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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741248/lessons-learned-from-arsenic-mitigation-among-private-well-households
#1
REVIEW
Yan Zheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many thousands of research papers have been published on the occurrence, health effects, and mitigation of arsenic in drinking water sourced from groundwater around the world. Here, an attempt is made to summarize this large body of knowledge into a small number of lessons. RECENT FINDINGS: This is an opinion paper reflecting on why we are far from the goal of eliminating this silent and widespread poison to protect the health of many millions...
July 24, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732033/spatial-and-simultaneous-representative-seroprevalence-of-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-owners-and-their-domiciled-dogs-in-a-major-city-of-southern-brazil
#2
Aline do Nascimento Benitez, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Marcelle Mareze, Nelson Jessé Rodrigues Santos, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Camila Marinelli Martins, João Luis Garcia, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó, Roberta Lemos Freire, Alexander Welker Biondo, Italmar Teodorico Navarro
Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has traditionally been considered an important water and foodborne protozoonosis with important public health considerations. Although felids play a well-established role as definitive hosts, canine epidemiological involvement in the parasite's life cycle remains questionable and controversial. The increasing closeness of the human-dog bond, particularly seen in urban settings, has been recognized as a historically unprecedented worldwide movement. Sharing daily lives in the same households, dogs may be exposed to similar associated risks of T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722599/assessment-of-fecal-exposure-pathways-in-low-income-urban-neighborhoods-in-accra-ghana-rationale-design-methods-and-key-findings-of-the-sanipath-study
#3
Katharine Robb, Clair Null, Peter Teunis, Habib Yakubu, George Armah, Christine L Moe
Rapid urbanization has contributed to an urban sanitation crisis in low-income countries. Residents in low-income, urban neighborhoods often have poor sanitation infrastructure and services and may experience frequent exposure to fecal contamination through a range of pathways. There are little data to prioritize strategies to decrease exposure to fecal contamination in these complex and highly contaminated environments, and public health priorities are rarely considered when planning urban sanitation investments...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712959/associations-between-long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-glycosylated-hemoglobin-and-diabetes
#4
Trenton Honda, Vivian C Pun, Justin Manjourides, Helen Suh
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposures have been shown to adversely impact health through a number of biological pathways associated with glucose metabolism. However, few studies have evaluated the associations between air pollution and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Further, no studies have evaluated these associations in US populations or investigated whether associations differ in diabetic as compared to non-diabetic populations. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2...
June 26, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698324/the-women-and-their-children-s-health-watch-study-methods-and-design-of-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-louisiana-to-examine-the-health-effects-from-the-bp-oil-spill
#5
Edward S Peters, Ariane L Rung, Megan H Bronson, Meghan M Brashear, Lauren C Peres, Symielle Gaston, Samaah M Sullivan, Kate Peak, David M Abramson, Elizabeth T H Fontham, Daniel Harrington, Evrim Oral, Edward J Trapido
PURPOSE: The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill is the largest marine oil spill in US history. Few studies have evaluated the potential health effects of this spill on the Gulf Coast community. The Women and Their Children's Health (WaTCH) study is a prospective cohort designed to investigate the midterm to long-term physical, mental and behavioural health effects of exposure to the oil spill. PARTICIPANTS: Women were recruited by telephone from pre-existing lists of individuals and households using an address-based sampling frame between 2012 and 2014...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679422/prevalence-of-diarrhoea-and-risk-factors-among-children-under-five-years-old-in-mbour-senegal-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Sokhna Thiam, Aminata N Diène, Samuel Fuhrimann, Mirko S Winkler, Ibrahima Sy, Jacques A Ndione, Christian Schindler, Penelope Vounatsou, Jürg Utzinger, Ousmane Faye, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoeal diseases remain an important cause of mortality and morbidity among children, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In Senegal, diarrhoea is responsible for 15% of all deaths in children under the age of five and is the third leading cause of childhood deaths. For targeted planning and implementation of prevention strategies, a context-specific understanding of the determinants of diarrhoeal diseases is needed. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of diarrhoeal diseases in children under the age of five in Mbour, Senegal...
July 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662706/prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-of-chronic-bronchitis-in-first-nations-people
#7
Punam Pahwa, Chandima P Karunanayake, Donna C Rennie, Joshua A Lawson, Vivian R Ramsden, Kathleen McMullin, P Jenny Gardipy, Judy MacDonald, Sylvia Abonyi, Jo-Ann Episkenew, James A Dosman
BACKGROUND: Inadequate housing, low family income, household smoking, personal smoking status, and poor schooling are some of the conditions that have been significantly associated with the prevalence and incidence of chronic bronchitis. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB) and associated risk factors among First Nations people. METHODS: An interviewer-administered survey was conducted as part of the First Nations Lung Health Project in 2012 and 2013 with 874 individuals from 406 households in two First Nations communities located in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada...
