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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144416/environmental-risks-associated-with-symptoms-of-acute-respiratory-infection-among-preschool-children-in-north-western-and-south-southern-nigeria-communities
#1
Oluwafunmilade A Adesanya, Chi Chiao
The exposure-disease-stress model places young children in their physical and social contexts and considers the extent and intensity of associational links to symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), taking in to account a range of biological, social, and environment components. This study uses the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey to assess the individual and environmental risks present in the North-Western and South-Southern Nigerian communities and examines their associations with ARI symptoms...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121931/individual-and-household-characteristics-of-persons-with-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-sites-with-varying-endemicities-in-kinshasa-province-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#2
Melchior Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Lauren Levitz, Kyaw L Thwai, Jonathan B Parr, Varun Goel, Mark Janko, Antoinette Tshefu, Michael Emch, Steven R Meshnick, Margaret Carrel
BACKGROUND: The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) bears a large share of global malaria burden despite efforts to control and eliminate the disease. More detailed understanding of individual and household level characteristics associated with malaria are needed, as is an understanding of how these characteristics vary spatiotemporally and across different community-level malaria endemicities. An ongoing study in Kinshasa Province is designed to address gaps in prior malaria surveillance in the DRC by monitoring malaria across seasons, age groups and in high and low malaria sites...
November 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112839/environmental-fate-of-amine-oxide-using-measured-and-predicted-values-to-determine-aquatic-exposure
#3
Kathleen McDonough, Nina Itrich, Jennifer Menzies, Kenneth Casteel, Scott Belanger, Kenneth Wehmeyer
Amine oxide (AO) surfactants are used widely in North American household detergents resulting in >44,000mtons disposed down the drain annually. Due to AOs substantial down the drain disposal volume, wide dispersive use, and high aquatic toxicity, there is a need to evaluate ecological exposure and corresponding risk. This study refined the current knowledge regarding the fate of AO disposed down the drain through laboratory simulation studies to evaluate biodegradation in the sewer and during activated sludge wastewater treatment...
November 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100550/effects-of-a-liquefied-petroleum-gas-stove-intervention-on-pollutant-exposure-and-adult-cardiopulmonary-outcomes-chap-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Magdalena Fandiño-Del-Rio, Dina Goodman, Josiah L Kephart, Catherine H Miele, Kendra N Williams, Mitra Moazzami, Elizabeth C Fung, Kirsten Koehler, Victor G Davila-Roman, Kathryn A Lee, Saachi Nangia, Steven A Harvey, Kyle Steenland, Gustavo F Gonzales, William Checkley
BACKGROUND: Biomass fuel smoke is a leading risk factor for the burden of disease worldwide. International campaigns are promoting the widespread adoption of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in resource-limited settings. However, it is unclear if the introduction and use of LPG stoves, in settings where biomass fuels are used daily, reduces pollution concentration exposure, improves health outcomes, or how cultural and social barriers influence the exclusive adoption of LPG stoves. METHODS: We will conduct a randomized controlled, field intervention trial of LPG stoves and fuel distribution in rural Puno, Peru, in which we will enroll 180 female participants aged 25-64 years and follow them for 2 years...
November 3, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099792/desert-dust-and-health-a-central-asian-review-and-steppe-case-study
#5
REVIEW
Troy Sternberg, Mona Edwards
In Asian deserts environmental and anthropomorphic dust is a significant health risk to rural populations. Natural sources in dry landscapes are exacerbated by human activities that increase the vulnerability to dust and dust-borne disease vectors. Today in Central and Inner Asian drylands, agriculture, mining, and rapid development contribute to dust generation and community exposure. Thorough review of limited dust investigation in the region implies but does not quantify health risks. Anthropogenic sources, such as the drying of the Aral Sea, highlight the shifting dust dynamics across the Central EurAsian steppe...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098204/sexual-orientation-gender-and-environmental-injustice-unequal-carcinogenic-air-pollution-risks-in-greater-houston
#6
Timothy W Collins, Sara E Grineski, Danielle X Morales
Disparate residential hazard exposures based on disadvantaged gender status (e.g., among female-headed households) have been documented in the distributive environmental justice literature, yet no published studies have examined whether disproportionate environmental risks exist based on minority sexual orientation. To address this gap, we use data from the US Census, American Community Survey and the Environmental Protection Agency at the 2010 census tract level to examine the spatial relationships between same-sex partner households and cumulative cancer risk from exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted by all ambient emission sources in Greater Houston (Texas)...
