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Kevin A Kovalchik, Matthew S MacLennan, Kerry M Peru, Chukwuemeka Ajaero, Dena W McMartin, John V Headley, David D Y Chen
RATIONALE: The characterization of naphthenic acid fraction compounds (NAFCs) in oil sands process affected water (OSPW) is of interest for both toxicology studies and regulatory reasons. Previous studies utilizing authentic standards have identified dicarboxylic naphthenic acids using two-dimensional gas chromatography hyphenated to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). The selective derivatization of hydroxyl groups has also recently aided in the characterization of oxy-NAFCs, and indirectly the characterization of dicarboxylic NAFCs...
September 25, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Kamila Kochan, Edyta Kus, Ewelina Szafraniec, Adrianna Wislocka, Stefan Chlopicki, Malgorzata Baranska
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disorder worldwide, involving pathogenic mechanisms of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), hepatocytes and other liver cells. Here, we used a novel approach of label-free Raman confocal imaging to study primary LSECs and hepatocytes freshly isolated from the livers of mice with NAFLD induced by a high fat diet (HFD), in comparison to healthy controls. Our aim was to characterize changes in the biochemical composition in LSECs and hepatocytes that occur in a single cell at the subcellular level...
September 25, 2017: Analyst
Rohitash Jamwal, Benjamin J Barlock, Sravani Adusumalli, Ken Ogasawara, Brigitte L Simons, Fatemeh Akhlaghi
We describe a sequential windowed acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion mass spectra (SWATH-MS) based method for label-free, simultaneous, relative quantification of drug metabolism enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLM; n=78). In-solution tryptic digestion was aided by a pressure cycling method which allowed a 90-min incubation time, a significant reduction over classical protocols (12-18 h). Digested peptides were separated on an Acquity UHPLC Peptide BEH C18 column using a 60-min gradient method at a flow rate of 0...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Christian Hentschker, Carolin Dewald, Andreas Otto, Knut Büttner, Michael Hecker, Dörte Becher
Differential proteomics targeting the protein abundance is commonly used to follow changes in biological systems. Differences in localization and degree of posttranslational modifications of proteins including phosphorylations are of tremendous interest due to the anticipated role in molecular regulatory processes. Because of their particular low abundance in prokaryotes, identification and quantification of protein phosphorylation is traditionally performed by either comparison of spot intensities on two-dimensional gels after differential phosphoprotein staining or gel-free by stable isotope labeling, sequential phosphopeptide enrichment and following LC-MS analysis...
September 25, 2017: Electrophoresis
Aleksandra Pavićević, Jinghui Luo, Ana Popović-Bijelić, Miloš Mojović
Albumin is the most abundant plasma protein and as such has been the subject of many studies using a variety of techniques. One of them, capable of monitoring the conformational changes and the binding capacity of proteins, is electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) spin labeling. To date, albumin has been investigated using a number of different spin labels, mostly spin-labeled fatty acids (SLFAs). However, albumin can bind up to seven equivalents of fatty acids, making it difficult to determine which parts of the molecule undergo conformational changes...
September 23, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
A Suárez-Bonnet, E Rodríguez Grau-Bassas, P Herráez, O Quesada-Canales, S L Priestnall, A Espinosa de Los Monteros
Naturally occurring mammary tumours are uncommon in prosimians. A 20-year-old female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) developed bilateral enlargement of the mammary glands. Surgical removal revealed that both masses were comprised of multiple nodules and cystic areas that entirely replaced the normal glands. Histologically, a benign neoplastic biphasic cellular proliferation, composed of luminal-epithelial and basal-myoepithelial components, was identified. Immunohistochemical analysis for expression of cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3, CK7, CK5 + 8, CK14, vimentin, p63 and 14-3-3σ highlighted the biphasic nature of the neoplasm...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Mathilde Lepoitevin, Tianji Ma, Mikhael Bechelany, Jean-Marc Janot, Sebastien Balme
In nature, ion channels are highly selective pores and act as gate to ensure selective ion transport, allowing ions to cross the membrane. By mimicking them, single solid state nanopore devices emerge as a new, powerful class of molecule sensors that allow for the label-free detection of biomolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins), non-biological polymers, as well as small molecules. In this review, we exhaustively describe the fabrication and functionalization techniques to design highly robust and selective solid state nanopores...
