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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324565/assessment-of-child-lead-exposure-in-a-philadelphia-community-2014
#1
Timothy Dignam, Ana Pomales, Lora Werner, E Claire Newbern, James Hodge, Jay Nielsen, Aaron Grober, Karen Scruton, Rand Young, Jack Kelly, Mary Jean Brown
INTRODUCTION: Several urban neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, have a history of soil, household lead paint, and potential lead-emitting industry contamination. OBJECTIVES: To (1) describe blood lead levels (BLLs) in target neighborhoods, (2) identify risk factors and sources of lead exposure, (3) describe household environmental lead levels, and (4) compare results with existing data. METHODS: A simple, random, cross-sectional sampling strategy was used to enroll children 8 years or younger living in selected Philadelphia neighborhoods with a history of lead-emitting industry during July 2014...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306213/urinary-metabolites-of-organophosphate-esters-in-children-in-south-china-concentrations-profiles-and-estimated-daily-intake
#2
Yi Chen, Jianzhang Fang, Lu Ren, Ruifang Fan, Jianqing Zhang, Guihua Liu, Li Zhou, Dingyan Chen, Yingxin Yu, Shaoyou Lu
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used in household products as flame retardants or plasticizers and have become ubiquitous pollutants in environmental media. However, little is known about OPE metabolites in humans, especially in children. In this study, eight OPE metabolites were measured in 411 urine samples collected from 6 to 14-year-old children in South China. Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP), bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPP) and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) were the dominant OPE metabolites, and their median concentrations were 1...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301013/urban-birth-urban-living-and-work-migrancy-differential-effects-on-psychotic-experiences-among-young-chinese-men
#3
Jeremy W Coid, Junmei Hu, Constantinos Kallis, Yuan Ping, Juying Zhang, Yueying Hu, Tianqiang Zhang, Rafael Gonzalez, Simone Ullrich, Peter B Jones, James B Kirkbride
Background: Urban birth and urban living are associated with increased risk of schizophrenia but less is known about effects on more common psychotic experiences (PEs). China has undergone the most rapid urbanization of any country which may have affected the population-level expression of psychosis. We therefore investigated effects of urbanicity, work migrancy, and residential stability on prevalence and severity of PEs. Methods: Population-based, 2-wave household survey of psychiatric morbidity and health-related behavior among 4132 men, 18-34 years of age living in urban and rural Greater Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China...
December 29, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297052/association-of-long-term-exposure-to-airborne-particulate-matter-of-1-%C3%AE-m-or-less-with-preterm-birth-in-china
#4
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Qin Li, Yuming Guo, Hong Zhou, Xiaobin Wang, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Donghai Yan, Ya Zhang, Hongguang Zhang, Shanshan Li, Gongbo Chen, Jun Zhao, Yuan He, Ying Yang, Jihong Xu, Yan Wang, Zuoqi Peng, Hai-Jun Wang, Xu Ma
Importance: Airborne particulate matter pollution has been associated with preterm birth (PTB) in some studies. However, most of these studies assessed only populations living near monitoring stations, and the association of airborne particulate matter having a median diameter of 1 μm or less (PM1) with PTB has not been studied. Objective: To evaluate whether PM1 concentrations are associated with the risk of PTB. Design, Setting, and Participants: This national cohort study used National Free Preconception Health Examination Project data collected in 324 of 344 prefecture-level cities from 30 provinces of mainland China...
January 2, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247841/time-of-the-day-dictates-the-variability-of-biomarkers-of-exposure-to-disinfection-byproducts
#5
Stephanie Gängler, Pantelis Charisiadis, Ratanesh Seth, Saurabh Chatterjee, Konstantinos C Makris
Non-persistent environmental chemicals (NOPEC) are xenobiotics with short half-lives of elimination (<7h). Similar to chronopharmacokinetics, NOPEC metabolism may follow diurnal patterns of cytochrome P450 activity. The role of circadian liver clock in shaping NOPEC metabolism and their concomitant measurements of biomarkers of exposure and effect remains poorly understood in real-life human settings. Metabolic activation (toxication) by CYP2E1 converts trihalomethanes (THM) to harmful metabolites. We investigated the diurnal variation of urinary THM exposures and their metabolism patterns as catalyzed by CYP2E1 redox activity, using the surrogate marker of 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE)...
