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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720904/interaction-between-trait-and-housing-condition-produces-differential-decision-making-toward-risk-choice-in-a-rat-gambling-task
#1
Wha Young Kim, Bo Ram Cho, Myung Ji Kwak, Jeong-Hoon Kim
Poor decision-making is a core problem in psychiatric disorders such as pathological gambling and substance abuse. Both trait and environmental factors are considerably important to affect decision-making. However, it has not yet been systematically shown how they interact to affect risk preference in animal models evaluating decision-making. Here, we trained rats, housed in pairs or in isolation, in a touch screen chamber to detect the association between four different light signals on the screen and accompanied reward and punishment outcomes arranged with different schedules...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717440/stigmatic-limitations-on-reproductive-success-in-a-paleotropical-tree-causes-and-consequences
#2
Madhu Raina, Raman Kumar, Veenu Kaul
Success in reproduction is subject to the successful initiation as well as successful completion of a chain of consecutive events starting from flower formation and ending with viable seed production. A pivotal role in this chain is played by the stigma which is the seat of pollen recognition and initiation of pollen-pistil interaction. An interesting feature of the family Bignoniaceae is the presence of thigmosensitive stigmas which open, close and re-open in response to touch. Kigelia pinnata bears a touch sensitive stigma and is a low fruit setter in Jammu and Kashmir (India)...
July 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715355/repeated-exposure-to-sucrose-for-procedural-pain-in-mouse-pups-leads-to-long-term-widespread-brain-alterations
#3
Sophie Tremblay, Manon Ranger, Cecil M Y Chau, Jacob Ellegood, Jason P Lerch, Liisa Holsti, Daniel Goldowitz, Ruth E Grunau
Oral sucrose is administered routinely to reduce pain of minor procedures in premature infants and is recommended as standard care in international guidelines. No human or animal studies on effects of early repeated sucrose exposure on long-term brain development have been done in the context of pain. We evaluated the effects of repeated neonatal sucrose treatment before an intervention on long-term brain structure in mouse pups. Neonatal C57Bl/6J mice (n = 109) were randomly assigned to one of 2 treatments (vehicle vs sucrose) and one of 3 interventions (handling, touch, or needle-prick)...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711591/touching-the-void-first-and-third-person-perspectives-in-two-cases-of-autobiographical-amnesia-linked-to-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
Adam Zeman, Marcus Byruck, Peter Tallis, Keith Vossel, Daniel Tranel
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can be associated with a marked impairment of autobiographical memory. This is occasionally its presenting feature. We describe two individuals with severe epilepsy-associated autobiographical memory loss. Both MB and PT were reassured initially that their memory was intact on the basis of standard neuropsychological tests. Both have written detailed accounts of their symptoms. The key neuropsychological features of their cases are the relative normality of performance on standard memory tests, with preservation of semantic memory for impersonal information, in contrast to a profound amnesia for salient autobiographical episodes and an impoverishment of imaginative scene construction...
July 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710056/health-related-coping-and-social-interaction-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-supported-by-a-social-network-pilot-study-with-a-new-methodological-approach
#5
Luigi Lavorgna, Antonio Russo, Manuela De Stefano, Roberta Lanzillo, Sabrina Esposito, Fatemeh Moshtari, Francesco Rullani, Kyrie Piscopo, Daniela Buonanno, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Antonio Gallo, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Simona Bonavita
BACKGROUND: Social media are a vital link for people with health concerns who find in Web communities a valid and comforting source for information exchange, debate, and knowledge enrichment. This aspect is important for people affected by chronic diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS), who are very well informed about the disease but are vulnerable to hopes of being cured or saved by therapies whose efficacy is not always scientifically proven. To improve health-related coping and social interaction for people with MS, we created an MS social network (SMsocialnetwork...
July 14, 2017: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708654/the-status-of-affected-infraorbital-nerve-and-inferior-alveolar-nerve-in-patients-with-jaw-fibrous-dysplasia-a-clinical-and-radiographic-evaluation
#6
Zhen Du, Yifeng Jiang, Long Chen
The affected infraorbital nerve (IFBN) and inferior alveolar nerve (IFAN) status in patients with jaw fibrous dysplasia has not been definitely depicted. In this study, the authors try to explore the status of affected IFBN and IFAN in patients with jaw fibrous dysplasia. Ten patients with jaw fibrous dysplasia were included in this study. The complaints of numbness in the IFBA and IFAN innervated area were asked and recorded, and careful clinical examination was performed to evaluate the touch sense, pain sense, pressure sense, and temperature sense in the IFBA and IFAN innervated areas...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705456/feeling-touch-on-the-own-hand-restores-the-capacity-to-visually-discriminate-it-from-someone-else-hand-pathological-embodiment-receding-in-brain-damage-patients
#7
Carlotta Fossataro, Valentina Bruno, Patrizia Gindri, Lorenzo Pia, Anna Berti, Francesca Garbarini
The sense of body ownership, i.e., the belief that a specific body part belongs to us, can be selectively impaired in brain-damaged patients. Recently, a pathological form of embodiment has been described in patients who, when the examiner's hand is located in a body-congruent position, systematically claim that it is their own hand (E+ patients). This paradoxical behavior suggests that, in these patients, the altered sense of body ownership also affects their capacity of visually discriminating the body-identity details of the own and the alien hand, even when both hands are clearly visible on the table...