September 14, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Juan Li, Yue Cao, Samuel S Hinman, Kristy S McKeating, Yiwen Guan, Xiaoya Hu, Quan Cheng, Zhanjun Yang
Dual-functional cupric oxide nanorods (CuONRs) as peroxidase mimics are proposed for the development of a flow-through, label-free chemiluminescent (CL) immunosensor. Forming the basis of this cost-efficient, label-free immunoassay, CuONRs, synthesized using a simple hydrothermal method, were deposited onto epoxy-activated standard glass slides, followed by immobilization of biotinylated capture antibodies through a streptavidin bridge. The CuONRs possess excellent catalytic activity, along with high stability as a solid support...
September 9, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Milena Masullo, Antonietta Cerulli, Angela Mari, Carla Clisiane de Souza Santos, Cosimo Pizza, Sonia Piacente
The Italian "Nocciola di Giffoni", also known as "Tonda di Giffoni", a labelled Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) product, represents an important economic resource for the Italian market. The methanol (MeOH) extract of "Tonda di Giffoni" shells has been investigated for the phenolic content, assayed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and for the antioxidant activity by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assays. In order to achieve deeper insight into the chemical composition of the shells of hazelnut "Nocciola di Giffoni" and to highlight the occurrence of biologically active compounds, a phytochemical investigation was carried out...
November 2017: Food Research International
Eric Lin, Lianette Rivera-Báez, Shamileh Fouladdel, Hyeun Joong Yoon, Stephanie Guthrie, Jacob Wieger, Yadwinder Deol, Evan Keller, Vaibhav Sahai, Diane M Simeone, Monika L Burness, Ebrahim Azizi, Max S Wicha, Sunitha Nagrath
We present "Labyrinth," a label-free microfluidic device to isolate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) using the combination of long loops and sharp corners to focus both CTCs and white blood cells (WBCs) at a high throughput of 2.5 mL/min. The high yield (>90%) and purity (600 WBCs/mL) of Labyrinth enabled us to profile gene expression in CTCs. As proof of principle, we used previously established cancer stem cell gene signatures to profile single cells isolated from the blood of breast cancer patients. We observed heterogeneous subpopulations of CTCs expressing genes for stem cells, epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, and cells transitioning between epithelial and mesenchymal...
September 18, 2017: Cell Systems
Naomi Kiyota, Yasuhisa Hasegawa, Shunji Takahashi, Tomoya Yokota, Chia-Jui Yen, Shigemichi Iwae, Yasushi Shimizu, Ruey-Long Hong, Masahiro Goto, Jin-Hyoung Kang, Wing Sum Kenneth Li, Robert L Ferris, Maura Gillison, Yoshinobu Namba, Manish Monga, Mark Lynch, Makoto Tahara
OBJECTIVES: To assess efficacy and safety of nivolumab versus investigator's choice of therapy (IC) in Asian patients with platinum-refractory recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients from Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Korea received nivolumab 3mg/kg (n=23) every 2weeks or IC (n=11), as part of a global trial (n=361), until intolerable toxicity or disease progression. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS)...
October 2017: Oral Oncology
J Aizpurua, L Medrano, M Enciso, J Sarasa, A Romero, M A Fernández, M J Gómez-Torres
STUDY QUESTION: Is permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification of native sperm samples a good alternative to conventional slow freezing? SUMMARY ANSWER: The permeable cryoprotectant-free sperm vitrification protocol tested in this study renders considerably better recovery rates of good quality sperm compared to slow freezing. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Slow freezing is currently the most commonly used technique for sperm cryopreservation, though this method has been repeatedly shown to have negative effects on both structural and functional sperm features...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
Iris Heidmann, Marco Di Berardino
Analyzing pollen quality in an efficient and reliable manner is of great importance to the industries involved in seed and fruit production, plant breeding, and plant research. Pollen quality parameters, viability and germination capacity, are analyzed by various staining methods or by in vitro germination assays, respectively. These methods are time-consuming, species-dependent, and require a lab environment. Furthermore, the obtained viability data are often poorly related to in vivo pollen germination and seed set...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
G Rustin, I Vergote, J P Micha, L R Duska, N Reed, J Bendell, D Spitz, G Dark, U Hoch, M Tagliaferri, A L Hannah, A A Garcia
OBJECTIVE: Etirinotecan pegol (EP) is a novel polyethylene glycol conjugated form of irinotecan with documented activity in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC). We report the results of the expanded portion of a phase II study of EP in patients with PROC who received prior pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) or who were unable to receive it. METHODS: This multicenter, open-label, phase II study evaluated EP q21d for PROC. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1...