December 13, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244775/spatial-temporal-and-dietary-variables-associated-with-elevated-mercury-exposure-in-peruvian-riverine-communities-upstream-and-downstream-of-artisanal-and-small-scale-gold-mining
#6
Lauren Wyatt, Ernesto J Ortiz, Beth Feingold, Axel Berky, Sarah Diringer, Ana Maria Morales, Elvis Rojas Jurado, Heileen Hsu-Kim, William Pan
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the relationship between environmental and human mercury exposure, how exposure has changed over time, and risk factors beyond fish consumption are not well understood in ASGM settings. In Peruvian riverine communities (n = 12), where ASGM has increased 4-6 fold over the past decade, we provide a large-scale assessment of the connection between environmental and human mercury exposure by comparing total mercury contents in human hair (2-cm segment, n = 231) to locally caught fish tissue, analyzing temporal exposure in women of child bearing age (WCBA, 15-49 years, n = 46) over one year, and evaluating general mercury exposure risks including fish and non-fish dietary items through household surveys and linear mixed models...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214658/identifying-environmental-barriers-to-participation-usability-of-a-health-literacy-informed-problem-identification-approach-for-parents-of-young-children-with-developmental-disabilities
#7
J M Kramer, I T Hwang, M Levin, D Acevedo-García, L Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Parents of very young children recently diagnosed with developmental disabilities (DD) need to identify environmental barriers to their children's participation and adopt an adaptive orientation to solving these problems. Given the health service disparities for diverse families, parents may benefit from easy to use problem-identification approaches that address environmental barriers stemming from community and policy contexts. This feasibility study evaluated the usability of a health literacy-informed, structured, environment-focused problem-identification approach for parents of young children with DD...
December 7, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214289/treated-incidence-of-psychotic-disorders-in-the-multinational-eu-gei-study
#8
Hannah E Jongsma, Charlotte Gayer-Anderson, Antonio Lasalvia, Diego Quattrone, Alice Mulè, Andrei Szöke, Jean-Paul Selten, Caitlin Turner, Celso Arango, Ilaria Tarricone, Domenico Berardi, Andrea Tortelli, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Lieuwe de Haan, Julio Bobes, Miguel Bernardo, Julio Sanjuán, José Luis Santos, Manuel Arrojo, Cristina Marta Del-Ben, Paulo Rossi Menezes, Robin M Murray, Bart P Rutten, Peter B Jones, Jim van Os, Craig Morgan, James B Kirkbride
Importance: Psychotic disorders contribute significantly to the global disease burden, yet the latest international incidence study of psychotic disorders was conducted in the 1980s. Objectives: To estimate the incidence of psychotic disorders using comparable methods across 17 catchment areas in 6 countries and to examine the variance between catchment areas by putative environmental risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: An international multisite incidence study (the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions) was conducted from May 1, 2010, to April 1, 2015, among 2774 individuals from England (2 catchment areas), France (3 catchment areas), Italy (3 catchment areas), the Netherlands (2 catchment areas), Spain (6 catchment areas), and Brazil (1 catchment area) with a first episode of nonorganic psychotic disorders (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision [ICD-10] codes F20-F33) confirmed by the Operational Criteria Checklist...
