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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777869/subconjunctival-dendrimer-drug-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-dry-eye-in-rabbits-with-induced-autoimmune-dacryoadenitis
#1
Hui Lin, Ying Liu, Siva P Kambhampati, Chih-Chien Hsu, Rangaramanujam M Kannan, Samuel C Yiu
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of a single subconjunctival injection of dendrimer-dexamethasone to treat dry eye in a rabbit model of induced autoimmune dacryoadenitis (AID). METHOD: Dendrimer biodistribution after subconjuntival injection in AID animals was evaluated using Cy5-labelled dendrimer (D-Cy5) and confocal microscopy. Diseased animals were treated with free dexamethasone (Free-Dex), dendrimer-dexamethasone (D-Dex), or saline via a single subconjunctival injection...
May 16, 2018: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777615/tools-for-work-up-and-pre-purification-of-tritium-labelled-small-molecules
#2
Dieter Muri, Martin R Edelmann
This practitioner protocol describes the use and application of different types of solid phase extractions and metal scavengers for small scale reactions, particularly in the context of purifying tritiated molecules from heavily contaminated reaction mixtures. Polymer-bound strong cation exchangers are especially suitable for separating basic compounds from neutral or acidic molecules and have been widely applied in the work-up of Iridium-based hydrogen isotope exchange reactions. Polymer-bound strong anion exchangers can help to separate acidic compounds from their neutral or basic counterparts or to easily convert a TFA or formate salt to its free base after HPLC purification...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776548/a-label-free-electrochemical-biosensor-for-direct-detection-of-rack-1-by-using-disposable-low-cost-and-reproducible-ito-based-electrode
#3
Hakan Törer, Elif Burcu Aydın, Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk
In this study we designed an ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for RACK 1 detection using 11-cyanoundecyltrimethoxysilane (11-CUTMS) as a immobilization matrix to immobilize biorecognition element. The used silane agent (11-CUTMS) provides a favorable platform for efficient loading of anti-RACK 1 antibody. The effective loading of the biorecognition element on the 11-CUTMS matrix was monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) images and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775857/enzyme-free-homogeneous-electrochemical-biosensor-for-dna-assay-using-toehold-triggered-strand-displacement-reaction-coupled-with-host-guest-recognition-of-fe-3-o-4-sio-2-%C3%AE-cd-nanocomposites
#4
Jingjing Jiang, Xinyi Lin, Dong Ding, Guowang Diao
Taking advantages of the toehold-triggered strand displacement reaction (TSDR) and host-guest interaction of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), a facile enzyme-free and homogeneous electrochemical sensing strategy was designed for the sensitive assay of target DNA using Fe3 O4 @SiO2 @β-CD nanocomposites and ferrocene-labeled hairpin DNA (H-1) as the capture and electrochemical probes, respectively. Upon addition of target molecule, the initiated TSDR process induced the conformational change of H-1, and subsequently stimulated the dynamic assembly of assist probes (A-1 and A-2) to generate H-1:A-1:A-2 duplex along with the release of target sequence...
April 17, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775854/a-wavelength-modulated-localized-surface-plasmon-resonance-lspr-optical-fiber-sensor-for-sensitive-detection-of-mercury-ii-ion-by-gold-nanoparticles-dna-conjugates
#5
Shuo Jia, Chao Bian, Jizhou Sun, Jianhua Tong, Shanhong Xia
The study presented herein investigated an easy preparation, high performance, wavelength-modulated LSPR optical fiber chemosensor coated by gold nanospheres(AuNS) for Hg2+ detection based on thymine-Hg2+ -thymine base pair mismatches and the coupled plasmonic resonance effect.Utilizing electrostatic self-assembly method, the high density and dispersivity monolayer AuNS coated LSPR fiber sensor had the near field refractive index sensitivity up to 2016 nm/RIU. The single-strand probe DNA served as a binding element for free AuNS labelled-target DNA conjugates was attached to the monolayer AuNS by Au-S bond...
