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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783200/blood-lead-and-cadmium-levels-in-preschool-children-and-associated-risk-factors-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#1
Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio, Júlia Prestes da Rocha Silva, Agnes Soares da Silva, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira Souza, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Fernando Barbosa, Maria Regina Alves Cardoso
In Brazil, there are scarce data on lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination, especially for more vulnerable populations such as preschool children. In this paper, we answer two questions: (1) What are the exposure levels of lead and cadmium in preschool children, in Sao Paulo, Brazil? and (2) What are the risk factors associated with this exposure? This cross-sectional study included 50 day care centers (DCCs), totaling 2463 children aged 1-4 years. Venous blood samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Questionnaires were administered to the parents...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768418/obgyn-screening-for-environmental-exposures-a-call-for-action
#2
N M Grindler, A A Allshouse, E Jungheim, T L Powell, T Jansson, A J Polotsky
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposures have known adverse effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Professional societies recommend routine screening for environmental, occupational, and dietary exposures to reduce exposures and their associated sequelae. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the frequency of environmental exposure screening by obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs) at initial patient visits. STUDY DESIGN: Practicing OBGYNs were approached at the University of Colorado and by social media...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763863/environmental-tin-exposure-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-u-s-adults-and-children-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2011-2014
#3
Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Manuel Gadogbe, Buyun Liu, Wei Bao
Tin is a naturally occurring heavy metal that occurs in the environment in both inorganic and organic forms. Human exposure to tin is almost ubiquitous; however, surprisingly little is known about factors affecting environmental tin exposure in humans. This study analyzed demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors associated with total urinary tin levels in adults (N = 3522) and children (N = 1641) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014, a nationally representative health survey in the United States...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757715/accuracy-of-a-mobile-app-to-identify-suspect-asbestos-containing-material-in-australian-residential-settings
#4
Matthew H Govorko, Lin Fritschi, Alison Reid
In situ asbestos in the built environment is a remaining source of exposure in countries that have prohibited the manufacture and use of asbestos. However, it is difficult to identify in situ asbestos-containing material in residential settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the mobile phone application ("app"), ACM Check, in identifying in situ asbestos located inside and outside of homes compared with onsite inspections conducted by an experienced environmental consultant...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751825/uneven-malaria-transmission-in-geographically-distinct-districts-of-bobo-dioulasso-burkina-faso
#5
Dieudonné Diloma Soma, Daouda Kassié, Seydou Sanou, Fatou Biribama Karama, Ali Ouari, Wadaka Mamai, Georges Anicet Ouédraogo, Gérard Salem, Roch Kounbobr Dabiré, Florence Fournet
BACKGROUND: Urbanization is a main trend in developing countries and leads to health transition. Although non-communicable diseases are increasing in cities of low-income countries, vector-borne diseases such as malaria, are still present. In the case of malaria, transmission is lower than in rural areas, but is uneven and not well documented. In this study, we wanted to evaluate intra-urban malaria transmission in a West African country (Burkina Faso). METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 847 adults (35 to 59 year-old) and 881 children (6 months to 5 year-old) living in 1045 households of four districts (Dogona, Yeguere, Tounouma and Secteur 25) of Bobo-Dioulasso was performed between October and November 2013...