2017: Annals of the American Association of Geographers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097050/a-county-level-estimate-of-pm2-5-related-chronic-mortality-risk-in-china-based-on-multi-model-exposure-data
#7
Qing Wang, Jiaonan Wang, Mike Z He, Patrick L Kinney, Tiantian Li
BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a serious environmental problem in China, but evidence of health effects with higher resolution and spatial coverage is insufficient. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide a better overall understanding of long-term mortality effects of PM2.5 pollution in China and a county-level spatial map for estimating PM2.5 related premature deaths of the entire country. METHOD: Using four sets of satellite-derived PM2...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090450/effects-of-environmental-tobacco-smoke-on-the-oral-health-of-preschool-children
#8
N N B Hasmun, B K Drummond, T Milne, M P Cullinan, A M Meldrum, D Coates
AIMS: This study investigated the association between the prevalence of oral health problems (caries, gingivitis, mucosal pigmentation and enamel defects in one to 5 year-old children exposed and not exposed to environmental tobacco smoke before and/or after birth. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in childhood may have significant health effects. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on a child's current and previous illnesses, oral health behaviours, dietary habits, parental smoking behaviours and parents' dental history...
October 31, 2017: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079089/exposure-assessment-of-heavy-metals-in-an-e-waste-processing-area-in-northern-vietnam
#9
Tomoko Oguri, Go Suzuki, Hidenori Matsukami, Natsuyo Uchida, Nguyen Minh Tue, Le Huu Tuyen, Pham Hung Viet, Shin Takahashi, Shinsuke Tanabe, Hidetaka Takigami
In developing countries, inappropriate recycling of e-waste has resulted in the environmental release of toxicants, including heavy metals, that may have deleterious health effects. In this study, we estimated daily metal intakes in five households in a Vietnamese village located in an e-waste processing area and assessed the health risk posed by exposure to the metals. Garden soil, floor dust, 24-h duplicate diet, and ambient air samples were collected from five households in northern Vietnam in January 2014...
October 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078766/a-comparison-of-arsenic-exposure-in-young-children-and-home-water-arsenic-in-two-rural-west-texas-communities
#10
Michelle Del Rio, Juan Alvarez, Tania Mayorga, Salvador Dominguez, Christina Sobin
BACKGROUND: In a previously conducted Health Impact Assessment of a well-water dependent southwest community, arsenic (As) levels greater than the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level (10 μg/L) were identified in home water samples. The goals of this study were to test whether children from the previously studied well-water dependent community (Community 1) had higher blood As levels than children from a demographically similar and geographically nearby community dependent on a municipal water supply (Community 2); to test whether home water As levels predicted child As blood levels; and to examine how child As blood levels changed over time...
October 27, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078306/widespread-covariation-of-early-environmental-exposures-and-trait-associated-polygenic-variation
#11
E Krapohl, L J Hannigan, J-B Pingault, H Patel, N Kadeva, C Curtis, G Breen, S J Newhouse, T C Eley, P F O'Reilly, R Plomin
Although gene-environment correlation is recognized and investigated by family studies and recently by SNP-heritability studies, the possibility that genetic effects on traits capture environmental risk factors or protective factors has been neglected by polygenic prediction models. We investigated covariation between trait-associated polygenic variation identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and specific environmental exposures, controlling for overall genetic relatedness using a genomic relatedness matrix restricted maximum-likelihood model...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075362/psychological-and-lifestyle-risk-factors-for-asthma-exacerbations-and-morbidity-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Alyssa A Oland, Genery D Booster, Bruce G Bender
Asthma is the most common childhood illness and disproportionately affects low-income, minority children who live in urban areas. A range of risk factors are associated with asthma morbidity and mortality, such as treatment non-adherence, exposure to environmental triggers, low-income households, exposure to chronic stress, child psychological problems, parental stress, family functioning, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diets. These risk factors often have complex interactions and inter-relationships...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069985/neural-autoantibodies-in-patients-with-neurological-symptoms-and-histories-of-chemical-mold-exposures
#13
Mohamed Bahie Abou-Donia, Allan Lieberman, Luke Curtis
A number of studies have linked exposures to industrial and household chemicals and biological toxins to increased risk of autoimmunity in general and elevated levels of autoantibodies to neural antigens specifically. Elevated neural autoantibodies are biomarkers for many diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Our study reports levels of six types of neural autoantibodies in a group of 24 toxicant-exposed patients. The patients were exposed to a variety of toxicants including contaminated drinking water (four patients), building water/mold damage (eight patients), pesticides (four patients), and other assorted toxic chemicals (eight patients)...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064483/coupling-external-with-internal-exposure-metrics-of-trihalomethanes-in-young-females-from-kuwait-and-cyprus
#14
Stephanie Gängler, Konstantinos C Makris, Walid Bouhamra, Douglas W Dockery