May 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775807/fir-efficacy-safety-and-biomarker-analysis-of-a-phase-ii-open-label-study-of-atezolizumab-in-pd-l1-selected-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
David R Spigel, Jamie E Chaft, Scott Gettinger, Bo H Chao, Luc Dirix, Peter Schmid, Laura Q M Chow, Rodney J Hicks, Larry Leon, Jill Fredrickson, Marcin Kowanetz, Alan Sandler, Roel Funke, Naiyer A Rizvi
INTRODUCTION: The FIR phase II study (NCT01846416) evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) atezolizumab in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) selected by tumor cell (TC) or tumor-infiltrating immune cell (IC) PD-L1 expression. METHODS: Patients with PD-L1 TC2/3 (PD-L1 staining on ≥5% of TC) or IC2/3 tumors (PD-L1 staining on ≥5% of IC; determined by SP142 PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assay) with paired fresh and archival histology samples were recruited into Cohort 1 (chemotherapy-naïve/>6 months between adjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence), Cohort 2 (≥ second-line without brain metastases), or Cohort 3 (≥ second-line with treated brain metastases)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774899/smartphone-based-rapid-quantification-of-viable-bacteria-by-single-cell-microdroplet-turbidity-imaging
#7
Xiaonan Cui, Lihui Ren, Yufei Shan, Xixian Wang, Zhenlong Yang, Chunyu Li, Jian Xu, Bo Ma
Standard plate count (SPC) has been recognized as the golden standard for the quantification of viable bacteria. However, SPC usually takes one to several days to grow individual cells into a visible colony, which greatly hampers its application in rapid bacteria enumeration. Here we present a microdroplet turbidity imaging based digital standard plate count (dSPC) method to overcome this hurdle. Instead of cultivating on agar plates, bacteria are encapsulated in monodisperse microdroplets for single-cell cultivation...
May 18, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774169/phase-2-study-of-everolimus-for-relapsed-or-refractory-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma
#8
Patrick B Johnston, Lauren C Pinter-Brown, Ghulam Warsi, Kristen White, Radhakrishnan Ramchandren
Background: The current standard of care for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is multiagent chemotherapy with or without radiation. In patients who relapse or fail to respond, additional high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) can improve progression-free survival (PFS). Novel therapies are required for patients refractory to chemotherapy and AHSCT. The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus has shown preliminary activity in preclinical models of HL and promising efficacy in patients with relapsed or refractory HL...
2018: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774024/quantification-of-hla-dm-dependent-major-histocompatibility-complex-of-class-ii-immunopeptidomes-by-the-peptide-landscape-antigenic-epitope-alignment-utility
#9
Miguel Álvaro-Benito, Eliot Morrison, Esam T Abualrous, Benno Kuropka, Christian Freund
The major histocompatibility complex of class II (MHCII) immunopeptidome represents the repertoire of antigenic peptides with the potential to activate CD4+ T cells. An understanding of how the relative abundance of specific antigenic epitopes affects the outcome of T cell responses is an important aspect of adaptive immunity and offers a venue to more rationally tailor T cell activation in the context of disease. Recent advances in mass spectrometric instrumentation, computational power, labeling strategies, and software analysis have enabled an increasing number of stratified studies on HLA ligandomes, in the context of both basic and translational research...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773427/microphthalmia-associated-transcription-factor-mitf-promiscuous-staining-patterns-in-fibrohistiocytic-lesions-is-a-potential-pitfall
#10
Sambit K Mohanty, Shivani Sharma, Dinesh Pradhan, Shivani R Kandukuri, Navid Farahani, Catherine Barry, Julie M Wu, David Frishberg, Bonnie Balzer
Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF) is used as a marker of melanocytic differentiation. However, MiTF immunoexpression has also been observed in histiocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, which raise the concern of fibrohistiocytic (FH) lesions being misdiagnosed as melanoma based on MiTF immunoreactivity. MiTF has been known to be positive in FH tumors, but this is the first study evaluating ninety-three fibrohistiocytic neoplasms to understand and delineate the staining pattern of MiTF in these tumors...
