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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521272/impact-of-prematurity-on-exercise-capacity-and-agility-of-children-and-youth-aged-8-to-18
#1
Tatjana Robič Pikel, Gregor Starc, Janko Strel, Marjeta Kovač, Janez Babnik, Petra Golja
BACKGROUND: Preterm (PT) birth and low birth mass (LBW) can impair growth and development of children and may therefore affect their physical performance up to adulthood. AIMS: Our aim was to evaluate long-term consequences of prematurity, especially (an)aerobic exercise capacity and agility up to adulthood, by comparing premature and full-term (FT) individuals. STUDY DESIGN, SUBJECTS: From 474 subjects born in 1987, who were enrolled into a longitudinal study, 396 (178 PT and 218 FT (with 127 of them LBW)) were followed-up into their early adulthood...
May 15, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515626/the-history-of-tuberculosis-from-the-first-historical-records-to-the-isolation-of-koch-s-bacillus
#2
REVIEW
I Barberis, N L Bragazzi, L Galluzzo, M Martini
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious, infectious disease, due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) that has always been a permanent challenge over the course of human history, because of its severe social implications. It has been hypothesized that the genus Mycobacterium originated more than 150 million years ago. In the Middle Ages, scrofula, a disease affecting cervical lymph nodes, was described as a new clinical form of TB. The illness was known in England and France as "king's evil", and it was widely believed that persons affected could heal after a royal touch...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504410/unpacking-the-ontogeny-of-gesture-understanding-how-movement-becomes-meaningful-across-development
#3
Elizabeth M Wakefield, Miriam A Novack, Susan Goldin-Meadow
Gestures, hand movements that accompany speech, affect children's learning, memory, and thinking (e.g., Goldin-Meadow, 2003). However, it remains unknown how children distinguish gestures from other kinds of actions. In this study, 4- to 9-year-olds (n = 339) and adults (n = 50) described one of three scenes: (a) an actor moving objects, (b) an actor moving her hands in the presence of objects (but not touching them), or (c) an actor moving her hands in the absence of objects. Participants across all ages were equally able to identify actions on objects as goal directed, but the ability to identify empty-handed movements as representational actions (i...
May 15, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493755/affect-contagion-between-mothers-and-infants-examining-valence-and-touch
#4
Sara F Waters, Tessa V West, Helena R Karnilowicz, Wendy Berry Mendes
Mothers and their babies represent one of the closest dyadic units and thus provide a powerful paradigm to examine how affective states are shared, and result in, synchronized physiologic responses between two people. We recruited mothers and their 12- to 14-month-old infants (Ndyads = 98) to complete a lab study in which mothers were initially separated from their infants and assigned to either a low-arousal positive/relaxation condition, intended to elicit parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) reactivity, or a high-arousal negative/stress task, intended to elicit sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468842/novel-mutations-in-dystonin-provide-clues-to-the-pathomechanisms-of-hsan-vi
#5
Fiore Manganelli, Silvia Parisi, Maria Nolano, Feifei Tao, Simona Paladino, Chiara Pisciotta, Stefano Tozza, Claudia Nesti, Adriana P Rebelo, Vincenzo Provitera, Filippo M Santorelli, Michael E Shy, Tommaso Russo, Stephan Zuchner, Lucio Santoro
OBJECTIVE: To describe a second hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type VI (HSAN-VI) family harboring 2 novel heterozygous mutations in the dystonin (DST) gene and to evaluate their effect on neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). METHODS: The family consisted of 3 affected siblings from nonconsanguineous healthy parents. All members underwent clinical and electrophysiologic evaluation and genetic analysis. Two patients underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST), cardiovascular reflexes, dynamic sweat test, and skin biopsy to evaluate somatic and autonomic cutaneous innervation and to get fibroblast cultures for developing iPSC-derived neurons...
May 3, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466257/cortical-representation-of-pain-and-touch-evidence-from-combined-functional-neuroimaging-and-electrophysiology-in-non-human-primates
#6
REVIEW
Li Min Chen
Human functional MRI studies in acute and various chronic pain conditions have revolutionized how we view pain, and have led to a new theory that complex multi-dimensional pain experience (sensory-discriminative, affective/motivational, and cognitive) is represented by concurrent activity in widely-distributed brain regions (termed a network or pain matrix). Despite these breakthrough discoveries, the specific functions proposed for these regions remain elusive, because detailed electrophysiological characterizations of these regions in the primate brain are lacking...