The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle Eastern regions are both understudied in terms of possible environmental health risks for their populations. Water scarcity and desalination treatment provide the general population of countries from these regions (e.g., Kuwait and Cyprus) with unique tap water characteristics. This study investigated the association between external (tap water and 24 h personal air samples) and internal (urine) THM exposure metrics that reflected information about THM-related habits and activities collected using questionnaires and time activity diaries...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064481/development-of-a-modeling-approach-to-estimate-indoor-to-outdoor-sulfur-ratios-and-predict-indoor-pm2-5-and-black-carbon-concentrations-for-eastern-massachusetts-households
#15
Chia Hsi Tang, Eric Garshick, Stephanie Grady, Brent Coull, Joel Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis
The effects of indoor air pollution on human health have drawn increasing attention among the scientific community as individuals spend most of their time indoors. However, indoor air sampling is labor-intensive and costly, which limits the ability to study the adverse health effects related to indoor air pollutants. To overcome this challenge, many researchers have attempted to predict indoor exposures based on outdoor pollutant concentrations, home characteristics, and weather parameters. Typically, these models require knowledge of the infiltration factor, which indicates the fraction of ambient particles that penetrates indoors...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040573/how-much-atopy-is-attributable-to-common-childhood-environmental-exposures-a-population-based-birth-cohort-study-followed-to-adulthood
#16
Hayden H Shin, Stephanie J Lynch, Andrew R Gray, Malcolm R Sears, Robert J Hancox
Background: The rising prevalence of atopic diseases implies a strong influence of environmental determinants. Epidemiological studies have identified several early life exposures that appear to influence the risk of developing atopic sensitization, but the combined influence of these exposures is unknown. We sought to estimate the proportion of atopy that could be attributed to common childhood exposures associated with atopic sensitization in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: Atopic sensitization was measured by skin-prick tests for common aeroallergens in a population-based New Zealand birth cohort at ages 13 and 32 years...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031283/multipathway-quantitative-assessment-of-exposure-to-fecal-contamination-for-young-children-in-low-income-urban-environments-in-accra-ghana-the-sanipath-analytical-approach
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yuke Wang, Christine L Moe, Clair Null, Suraja J Raj, Kelly K Baker, Katharine A Robb, Habib Yakubu, Joseph A Ampofo, Nii Wellington, Matthew C Freeman, George Armah, Heather E Reese, Dorothy Peprah, Peter F M Teunis
Lack of adequate sanitation results in fecal contamination of the environment and poses a risk of disease transmission via multiple exposure pathways. To better understand how eight different sources contribute to overall exposure to fecal contamination, we quantified exposure through multiple pathways for children under 5 years old in four high-density, low-income, urban neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. We collected more than 500 hours of structured observation of behaviors of 156 children, 800 household surveys, and 1,855 environmental samples...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016326/human-intestinal-parasite-burden-and-poor-sanitation-in-rural-alabama
#18
Megan L McKenna, Shannon McAtee, Patricia E Bryan, Rebecca Jeun, Tabitha Ward, Jacob Kraus, Maria E Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Catherine C Flowers, Rojelio Mejia
Hookworm infection affects 430 million people worldwide, causing iron deficiency, impaired cognitive development, and stunting in children. Because of the environmental conditions needed for the hookworm life-cycle, this parasite is endemic to resource-limited countries. Necator americanus was endemic in the southern United States before improvement of sewage disposal systems and eradication programs. With continued poverty, poor sanitation, and an environment suitable for the hookworm life-cycle in some regions of the southern United States, a current prevalence study using modern molecular diagnostics is warranted...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993126/per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-in-sera-from-children-3-to-11-years-of-age-participating-in-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2013-2014
#19
Xiaoyun Ye, Kayoko Kato, Lee-Yang Wong, Tao Jia, Akil Kalathil, John Latremouille, Antonia M Calafat
Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured in U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants 12 years of age and older since 1999-2000, but PFAS data using NHANES individual samples among children younger than 12 years do not exist. To obtain the first nationally representative PFAS exposure data in U.S. children, we quantified serum concentrations of 14 PFAS including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), in a nationally representative subsample of 639 3-11year old participants in NHANES 2013-2014...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983961/developing-a-predictive-model-for-fine-particulate-matter-concentrations-in-low-socio-economic-households-in-durban-south-africa
#20
B Shezi, N Jafta, B Sartorius, R N Naidoo
In low-resource settings, there is a need to develop models that can address contributions of household and outdoor sources to population exposures. The aim of the study was to model indoor PM2.5 using household characteristics, activities, and outdoor sources. Households belonging to participants in the Mother and Child in the Environment (MACE) birth cohort, in Durban, South Africa, were randomly selected. A structured walk-through identified variables likely to generate PM2.5 . MiniVol samplers were used to monitor PM2...
October 6, 2017: Indoor Air
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