May 11, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773326/tremelimumab-combined-with-durvalumab-in-patients-with-mesothelioma-nibit-meso-1-an-open-label-non-randomised-phase-2-study
#11
Luana Calabrò, Aldo Morra, Diana Giannarelli, Giovanni Amato, Armida D'Incecco, Alessia Covre, Arthur Lewis, Marlon C Rebelatto, Riccardo Danielli, Maresa Altomonte, Anna Maria Di Giacomo, Michele Maio
BACKGROUND: Tremelimumab, an anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody, initially showed good activity when used alone in patients with mesothelioma, but did not improve the overall survival of patients who failed on first-line or second-line chemotherapy compared with placebo in the DETERMINE study. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of first-line or second-line tremelimumab combined with durvalumab, an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, in patients with malignant mesothelioma. METHODS: In this open-label, non-randomised, phase 2 trial, patients with unresectable pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma received intravenous tremelimumab (1 mg/kg bodyweight) and durvalumab (20 mg/kg bodyweight) every 4 weeks for four doses, followed by maintenance intravenous durvalumab at the same dose and schedule for nine doses...
May 14, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772375/duplex-functional-g-quadruplex-nmm-fluorescent-probe-for-label-free-detection-of-lead-ii-and-mercury-ii-ions
#12
Qian Zhu, Lanhua Liu, Yunpeng Xing, Xiaohong Zhou
To meet the severe water pollution status, multi-target biosensor becomes one of research focus. We herein report a novel duplex functional fluorescent biosensor for the label-free and separate detection of Pb2+ and Hg2+ with high sensitivity and selectivity. A K+ -induced fluorescent G-quadruplex probe was assembled by a guanine-rich sequence (AGRO100) and N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX(NMM). It changed into a more stably non-fluorescent G-quadruplex structure and a hairpin-like structure upon binding Pb2+ and Hg2+ ions, respectively...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772180/determination-of-affinity-and-residence-time-of-potent-drug-target-complexes-by-label-free-biosensing
#13
John G Quinn, Keith E Pitts, Micah Steffek, Mela M Mulvihill
Prolonged drug-target occupancy has become increasingly important in lead optimization, and biophysical assays that measure residence time are in high demand. Here we report a practical label-free assay methodology that provides kinetic and affinity measurements suitable for most target classes without long pre-incubations and over comparatively short sample contact times. The method, referred to as a "chaser" assay, has been applied to three sets of unrelated kinase/inhibitor panels in order to measure the residence times, where correlation with observed efficacy was suspected...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772085/ligand-induced-conformational-changes-in-hsp90-monitored-time-resolved-and-label-free-towards-a-conformational-activity-screening-for-drug-discovery
#14
Jörn Güldenhaupt, Marta Amaral, Carsten Kötting, Djordje Musil, Jonas Schartner, Matthias Frech, Klaus Gerwert
A detailed investigation of protein-ligand interactions is crucial during the early drug discovery process. However, most available techniques lack either structural or temporal resolution. In contrast, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy can monitor protein-ligand interactions label-free with high spatiotemporal resolution. Here we immobilize as example the heat shock protein HSP90 on an ATR-crystal. This protein is an important molecular target for drugs against several diseases including cancer. With our novel approach we investigated a ligand induced secondary structural change...
May 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771118/escherichia-coli-fiber-sensors-using-concentrated-dielectrophoretic-force-with-optical-defocusing-method
#15
Yi-Hsin Tai, Chia-Wei Lee, Dao-Ming Chang, Yu-Sheng Lai, Ding-Wei Huang, Pei-Kuen Wei
A sensitive tapered optical fiber tip combined with dielectrophoretic (DEP) trapping was used to rapid and label-free detection of bacteria in water. The angular spectrum of optical field at the fiber tip was changed with surrounding refractive index (RI). By measuring far-field intensity change at the defocus plane, the intensity sensitivity was up to 95,200 %/RIU (RI unit) and the detection limit was 2.1 × 10-6 RIU at 0.2% intensity stability. By applying an AC voltage to a Ti/Al coated fiber tip and an indium-tin-oxide glass, the DEP force effectively trapped the Escherichia coli (E...