June 29, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642748/helicobacter-hygiene-atopy-and-asthma
#8
REVIEW
Muhammad Miftahussurur, Iswan A Nusi, David Y Graham, Yoshio Yamaoka
The hygiene hypothesis links environmental and microbial exposures in early life to the prevalence of atopy, allergy, and asthma. Helicobacter pylori infection is typically acquired in childhood and acquisition of the infection is associated with poor household hygiene. Some population surveys have shown an inverse association between H. pylori infection and atopy, allergy, and asthma leading to the suggestion that H. pylori infection may be protective against disease; others consider it simply a biomarker for poor household hygiene...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624884/age-at-menarche-and-lung-function-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#9
Dipender Gill, Nuala A Sheehan, Matthias Wielscher, Nick Shrine, Andre F S Amaral, John R Thompson, Raquel Granell, Bénédicte Leynaert, Francisco Gómez Real, Ian P Hall, Martin D Tobin, Juha Auvinen, Susan M Ring, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Louise V Wain, John Henderson, Deborah Jarvis, Cosetta Minelli
A trend towards earlier menarche in women has been associated with childhood factors (e.g. obesity) and hypothesised environmental exposures (e.g. endocrine disruptors present in household products). Observational evidence has shown detrimental effects of early menarche on various health outcomes including adult lung function, but these might represent spurious associations due to confounding. To address this we used Mendelian randomization where genetic variants are used as proxies for age at menarche, since genetic associations are not affected by classical confounding...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606699/integrated-assessment-of-exposure-to-pm2-5-in-south-india-and-its-relation-with-cardiovascular-risk-design-of-the-chai-observational-cohort-study
#10
Cathryn Tonne, Maëlle Salmon, Margaux Sanchez, V Sreekanth, Santhi Bhogadi, Sankar Sambandam, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Sanjay Kinra, Julian D Marshall
While there is convincing evidence that fine particulate matter causes cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, little of the evidence is based on populations outside of high income countries, leaving large uncertainties at high exposures. India is an attractive setting for investigating the cardiovascular risk of particles across a wide concentration range, including concentrations for which there is the largest uncertainty in the exposure-response relationship. CHAI is a European Research Council funded project that investigates the relationship between particulate air pollution from outdoor and household sources with markers of atherosclerosis, an important cardiovascular pathology...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604801/high-blood-levels-of-lead-in-children-aged-6-36-months-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal-a-cross-sectional-study-of-associated-factors
#11
Meghnath Dhimal, Khem Bahadur Karki, Krishna Kumar Aryal, Bimala Dhimal, Hari Datt Joshi, Sajan Puri, Achyut Raj Pandey, Purushotam Dhakal, Arun Kumar Sharma, Ganendra Bhakta Raya, Imran Ansari, David A Groneberg, Ruth Müller, Ulrich Kuch
Young children are at greatest risk of exposure to lead and its effects. Although lead is one of the most widely used elements with known health hazard, there is little data on the blood lead level (BLL) of children in the Kathmandu Valley. Thus, this study aimed to assess factors associated with high BLL in children who were 6-36 months of age and resided in the Kathmandu Valley. In this hospital-based cross-sectional study 6-36 month-old children visiting the Paediatrics Outpatient Department of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Patan Hospital, and Siddhi Memorial Hospital were enrolled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597053/community-exposure-and-vulnerability-to-water-quality-and-availability-a-case-study-in-the-mining-affected-paz%C3%A3-a-municipality-lake-poop%C3%A3-basin-bolivian-altiplano
#12
Megan French, Natalie Alem, Stephen J Edwards, Efraín Blanco Coariti, Helga Cauthin, Karen A Hudson-Edwards, Karen Luyckx, Jorge Quintanilla, Oscar Sánchez Miranda
Assessing water sources for drinking and irrigation along with community vulnerability, especially in developing and rural regions, is important for reducing risk posed by poor water quality and limited water availability and accessibility. We present a case study of rural mining-agricultural communities in the Lake Poopó Basin, one of the poorest regions on the Bolivian Altiplano. Here, relatively low rainfall, high evaporation, salinization and unregulated mining activity have contributed to environmental degradation and water issues, which is a situation facing many Altiplano communities...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593548/cancer-risk-from-gaseous-carbonyl-compounds-in-indoor-environment-generated-from-household-coal-combustion-in-xuanwei-china
#13
Ka-Hei Lui, Wen-Ting Dai, Chi-Sing Chan, Linwei Tian, Bo-Fu Ning, Yiping Zhou, Xiaolin Song, Bei Wang, Jinwen Li, Jun-Ji Cao, Shun-Cheng Lee, Kin-Fai Ho
Airborne carbonyls were characterized from emitted indoor coal combustion. Samples were collected in Xuanwei (Yunnan Province), a region in China with a high rate of lung cancer. Eleven of 19 types of samples (58%) demonstrated formaldehyde concentrations higher than the World Health Organization exposure limit (a 30-min average of 100 μg m(-3)). Different positive significant correlations between glyoxal/methylglyoxal and formaldehyde/acetaldehyde concentrations were observed, suggesting possible different characteristics in emissions between two pairs of carbonyl compounds...