May 2, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456180/stabilization-of-collapsing-scroll-waves-in-systems-with-random-heterogeneities
#7
Daniel Weingard, Wilfredo Blanco, Oliver Steinbock, Richard Bertram
In three-dimensional reaction-diffusion systems, excitation waves may form and rotate around a one-dimensional phase singularity called the filament. If the filament forms a closed curve, it will shrink over time and eventually collapse. However, filaments may pin to non-reactive objects present in the medium, reducing their rate of collapse or even allowing them to persist indefinitely. We use numerical simulations to study how different arrangements of non-reactive spheres affect the dynamics of circular filaments...
April 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455739/postural-responses-in-the-upper-limbs-evoked-by-axial-impulses-a-role-for-reticulospinal-projections
#8
Baozhing Teng, Sendhil Govender, James G Colebatch
We studied the short-latency (SL) postural effects of axial impulses in 11 subjects (22 ± 2 years old). Recordings were made bilaterally from soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. We confirmed that with leaning anteriorly and posteriorly, reflex EMG increases occurred in both muscle groups at short latency following brief perturbations applied over C7 or the sternum (soleus mean latencies 57.5 and 66.4 ms; TA mean 51.7 and 55.4 ms, respectively). While the size of the SL reflexes was affected by the direction of lean when standing we found that light touch did not affect the amplitudes or latencies significantly...
April 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450843/exploring-tactile-perceptual-dimensions-using-materials-associated-with-sensory-vocabulary
#9
Maki Sakamoto, Junji Watanabe
Considering tactile sensation when designing products is important because the decision to purchase often depends on how products feel. Numerous psychophysical studies have attempted to identify important factors that describe tactile perceptions. However, the numbers and types of major tactile dimensions reported in previous studies have varied because of differences in materials used across experiments. To obtain a more complete picture of perceptual space with regard to touch, our study focuses on using vocabulary that expresses tactile sensations as a guiding principle for collecting material samples because these types of words are expected to cover all the basic categories within tactile perceptual space...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445756/membrane-mechanics-of-primary-afferent-neurons-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglia-of-rats
#10
Hirosato Kanda, Jianguo G Gu
Membrane mechanics is an important biological factor regulating many cellular functions including cell motility, intercellular and intracellular signaling, gene expression, and membrane ion channel activity. Primary afferent neurons transduce sensory information about temperature, touch, and pain. These sensory functions may be profoundly affected by the states of primary afferent neuron mechanics. However, membrane mechanics of primary afferent neurons is largely unknown. In this study, we established the optical trapping technique for determining membrane mechanics of cultured primary afferent neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442332/the-individual-preferred-velocity-of-stroking-touch-as-a-stable-measurement
#11
Amanda Luong, Johanna Bendas, Roberta Etzi, Håkan Olausson, Ilona Croy
Affective touch is of fundamental importance in human social interactions and there is an increasing interest in using touch as a probe for general affective perception. To this end, we developed a test of preferred velocity (ToP-V) of touch and tested whether the individually preferred stroking velocity is a stable and valid measurement. In study one, thirty healthy participants (18-30years, 17 women) were examined with the ToP-V. Therefore, pairs of different slow stroking stimuli were presented by the Rotary Tactile Stimulator - a robotic device - on the forearm and the participants chose the velocity they preferred in a forced choice paradigm...
April 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437271/surgical-management-of-traumatic-peripheral-osteoma-of-the-mandible
#12
André Bachega Gomes Geron, Vinícius Almeida Carvalho, Jessica Luana Dos Santos, Luciana Yamamoto Almeida, Jorge Esquiche León, Alexandre Elias Trivellato, Cássio Edvard Sverzut
Osteomas are benign osteogenic lesions that result from the proliferation of mature bone. Three variants are known: central, peripheral, and extraskeletal. The peripheral variant is the most common and it most frequently affects the paranasal sinuses, rarely occurring in the jaws. This article describes the case of a 33-year-old white male patient who was referred complaining of facial asymmetry. Clinical examination revealed an increase in volume at the base of the right side of the mandible, hard bony consistency and well delimited, painless to the touch, without signs of infection or intraoral alterations...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437257/creation-of-quasi-dirac-points-in-the-floquet-band-structure-of-bilayer-graphene
#13
W M Cheung, K S Chan
We study the Floquet quasi-energy band structure of bilayer graphene when it is illuminated by two laser lights with frequencies [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] using Floquet theory. We focus on the dynamical gap formed by the conduction band with Floquet index  =  -1 and the valence band with Floquet index  =  +1 to understand how Dirac points can be formed. It is found that the dynamical gap does not have rotation symmetry in the momentum space, and quasi-Dirac points, where the conduction and valence bands almost touch, can be created when the dynamical gap closes along some directions with suitably chosen radiation parameters...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432316/how-visual-experience-impacts-the-internal-and-external-spatial-mapping-of-sensorimotor-functions