May 17, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770615/isotropic-differential-phase-contrast-microscopy-for-quantitative-phase-bio-imaging
#16
Hsi-Hsun Chen, Yu-Zi Lin, Yuan Luo
Quantitative phase imaging has been investigated to retrieve optical phase information of an object, and applied to biological microscopy and related medical studies. In recent examples, differential phase contrast (DPC) microscopy can recover phase image of thin sample under multi-axis intensity measurements in wide field scheme. Unlike conventional DPC, based on theoretical approach under partially coherent condition, we propose a new method to achieve isotropic differential phase contrast (iDPC) with high accuracy and stability for phase recovery in simple and high-speed fashion...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770585/exploring-the-effect-of-vitamin-e-in-cancer-chemotherapy-a-biochemical-and-biophysical-insight
#17
Mustansir Bhori, Kanchanlata Singh, Thankamani Marar, C MuraliKrishna
Many oncologists contend that patient undergoing chemotherapy must avoid antioxidant supplementation as it may interfere with the activity of the drug. In the present investigation, we have explored the influence of vitamin E, a well known antioxidant on Camptothecin (CPT), a potent anti-cancer drug induced cell apoptosis and death of cervical cancer cells. HeLa cells were treated with different concentrations of CPT in presence and absence of 100μm vitamin E. Treated cells were subjected to cytotoxicity studies, catalase assay, DNA fragmentation assay, clonogenic assay and flow cytometry based apoptosis detection...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770110/a-pcr-based-method-for-rna-probes-and-applications-in-neuroscience
#18
Ruifang Hua, Shanshan Yu, Mugen Liu, Haohong Li
In situ hybridization (ISH) is a powerful technique that is used to detect the localization of specific nucleic acid sequences for understanding the organization, regulation, and function of genes. However, in most cases, RNA probes are obtained by in vitro transcription from plasmids containing specific promoter elements and mRNA-specific cDNA. Probes originating from plasmid vectors are time-consuming and not suitable for the rapid gene mapping. Here, we introduce a simplified method to prepare digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled non-radioactive RNA probes based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and applications in free-floating mouse brain sections...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769736/trna-tracking-for-direct-measurements-of-protein-synthesis-kinetics-in-live-cells
#19
Ivan L Volkov, Martin Lindén, Javier Aguirre Rivera, Ka-Weng Ieong, Mikhail Metelev, Johan Elf, Magnus Johansson
Our ability to directly relate results from test-tube biochemical experiments to the kinetics in living cells is very limited. Here we present experimental and analytical tools to directly study the kinetics of fast biochemical reactions in live cells. Dye-labeled molecules are electroporated into bacterial cells and tracked using super-resolved single-molecule microscopy. Trajectories are analyzed by machine-learning algorithms to directly monitor transitions between bound and free states. In particular, we measure the dwell time of tRNAs on ribosomes, and hence achieve direct measurements of translation rates inside living cells at codon resolution...
May 16, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769696/quantum-cascade-laser-based-infrared-microscopy-for-label-free-and-automated-cancer-classification-in-tissue-sections
#20
Claus Kuepper, Angela Kallenbach-Thieltges, Hendrik Juette, Andrea Tannapfel, Frederik Großerueschkamp, Klaus Gerwert
A feasibility study using a quantum cascade laser-based infrared microscope for the rapid and label-free classification of colorectal cancer tissues is presented. Infrared imaging is a reliable, robust, automated, and operator-independent tissue classification method that has been used for differential classification of tissue thin sections identifying tumorous regions. However, long acquisition time by the so far used FT-IR-based microscopes hampered the clinical translation of this technique. Here, the used quantum cascade laser-based microscope provides now infrared images for precise tissue classification within few minutes...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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