June 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583817/wood-stove-pollution-in-the-developed-world-a-case-to-raise-awareness-among-pediatricians
#14
Lisa B Rokoff, Petros Koutrakis, Eric Garshick, Margaret R Karagas, Emily Oken, Diane R Gold, Abby F Fleisch
Use of wood for residential heating is regaining popularity in developed countries. Currently, over 11 million US homes are heated with a wood stove. Although wood stoves reduce heating costs, wood smoke may adversely impact child health through the emission of gaseous and particulate air pollutants. Our purpose is to raise awareness of this environmental health issue among pediatricians. To summarize the state of the science, we performed a narrative review of articles published in PubMed and Web of Science...
June 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582526/environmental-tobacco-exposure-and-urinary-cotinine-levels-in-smoking-and-non-smoking-adolescents
#15
Ariela Braverman Bronstein, Julieta Lomelín Gascón, Cesar Iván Eugenio González, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez
Objective: We aimed to evaluate the association between Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure and urinary cotinine levels in current adolescent smokers and non-smokers. The secondary objective was to explore the association between ETS exposure and nicotine dependence in adolescent smokers. Methods: Using the results from a validation study for the 2012 Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Mexico, we quantified urinary cotinine levels in adolescent smokers and non-smokers...
June 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562303/maternal-and-perinatal-exposures-are-associated-with-risk-for-pediatric-onset-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Jennifer S Graves, Tanuja Chitnis, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Jennifer Rubin, Aaron S Zelikovitch, Bardia Nourbakhsh, Timothy Simmons, Michael Waltz, T Charles Casper, Emmanuelle Waubant
OBJECTIVE: To determine if prenatal, pregnancy, or postpartum-related environmental factors are associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in children. METHODS: This is a case-control study of children with MS or clinically isolated syndrome and healthy controls enrolled at 16 clinics participating in the US Network of Pediatric MS Centers. Parents completed a comprehensive environmental questionnaire, including the capture of pregnancy and perinatal factors. Case status was confirmed by a panel of 3 pediatric MS specialists...
April 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556813/cognitive-motivational-determinants-of-residents-civic-engagement-and-health-inequities-in-the-context-of-noise-action-planning-a-conceptual-model
#17
Natalie Riedel, Irene van Kamp, Heike Köckler, Joachim Scheiner, Adrian Loerbroks, Thomas Claßen, Gabriele Bolte
The Environmental Noise Directive expects residents to be actively involved in localising and selecting noise abatement interventions during the noise action planning process. Its intervention impact is meant to be homogeneous across population groups. Against the background of social heterogeneity and environmental disparities, however, the impact of noise action planning on exposure to traffic-related noise and its health effects is unlikely to follow homogenous distributions. Until now, there has been no study evaluating the impact of noise action measures on the social distribution of traffic-related noise exposure and health outcomes...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526002/affective-concordance-in-couples-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-depression-and-anxiety-consultations-within-a-population-of-13-507-couples-in-primary-care
#18
J Walker, J Liddle, K P Jordan, P Campbell
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are common and have a significant impact on the individual and wider society. One theory proposed to explain a heightened risk for depression and anxiety is affective concordance in couples (e.g. influence of shared mood states, shared health beliefs). Whilst research has shown concordance for severe psychiatric illnesses and general mood in couples, little attention has been given to concordance for common psychiatric conditions such as depression and anxiety...
May 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503304/clinico-pathologic-presentation-of-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-in-egyptian-patients-a-multidisciplinary-study
#19
Dalia Abd El-Kareem, Yosri M Akl, Gina A Nakhla, Ali A Elhindawi, Mahmoud A Eltorky
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a common diffuse parenchymal lung disease in Egypt which can be difficult to recognize due to the dynamic symptoms & associated environmental factors. METHODS: Forty-three Egyptian patients were enrolled in this study, presenting with dyspnea and cough, predominant ground-glass opacity (GGO) in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) where lung biopsy was needed to establish the diagnosis. RESULTS: The age range was 15 to 60 years...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482294/association-between-fish-consumption-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-persistent-organic-pollutants-intake-and-type-2-diabetes-in-18-first-nations-in-ontario-canada
#20
Lesya Marushka, Malek Batal, William David, Harold Schwartz, Amy Ing, Karen Fediuk, Donald Sharp, Andrew Black, Constantine Tikhonov, Hing Man Chan
BACKGROUND: First Nations (FNs) populations in Canada experience a disproportionally higher rate of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population. Recent data suggest that a high consumption of fish may help prevent T2D. On the other hand, fish might also be a potential source of environmental contaminants which could potentially be a risk factor for T2D. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential associations between self-reported T2D and consumption of locally-harvested fish, dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FAs) and persistent organic pollutants intake among adult FNs living on reserve in Ontario...
July 2017: Environmental Research
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