May 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751416/household-environmental-exposures-during-gestation-and-birth-outcomes-a-cross-sectional-study-in-shanghai-china
#6
Wei Liu, Chen Huang, Jiao Cai, Xueying Wang, Zhijun Zou, Chanjuan Sun
Several studies have reported that certain aspects of the household environments are associated with adverse birth outcomes, but associations have been inconsistent. Few of these studies have been conducted in China. During 2011-2012, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study and collected 13,335 parents-reported questionnaires for 4-6-year-olds children in Shanghai, China. We investigated associations of household environmental factors (environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), cooking fuel, dampness, pet-keeping, and home renovation) during gestation with preterm birth (PTB, gestational age<37weeks), low birth weight (LBW, birth weight<2500g), term low birth weight (T-LBW, LBW when the gestational age was ≥37weeks), and small for gestational age (SGA, birth weight<10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age)...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734599/lead-and-other-heavy-metals-in-soils-impacted-by-exterior-legacy-paint-in-residential-areas-of-south-west-england
#7
Andrew Turner, Madeleine Lewis
Legacy paint on publicly-accessible structures in residential areas of Plymouth, UK (a bridge parapet, hospital railings, a goal frame, urban street paving and a telephone kiosk) and local paint-contaminated soils have been analysed for lead and other heavy metals (chromium, zinc and barium) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Lead was detected in all paints analysed (n=56) apart from two fragments of yellow road markings, with maximum concentrations exceeding 300gkg-1 . Soils were contaminated by Pb to varying degrees that depended on the condition and Pb content of the paint applications and the nature and vegetation of the soil, with a maximum concentration of 27gkg-1 and a maximum enrichment factor normalised to grain size and regional baseline soil of 270...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709286/use-of-geographically-weighted-logistic-regression-to-quantify-spatial-variation-in-the-environmental-and-sociodemographic-drivers-of-leptospirosis-in-fiji-a-modelling-study
#8
Helen J Mayfield, John H Lowry, Conall H Watson, Mike Kama, Eric J Nilles, Colleen L Lau
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a globally important zoonotic disease, with complex exposure pathways that depend on interactions between human beings, animals, and the environment. Major drivers of outbreaks include flooding, urbanisation, poverty, and agricultural intensification. The intensity of these drivers and their relative importance vary between geographical areas; however, non-spatial regression methods are incapable of capturing the spatial variations. This study aimed to explore the use of geographically weighted logistic regression (GWLR) to provide insights into the ecoepidemiology of human leptospirosis in Fiji...
May 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706087/association-of-aflatoxin-exposure-and-height-for-age-among-young-children-in-guatemala
#9
Lee E Voth-Gaeddert, Matthew Stoker, Olga Torres, Daniel B Oerther
Aflatoxin exposure has been proposed to affect child height-for-age. The following hypothesized associations were tested in Guatemala: (1) aflatoxin (B1 , B2 , G1 , G2 ) exposure and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and child height-for-age z-score; and (2) aflatoxin exposures and subsequent symptoms of aflatoxins. Maize consumption data, health data, and samples of maize from households were collected from mothers and their children - under five - in October 2016 (n = 320) and February 2017 (n = 120)...
April 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705771/spatial-and-temporal-variation-in-the-community-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-bangladesh-an-integrated-surveillance-study-protocol
#10
Emily Rousham, Leanne Unicomb, Paul Wood, Michael Smith, Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Mohammad Aminul Islam
INTRODUCTION: Increasing antibiotic resistance (ABR) in low-income and middle-income countries such as Bangladesh presents a major health threat. However, assessing the scale of the health risk is problematic in the absence of reliable data on the community prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We describe the protocol for a small-scale integrated surveillance programme that aims to quantify the prevalence of colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and concentrations of antibiotic-resistant genes from a 'One Health' perspective...
April 28, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691921/parental-attitudes-to-myopia-a-key-agent-of-change-for-myopia-control
#11
Saoirse McCrann, Ian Flitcroft, Kevin Lalor, John Butler, Aaron Bush, James Loughman
PURPOSE: With the increasing prevalence in myopia there is growing interest in active myopia prevention. This study aims to increase our understanding of parental attitudes to myopia development and control, as a means to inform future health planning and policy. It evaluates, for the first time, the attitude of parents to myopia and its associated risks, as well as assessing the exposure of Irish children to environmental factors that may influence their risk profile for myopia development...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676630/international-approach-to-environmental-and-lung-health-a-perspective-from-the-fogarty-international-center
#12
Roger I Glass, Joshua P Rosenthal
The global burden of lung disease is substantial, accounting for an estimated 7.5 million deaths per year, approximately 14% of annual deaths worldwide. The prime illnesses include, in descending order, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections, asthma, and interstitial lung fibrosis. Key risk factors include smoking, both indoor and outdoor air pollution, and occupational exposures. Although the distribution of both the diseases and the risk factors varies greatly by age, geography, and setting, the greatest burden falls on populations living in low- and middle-income countries...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672477/assessment-of-community-awareness-and-practices-concerning-indoor-air-pollutants-madison-county-alabama-june-2017
#13
Charlene Siza, Melissa Morrison, Scott Harris, Timothy Hatch, Michael Tyler
The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) conducts an annual community assessment to evaluate household preparedness and local public health concerns. In June 2017, ADPH conducted a Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER), focusing on indoor air pollutants in seven neighborhoods in Madison County, Alabama, where a large percentage of homes were built before 1980. Local health partners had concerns about indoor air quality and environmental risks such as radon; however, limited information was available regarding community awareness, prevention, and mitigation measures related to potential exposures...