September 18, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
Shamim Akhter, Sandipan Chakraborty, Daniela Moutinho, Elia Álvarez-Coiradas, Isaac Rosa, Juan Viñuela, Eduardo Domínguez, Angel García, Jesús R Requena
VGF (non-acronymic)is a secreted chromogranin/secretogranin that gives rise to a number of bioactive peptides by a complex proteolysis mechanism. VGF-derived peptides exert an extensive array of biological effects in energy metabolism, mood regulation, pain, gastric secretion function, reproduction and, perhaps, cancer. It is therefore surprising that very little is known about receptors and binding partners of VGF-derived peptides and their downstream molecular mechanisms of action. Here, using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry-based protein identification, we have identified the heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein A8 (HSPA8)as a binding partner of human TLQP-21 on the surface of human neuroblastomaSH-SY5Y cells...
2017: PloS One
Apostolos Filippas, Theodoros Lappas
Sentiment classification, the task of assigning a positive or negative label to a text segment, is a key component of mainstream applications such as reputation monitoring, sentiment summarization, and item recommendation. Even though the performance of sentiment classification methods has steadily improved over time, their ever-increasing complexity renders them comprehensible by only a shrinking minority of expert practitioners. For all others, such highly complex methods are black-box predictors that are hard to tune and even harder to justify to decision makers...
September 2017: Big Data
Rhiannan Forsyth, Anitha Devadoss, Owen J Guy
Since the discovery of the two-dimensional (2D) carbon material, graphene, just over a decade ago, the development of graphene-based field effect transistors (G-FETs) has become a widely researched area, particularly for use in point-of-care biomedical applications. G-FETs are particularly attractive as next generation bioelectronics due to their mass-scalability and low cost of the technology's manufacture. Furthermore, G-FETs offer the potential to complete label-free, rapid, and highly sensitive analysis coupled with a high sample throughput...
July 26, 2017: Diagnostics
Zi-Bin Zhang, Liu-Lin Xiong, Bin-Tuan Lu, Hui-Xiang Zhang, Piao Zhang, Ting-Hua Wang
To investigate the role of Trim32 in traumatic brain injury (TBI), adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and mice were randomly divided into sham (n = 6) and TBI groups ( n = 24), respectively. Then, mice were assigned into Trim32 knockout mice (Trim32-KO [+/-]) and wild-type (WT) littermates. The TBI model used was the Feeney free-falling model, and neurological function was evaluated after TBI using a neurological severity score (NSS). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the expression of Trim32 in the damaged cortex...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
Jessica C Hassel, Huanhuan Jiang, Carolin Bender, Julia Winkler, Alexandra Sevko, Ivan Shevchenko, Niels Halama, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Walter E Haefeli, Dirk Jäger, Alexander Enk, Jochen Utikal, Viktor Umansky
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known to play a critical role in the suppression of T cell antitumor responses. Our preclinical data showed that the phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor sildenafil impaired MDSC functions, enhanced intratumoral T cell activity and prolonged survival of melanoma-bearing mice. In this study, we evaluated biologic effects, safety and efficacy of palliative treatment with the PDE-5 inhibitor tadalafil in metastatic melanoma patients. We conducted an open-label, dose de-escalation trial with tadalafil in pretreated metastatic melanoma patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
Brooks D Cash, Mark Pimentel, Satish S C Rao, Leonard Weinstock, Lin Chang, Zeev Heimanson, Anthony Lembo
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) impairs patient quality of life (QOL). Rifaximin is an oral, nonsystemic antibiotic indicated for IBS-D. The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate rifaximin retreatment on IBS-related QOL in patients with IBS-D. METHODS: Patients received open-label rifaximin 550 mg three times daily for 2 weeks. Clinical responders [simultaneously meeting weekly response criteria for abdominal pain (⩾30% improvement from baseline in mean weekly pain score) and stool consistency (⩾50% decrease from baseline in number of days/week with Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) type 6 or 7 stools) during ⩾2 of first 4 weeks posttreatment] who relapsed during an up to 18-week treatment-free observation phase were randomly assigned to receive two 2-week courses of double-blind rifaximin or placebo, separated by 10 weeks...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
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