December 6, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211516/racial-discrimination-and-low-household-education-predict-higher-body-mass-index-in-african-american-youth
#9
Devin S Nelson, Julia M Gerras, Kellye C McGlumphy, Erika R Shaver, Amaanat K Gill, Kamala Kanneganti, Tiwaloluwa A Ajibewa, Rebecca E Hasson
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between environmental factors, including household education, community violence exposure, racial discrimination, and cultural identity, and BMI in African American adolescents. METHODS: A community-based sample of 198 African American youth (120 girls, 78 boys; ages 11-19 years) from Washtenaw County, Michigan, were included in this analysis. Violence exposure was assessed by using the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence; racial discrimination by using the Adolescent Discrimination Distress Index; cultural identity by using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents; and household education by using a seven-category variable...
December 6, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198587/bedroom-allergen-exposures-in-us-households
#10
Päivi M Salo, Jesse Wilkerson, Kathryn M Rose, Richard D Cohn, Agustin Calatroni, Herman E Mitchell, Michelle L Sever, Peter J Gergen, Peter S Thorne, Darryl C Zeldin
BACKGROUND: Bedroom allergen exposures contribute to allergic disease morbidity because people spend considerable time in bedrooms, where they come into close contact with allergen reservoirs. OBJECTIVE: We investigated participant and housing characteristics, including sociodemographic, regional, and climatic factors, associated with bedroom allergen exposures in a nationally representative sample of the US population. METHODS: Data were obtained from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191311/analysis-of-pfaas-in-american-alligators-part-1-concentrations-in-alligators-harvested-for-consumption-during-south-carolina-public-hunts
#11
Jessica J Tipton, Louis J Guillette, Susan Lovelace, Benjamin B Parrott, Thomas R Rainwater, Jessica L Reiner
Environmental contamination resulting from the production or release of harmful chemicals can lead to negative consequences for wildlife and human health. Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) were historically produced as protective coatings for many household items and currently persist in the environment, wildlife, and humans. PFAAs have been linked to immune suppression, endocrine disruption, and developmental toxicity in wildlife and laboratory studies. This study examines the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, as an important indicator of ecosystem contamination and a potential pathway for PFAA exposure in humans...
November 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190664/a-systematic-review-of-zoonotic-enteric-parasitic-diseases-among-nomadic-and-pastoral-people
#12
Amber N Barnes, Anu Davaasuren, Uyanga Baasandagva, Gregory C Gray
INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175685/does-maternal-environmental-tobacco-smoke-interact-with-social-demographics-and-environmental-factors-on-congenital-heart-defects
#13
Xiaoqing Liu, Zhiqiang Nie, Jimei Chen, Xiaoling Guo, Yanqiu Ou, Guanchun Chen, Jinzhuang Mai, Wei Gong, Yong Wu, Xiangmin Gao, Yanji Qu, Erin M Bell, Shao Lin, Jian Zhuang
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a major cause of death in infancy and childhood. Major risk factors for most CHDs, particularly those resulting from the combination of environmental exposures with social determinants and behaviors, are still unknown. This study evaluated the main effect of maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and its interaction with social-demographics and environmental factors on CHDs in China. A population-based, matched case-control study of 9452 live-born infants and stillborn fetuses was conducted using the Guangdong Registry of Congenital Heart Disease data (2004-2014)...
November 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175623/evidence-from-sinphonie-project-impact-of-home-environmental-exposures-on-respiratory-health-among-school-age-children-in-romania
#14
Yi Lu, Shao Lin, Wayne R Lawrence, Ziqiang Lin, Eugen Gurzau, Eva Csobod, Iulia A Neamtiu
BACKGROUND: Exposure to indoor air pollutants at home was found to be associated with respiratory diseases. As lifestyle changes with rapid economic growth in Romania, the aim of our study is to describe the characteristics of Romanian homes and their impact on children's respiratory health. METHODS: Self-reported information on respiratory symptoms was collected from 280 Romanian elementary school students in 2011, and the symptoms were categorized into allergy, asthma-like, and flu-like symptoms...