April 20, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665464/urinary-biomarkers-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-pre-and-peri-pubertal-girls-in-northern-california-predictors-of-exposure-and-temporal-variability
#14
Dina Dobraca, Raymond Lum, Andreas Sjödin, Antonia M Calafat, Cecile A Laurent, Lawrence H Kushi, Gayle C Windham
BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of chemicals produced as combustion by-products, have been associated with endocrine disruption. To understand exposure in children, who have been less studied than adults, we examined PAH metabolite concentrations by demographic characteristics, potential sources of exposure, and variability over time, in a cohort study of pre- and peri-pubertal girls in Northern California. METHODS: Urinary concentrations of ten PAH metabolites and cotinine were quantified in 431 girls age 6-8 years at baseline...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649074/parental-bereavement-in-young-children-living-in-south-africa-and-malawi-understanding-mental-health
#15
A Macedo, L Sherr, M Tomlinson, S Skeen, K J Roberts
BACKGROUND: Parental loss is a major stressful event found to increase risk of mental health problems in childhood. Yet, some children show resilient adaptation in the face of adversity across time. SETTING: This study explores predictors of mental health resilience among parentally bereaved children in South Africa and Malawi, and their cumulative effect. The study also explores whether predictors of resilience differed between orphaned and non-orphaned children...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574337/socioeconomic-and-ethnic-inequalities-in-exposure-to-air-and-noise-pollution-in-london
#16
Cathryn Tonne, Carles Milà, Daniela Fecht, Mar Alvarez, John Gulliver, James Smith, Sean Beevers, H Ross Anderson, Frank Kelly
BACKGROUND: Transport-related air and noise pollution, exposures linked to adverse health outcomes, varies within cities potentially resulting in exposure inequalities. Relatively little is known regarding inequalities in personal exposure to air pollution or transport-related noise. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to quantify socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in London in 1) air pollution exposure at residence compared to personal exposure; and 2) transport-related noise at residence from different sources...
March 22, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567418/plasticizer-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-enhances-cockroach-allergen-extract-driven-airway-inflammation-by-enhancing-pulmonary-th2-as-well-as-th17-immune-responses-in-mice
#17
Ali S Alfardan, Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F Ahmad, Naif O Al-Harbi, Mohammad M Al-Harbi, Shakir D AlSharari
In recent decades, there has been a gradual increase in the prevalence of asthma. Various factors including environmental pollutants have contributed to this phenomenon. Plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is one of the commonest environmental pollutants due to its association with plastic products. DEHP gets released from plastic products easily leading to respiratory exposure in humans. As a consequence, DEHP is associated with allergic asthma in humans and animals. DEHP is reported to act as an adjuvant in ovalbumin-induced mouse models of asthma at high doses...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538537/factors-associated-with-asthma-expression-in-adolescents
#18
Silvia de Souza Campos Fernandes, Dirceu Solé, Paulo Camargos, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors associated with asthma symptoms in adolescents in the 13- to 14-year age bracket. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescents enrolled in randomly selected public schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, and conducted with the use of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and its supplementary module for risk factor assessment. The ISAAC questionnaire was completed by the students themselves, whereas the supplementary questionnaire was completed by their parents or legal guardians...
January 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501011/predictors-of-youth-e-cigarette-use-susceptibility-in-a-u-s-nationally-representative-sample
#19
Elizabeth Kwon, Dong-Chul Seo, Hsien-Chang Lin, Zhongxue Chen
OBJECTIVES: Given that nicotine is one of the most addictive substances and that adolescents who are exposed to nicotine via e-cigarettes can progress to conventional cigarette smoking, there is a need to identify youth who are susceptible to e-cigarette use and prevent them from initiating e-cigarette use. Susceptibility to e-cigarette use, defined as the absence of a firm decision not to use e-cigarettes, is a useful concept that can be used to predict e-cigarette initiation and identify youth who have high risk of initiating e-cigarettes...
July 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475765/environmental-factors-associated-with-allergic-rhinitis-symptoms-in-japanese-university-students-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Hironobu Nishijima, Sayaka Suzuki, Kenji Kondo, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shintaro Yanagimoto
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have reported that various environmental factors during early life are key determinants for developing allergic disease. Herein, we aimed to investigate the impact of environmental factors on allergic rhinitis. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a single university in Japan (from April to June, in 2015 and 2016). Students voluntarily answered online questionnaires regarding their allergic rhinitis symptoms and their exposure to various environmental factors during preschool-age...
February 20, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
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