongbo Chen, Xiangyun Ma, Bofu Ning, Gonghuan Yang
BACKGROUND: Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. METHODS: Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012...
August 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844239/personal-samplers-of-bioavailable-pesticides-integrated-with-a-hair-follicle-assay-of-dna-damage-to-assess-environmental-exposures-and-their-associated-risks-in-children
#13
Pierre-Alexandre Vidi, Kim A Anderson, Haiying Chen, Rebecca Anderson, Naike Salvador-Moreno, Dana C Mora, Carolyn Poutasse, Paul J Laurienti, Stephanie S Daniel, Thomas A Arcury
Agriculture in the United States employs youth ages ten and older in work environments with high pesticide levels. Younger children in rural areas may also be affected by indirect pesticide exposures. The long-term effects of pesticides on health and development are difficult to assess and poorly understood. Yet, epidemiologic studies suggest associations with cancer as well as cognitive deficits. We report a practical and cost-effective approach to assess environmental pesticide exposures and their biological consequences in children...
October 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842957/understanding-epigenetic-effects-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-from-mechanisms-to-novel-test-methods
#14
Ali Alavian-Ghavanini, Joëlle Rüegg
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made chemicals that interfere with hormonal signalling pathways. They are used in, e.g., production of common household materials, in resin-based medical supplies, pesticides. Thus, they are environmentally ubiquitous and humans and wildlife are exposed to them on a daily basis. Early life exposure to EDCs has been associated with later life adversities such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Mechanisms underlying such associations are unknown but are likely to be mediated by epigenetic changes induced by EDCs...
August 26, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837926/triclosan-tcs-and-triclocarban-tcc-induce-systemic-toxic-effects-in-a-model-organism-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Katrina A Lenz, Claire Pattison, Hongbo Ma
The broad application of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) as antimicrobials in household and personal care products has led to the concerns regarding their human health risk and environmental impact. Although many studies have examined the toxicological effects of these compounds to a wide range of aquatic organisms from algae to fish, their potential toxicity to an important model organism the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has never been systematically investigated. Here we assessed the toxicological effects of TCS and TCC in C...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831128/associations-between-lead-concentrations-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-u-s-adolescents
#16
Cheng Xu, Yaqin Shu, Zhi Fu, Yuanli Hu, Xuming Mo
Little is known regarding the effects of environmental lead exposure on cardiovascular risk factors in the adolescent population. We studied 11,662 subjects included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2012. Blood lead levels were analysed for their association with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Regression coefficients (Beta) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of blood lead in association with CVRF (e.g., total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting glucose, glycohemoglobin, fasting insulin, and blood pressure) were estimated using multivariate and generalized linear regression after adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, serum cotinine, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and household income...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830440/cross-sectional-association-between-soda-consumption-and-body-mass-index-in-a-community-based-sample-of-twins
#17
Anna E Eney, Siny Tsang, Joseph A Delaney, Eric Turkheimer, Glen E Duncan
BACKGROUND: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, such as soda, have been shown to play an important role in weight gain. Although soda consumption has been associated with body mass index (BMI) in many studies, it has been difficult to ascertain a true causal relationship between soda consumption and BMI for two reasons. First, findings have been based largely on observational and cross-sectional studies, with much less evidence from randomized controlled trials. Second, the reported relationships may be confounded by genetic and shared environmental factors that affect both soda consumption and BMI...
August 22, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821234/incident-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-household-contacts-of-infectious-tuberculosis-patients-in-brazil
#18
Edward C Jones-López, Carlos Acuña-Villaorduña, Geisa Fregona, Patricia Marques-Rodrigues, Laura F White, David Jamil Hadad, Lucilia Pereira Dutra-Molina, Solange Vinhas, Avery I McIntosh, Mary Gaeddert, Rodrigo Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Padmini Salgame, Moises Palaci, David Alland, Jerrold J Ellner, Reynaldo Dietze
BACKGROUND: In household contact investigations of tuberculosis (TB), a second tuberculin skin test (TST) obtained several weeks after a first negative result consistently identifies individuals that undergo TST conversion. It remains unclear whether this delay in M. tuberculosis infection is related to differences in the infectious exposure, TST boosting, partial host resistance, or some other factor. METHODS: We conducted a household contact study Vitória, Brazil...
August 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818814/exposure-to-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-and-perfluoroalkyl-substances-in-a-remote-population-of-alaska-natives
#19
Samuel Byrne, Samarys Seguinot-Medina, Pamela Miller, Vi Waghiyi, Frank A von Hippel, C Loren Buck, David O Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Many Alaska Native communities rely on a traditional marine diet that contains persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The indoor environment is also a source of POPs. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are present both in the traditional diet and the home indoor environment. OBJECTIVES: We assessed exposure to PBDEs and PFASs among residents of two remote Alaska Native villages on St. Lawrence Island. Ninespine stickleback (Pungitious pungitious) and Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) were used to detect accumulation of these compounds in the local environment...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805487/state-of-the-art-nanopathological-diagnostics
#20
Luca Roncati, Giuseppe Barbolini
The nanopathological diagnostics (ND) is an ultra-specialized branch of pathological anatomy aimed to identify the nanoparticles of metallic, semimetallic, or nonmetallic elements in the inorganic particulate matter present inside pathological tissues, even on the nanometer scale. ND exploits an environmental scanning electron microscope, connected to an X-ray microprobe mounted on an energy-dispersive spectrometer. The searching of nanoparticles can be performed on paraffin-embedded material, omitting emissions of black overlay and plating procedures...
August 14, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
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