June 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701078/effects-of-context-aware-patient-guidance-on-blood-pressure-self-measurement-adherence-levels
#8
Camilla Lindahl, Stefan Wagner, Niels Uldbjerg, Jacob Mørup Schlütter, Olav Bertelsen, Puk Sandager
Hypertensive disease and preeclampsia are serious medical disorders affecting pregnancy. Screening in early pregnancy may identify women at risk of developing hypertensive disease and enable prophylactic treatment. Accurate blood pressure measurement is an important part of this screening. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients, with the aid of a context-aware sensor-based blood pressure self-measurement system, were able to correctly self-measure their blood pressure adhering to internationally established recommendations...
July 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691602/somatosensory-feedback-to-the-cheek-during-virtual-visual-feedback-therapy-enhances-pain-alleviation-for-phantom-arms
#9
Akimichi Ichinose, Yuko Sano, Michihiro Osumi, Masahiko Sumitani, Shin-Ichiro Kumagaya, Yasuo Kuniyoshi
BACKGROUND: Patients who suffer from phantom limb pain can perceive tactile stimuli applied to the cheek on their affected side as if it were coming from their phantom limb, a phenomenon called "referred sensation." OBJECTIVES: To investigate the analgesic effect produced by tactile feedback provided to the cheek during neurorehabilitation using visual feedback. METHODS: Nine participants with phantom upper limb pain performed virtual reality neurorehabilitation exercises in which they repeatedly touched a target object with a virtual representation of their affected limb...
July 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678886/gaze-centered-coding-of-proprioceptive-reach-targets-after-effector-movement-testing-the-impact-of-online-information-time-of-movement-and-target-distance
#10
Stefanie Mueller, Katja Fiehler
In previous research, we demonstrated that spatial coding of proprioceptive reach targets depends on the presence of an effector movement (Mueller & Fiehler, Neuropsychologia, 2014, 2016). In these studies, participants were asked to reach in darkness with their right hand to a proprioceptive target (tactile stimulation on the finger tip) while their gaze was varied. They either moved their left, stimulated hand towards a target location or kept it stationary at this location where they received a touch on the fingertip to which they reached with their right hand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678453/-suicide-and-mental-institutions-the-lausanne-example
#11
Jean-Michel Kaision, Jacques Gasser
Suicide in the mental hospital is first a human tragedy that affects the patients' families and relatives but also touches all medical staff involved. As for suicide prevention, it is a key issue of public health, and the canton of Vaud has made it a top priority of his mental health policy. We will present some epidemiologic data general of suicide and some specific elements to our institution, the Psychiatry Department of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (DP-CHUV). Then we will show how our institution addresses the issue of suicide prevention through the analysis of so-called « adverse clinical events » and the systematic training of its caregivers...
September 21, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667674/micro-ct-assessment-of-the-shaping-ability-of-four-root-canal-instrumentation-systems-in-oval-shaped-canals
#12
M L Zuolo, A A Zaia, F G Belladonna, E J N L Silva, E M Souza, M A Versiani, R T Lopes, G De-Deus
AIM: To compare the shaping ability of four root canal instrumentation systems in oval-shaped canals using micro-computed tomographic analysis. METHODOLOGY: Forty anatomically matched mandibular incisors were scanned and assigned to four groups (n = 10), according to the canal preparation protocol: BioRace, Reciproc, Self-Adjusting File (SAF) and TRUShape systems. After canal instrumentation, the specimens were re-scanned and the registered pre- and postoperative datasets were examined to evaluate the percentages of accumulated hard-tissue debris, untouched canal areas and dentine removed...
July 1, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666826/affective-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-are-strongly-associated-with-neurocognitive-deficits-indicating-disorders-in-executive-functions-visual-memory-attention-and-social-cognition
#13
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Supaksorn Thika, George Anderson, Piotr Galecki, Michael Maes
The aim of this study was to assess the neurocognitive correlates of affective symptoms in schizophrenia. Towards this end, 40 healthy controls and 80 schizophrenia patients were investigated with six tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), assessing spatial working memory, paired-association learning, one touch stocking, rapid visual information (RVP), emotional recognition test and intra/extradimensional set shifting. The Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAMA) Rating Scales and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) as well as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were also used...