November 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168324/environmental-levels-of-avian-antigen-are-relevant-to-the-progression-of-chronic-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-during-antigen-avoidance
#15
Manabu Sema, Yasunari Miyazaki, Toshiharu Tsutsui, Makoto Tomita, Yoshinobu Eishi, Naohiko Inase
BACKGROUND: In chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (chronic HP), antigen avoidance is critical for disease management; however, complete avoidance is difficult because of unrecognized exposure to antigens. Recently, we revealed that the amount of avian antigen (AAA) in household dust at the time of diagnosis predicted the progression of chronic bird-related HP. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the prognosis of chronic bird-related HP and the AAA that remained in the environment during antigen avoidance...
November 22, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167839/early-life-exposure-to-indoor-air-pollution-or-tobacco-smoke-and-lower-respiratory-tract-illness-and-wheezing-in-african-infants-a-longitudinal-birth-cohort-study
#16
Aneesa Vanker, Whitney Barnett, Lesley Workman, Polite M Nduru, Peter D Sly, Robert P Gie, Heather J Zar
Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are associated with lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) or wheezing in children. However, the effect of the timing of these exposures, specifically antenatal versus postnatal, and of alternate fuel sources such as the increasingly used volatile organic compounds have not been well studied. We longitudinally investigated the effect of antenatal or postnatal IAP and ETS on LRTI or wheezing prevalence and severity in African infants...
November 2017: Lancet. Planetary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153274/-classical-and-molecular-methods-for-identification-and-quantification-of-domestic-moulds
#17
REVIEW
E Fréalle, V Bex, G Reboux, S Roussel, S Bretagne
INTRODUCTION: To study the impact of the constant and inevitable inhalation of moulds, it is necessary to sample, identify and count the spores. BACKGROUND: Environmental sampling methods can be separated into three categories: surface sampling is easy to perform but non quantitative, air sampling is easy to calibrate but provides time limited information, and dust sampling which is more representative of long term exposure to moulds. The sampling strategy depends on the objectives (evaluation of the risk of exposure for individuals; quantification of the household contamination; evaluation of the efficacy of remediation)...
November 15, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144416/environmental-risks-associated-with-symptoms-of-acute-respiratory-infection-among-preschool-children-in-north-western-and-south-southern-nigeria-communities
#18
Oluwafunmilade A Adesanya, Chi Chiao
The exposure-disease-stress model places young children in their physical and social contexts and considers the extent and intensity of associational links to symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), taking in to account a range of biological, social, and environment components. This study uses the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey to assess the individual and environmental risks present in the North-Western and South-Southern Nigerian communities and examines their associations with ARI symptoms...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121931/individual-and-household-characteristics-of-persons-with-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-sites-with-varying-endemicities-in-kinshasa-province-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#19
Melchior Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Lauren Levitz, Kyaw L Thwai, Jonathan B Parr, Varun Goel, Mark Janko, Antoinette Tshefu, Michael Emch, Steven R Meshnick, Margaret Carrel
BACKGROUND: The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) bears a large share of global malaria burden despite efforts to control and eliminate the disease. More detailed understanding of individual and household level characteristics associated with malaria are needed, as is an understanding of how these characteristics vary spatiotemporally and across different community-level malaria endemicities. An ongoing study in Kinshasa Province is designed to address gaps in prior malaria surveillance in the DRC by monitoring malaria across seasons, age groups and in high and low malaria sites...
November 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112839/environmental-fate-of-amine-oxide-using-measured-and-predicted-values-to-determine-aquatic-exposure
#20
Kathleen McDonough, Nina Itrich, Jennifer Menzies, Kenneth Casteel, Scott Belanger, Kenneth Wehmeyer
Amine oxide (AO) surfactants are used widely in North American household detergents resulting in >44,000mtons disposed down the drain annually. Due to AOs substantial down the drain disposal volume, wide dispersive use, and high aquatic toxicity, there is a need to evaluate ecological exposure and corresponding risk. This study refined the current knowledge regarding the fate of AO disposed down the drain through laboratory simulation studies to evaluate biodegradation in the sewer and during activated sludge wastewater treatment...
November 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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