#14
Virginie Crollen, Geneviève Albouy, Franco Lepore, Olivier Collignon
Tactile perception and motor production share the use of internally- and externally-defined coordinates. In order to examine how visual experience affects the internal/external coding of space for touch and movement, early blind (EB) and sighted controls (SC) took part in two experiments. In experiment 1, participants were required to perform a Temporal Order Judgment task (TOJ), either with their hands in parallel or crossed over the body midline. Confirming previous demonstration, crossing the hands led to a significant decrement in performance in SC but did not affect EB...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428861/does-the-morphological-fit-between-flowers-and-pollinators-affect-pollen-deposition-an-experimental-test-in-a-buzz-pollinated-species-with-anther-dimorphism
#15
Lislie Solís-Montero, Mario Vallejo-Marín
Some pollination systems, such as buzz-pollination, are associated with floral morphologies that require a close physical interaction between floral sexual organs and insect visitors. In these systems, a pollinator's size relative to the flower may be an important feature determining whether the visitor touches both male and female sexual organs and thus transfers pollen between plants efficiently. To date, few studies have addressed whether in fact the "fit" between flower and pollinator influences pollen transfer, particularly among buzz-pollinated species...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412497/optogenetic-stimulation-of-cortex-to-map-evoked-whisker-movements-in-awake-head-restrained-mice
#16
Matthieu Auffret, Veronica L Ravano, Giulia M C Rossi, Nicolas Hankov, Merissa F A Petersen, Carl C H Petersen
Whisker movements are used by rodents to touch objects in order to extract spatial and textural tactile information about their immediate surroundings. To understand the mechanisms of such active sensorimotor processing it is important to investigate whisker motor control. The activity of neurons in the neocortex affects whisker movements, but many aspects of the organization of cortical whisker motor control remain unknown. Here, we filmed whisker movements evoked by sequential optogenetic stimulation of different locations across the left dorsal sensorimotor cortex of awake head-restrained mice...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400090/does-intramuscular-gluteal-augmentation-using-implants-affect-sensitivity-in-the-buttocks
#17
Fernando Serra-Guimarães, Marco Antonio Venturini De Barros, Jose Horacio Aboudib, Denise Salles Coelho Da Mota, Daniel Gouvea Leal, Claudio Cardoso De Castro, Fabio Xerfan Nahas
The evolution of techniques and materials has made gluteoplasty a safe and reproducible operation with high acceptance among surgeons and patients. Functional aspects should be considered in gluteoplasty but are poorly studied. The sensitivity of the buttocks is fundamental as it represents an erogenous zone and provides protection through sensory stimuli for the prevention of pressure sores and burns. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of the gluteal region in patients undergoing gluteal augmentation with implants...
June 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399062/listening-effort-through-depth-of-processing-in-school-age-children
#18
Benson Cheng-Lin Hsu, Filiep Vanpoucke, Astrid van Wieringen
OBJECTIVES: A reliable and practical measure of listening effort is crucial in the aural rehabilitation of children with communication disorders. In this article, we propose a novel behavioral paradigm designed to measure listening effort in school-age children based on different depths and levels of verbal processing. The paradigm consists of a classic word recognition task performed in quiet and in noise coupled to one of three additional tasks asking the children to judge the color of simple pictures or a certain semantic category of the presented words...
April 10, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396913/geographical-variation-in-sexual-behavior-and-body-traits-in-a-sex-role-reversed-wolf-spider
#19
Fedra Bollatti, Virginia Garcia Diaz, Alfredo V Peretti, Anita Aisenberg
Mating partners need to recognize, assess each other, and exchange information through behavioral events that occur before, during, and after mating. Sexual signals, as well as life history traits, are influenced by selective pressures and environmental factors that can vary across distant geographical areas. Allocosa senex is a sand-dwelling wolf spider which constructs burrows along the sandy coasts of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. Females are the mobile sex that searches for males and initiates courtship...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394113/dental-fear-in-children-with-repeated-tooth-injuries
#20
Dubravka Negovetić Vranić, Nataša Ivančić Jokić, Danko Bakarčić, Andreja Carek, Željko Rotim, Željko Verzak
Tooth injuries are serious clinical conditions. Some children experience dental trauma only once, while others are more prone to repeated tooth injuries. Repeated dental trauma occurs in 19.4% to 30% of patients. Pain and dental trauma are the most common reasons for fear and anxiety. The main objective of this study was to investigate how dental trauma, as well as repeated dental trauma affects the occurrence and development of dental fear in children. The study was conducted on a random sample of 147 subjects (88 boys and 59 girls) aged 5-8 and 9-12 years...
June 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
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