June 27, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665560/-female-athlete-triad-what-s-new
#14
Alexandra Nowak, Jean-Luc Ziltener, Silvia Bonfanti
The Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport has been suggested as the new and wider denomination of the Female athlete triad. This new terminology enables a wider approach to the different consequences of an insufficient energy intake amongst regular athletes. In fact, this energy dysbalance leads to a wider pathological phenomenon touching many systems (e.g. cardiovascular, psychological, hematological…). This designation is no longer restricted to the female gender, and now also includes men, whom are nowadays less affected or maybe only less assessed...
July 13, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658923/sturge-weber-syndrome-a-case-study
#15
Mahesh Neerupakam, Podduturi Sanjay Reddy, Beeraboina Anand Babu, Guttikonda Vamsi Krishna
The aim of this case review was to touch upon the various clinical presentations and diagnostic features of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) as seen in the dental/medical practice. Sturge-Weber syndrome is a rare congenital disorder that belongs to a group of disorders collectively known as the phakomatoses. The characteristic pathological elements of the disease include leptomeninges angioma extending out to cerebral cortex with angiomatous lesions on the same side and unilateral facial nevus that affects trigeminal nerve division...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641990/do-negative-emotions-expressed-during-follow-up-consultations-with-adolescent-survivors-of-childhood-cancer-reflect-late-effects
#16
Anneli V Mellblom, Ellen Ruud, Jon Håvard Loge, Hanne C Lie
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether negative emotions expressed by adolescent cancer survivors during follow-up consultations were associated with potential late effects (persisting disease or treatment-related health problems). METHODS: We video-recorded 66 follow-up consultations between 10 pediatricians and 66 adolescent survivors of leukemia, lymphoma or stem-cell transplantations. In transcripts of the recordings, we identified utterances coded as both 1) expressions of negative emotions (VR-CoDES), and 2) late effect-related discussions...
June 14, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632108/swallowing-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-issues-and-management
#17
Nick Miller
Changes to swallowing affect most people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Changes may not initially exercise a decisive impact, but can later pose significant threats to nutritional, hydration and respiratory health and psychosocial quality of life. This review, from a largely clinical viewpoint, outlines the nature of changes in PD and considers the issue of how many people are affected and in what ways. It outlines main approaches to assessment and management, with an emphasis on aspects relevant to PD. Dysphagia contributes to drooling in PD...
June 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630661/intrainsular-connectivity-and-somatosensory-responsiveness-in-young-children-with-asd
#18
Michelle D Failla, Brittany R Peters, Haleh Karbasforoushan, Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Kimberly B Schauder, Brynna H Heflin, Carissa J Cascio
BACKGROUND: The human somatosensory system comprises dissociable paths for discriminative and affective touch, reflected in separate peripheral afferent populations and distinct cortical targets. Differences in behavioral and neural responses to affective touch may have an important developmental role in early social experiences, which are relevant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Using probabilistic tractography, we compared the structural integrity of white matter pathways for discriminative and affective touch in young children with ASD and their typically developing (TD) peers...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623280/ev-3-an-endogenous-human-erythropoietin-isoform-with-distinct-functional-relevance
#19
Christel Bonnas, Liane Wüstefeld, Daniela Winkler, Romy Kronstein-Wiedemann, Ekrem Dere, Katja Specht, Melanie Boxberg, Torsten Tonn, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Herbert Stadler, Inge Sillaber
Generation of multiple mRNAs by alternative splicing is well known in the group of cytokines and has recently been reported for the human erythropoietin (EPO) gene. Here, we focus on the alternatively spliced EPO transcript characterized by deletion of exon 3 (hEPOΔ3). We show co-regulation of EPO and hEPOΔ3 in human diseased tissue. The expression of hEPOΔ3 in various human samples was low under normal conditions, and distinctly increased in pathological states. Concomitant up-regulation of hEPOΔ3 and EPO in response to hypoxic conditions was also observed in HepG2 cell cultures...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619286/neuroprotective-potential-of-aloe-arborescens-against-copper-induced-neurobehavioral-features-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-rat
#20
Abdellatif Abbaoui, Omar El Hiba, Halima Gamrani
Copper (Cu) is an important trace element for the organism survival, which ensures the normal functioning of different biosystems. However, excessive levels of this heavy metal are responsible for profound physiological alterations including the central nervous system. Numerous findings sustain the involvement of heavy metals, as an environmental risk factor such as copper (Cu), in the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) which is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that principally affects the motor system...
June 12, 2017: Acta Histochemica
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