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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633698/feasibility-of-a-streamlined-tuberculosis-diagnosis-and-treatment-initiation-strategy
#1
P B Shete, T Nalugwa, K Farr, C Ojok, M Nantale, P Howlett, P Haguma, E Ochom, F Mugabe, M Joloba, L H Chaisson, D W Dowdy, D Moore, J L Davis, A Katamba, A Cattamanchi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a streamlined strategy for improving tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic evaluation and treatment initiation among patients with presumed TB. DESIGN: Single-arm interventional pilot study at five primary care health centers of a streamlined, SIngle-saMPLE (SIMPLE) TB diagnostic evaluation strategy: 1) examination of two smear results from a single spot sputum specimen using light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy, and 2) daily transportation of smear-negative sputum samples to Xpert® MTB/RIF testing sites...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631603/a-single-point-mutation-in-tomato-spotted-wilt-virus-nss-protein-is-sufficient-to-overcome-tsw-gene-mediated-resistance-in-pepper
#2
Asztéria Almási, Katalin Nemes, Zsófia Csömör, István Tóbiás, László Palkovics, Katalin Salánki
The nonstructural protein (NSs) of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was previously identified as an avirulence determinant for Tsw-based resistance on pepper. The NSs of wild-type (WT) and resistance-breaking (RB) TSWV strains isolated in Hungary had only two amino acid substitutions (104, 461). We have analysed the ability of the NSs and their point mutant variants to trigger Tsw-mediated hypersensitive responses and RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) activity in patch assays. We identified a single amino acid change at position 104 (T-A) that was responsible for the necrosis induction or loss, while a significant difference was not detected in the RSS activity of the two parental strains...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628445/mycobacterium-gordonae-in-patient-with-facial-ulcers-nosebleeds-and-positive-t-spot-tb-test-china
#3
Yanqing Chen, Juan Jiang, Haiqin Jiang, Jun Chen, Xiaopo Wang, Weida Liu, Zhiming Chen, Ying Shi, Wenyue Zhang, Hongsheng Wang
Mycobacterium gordonae is often regarded as a weak pathogen that only occasionally causes overt disease. We report a case of M. gordonae infection in the facial skin, nasal mucosa, and paranasal sinus in an immunocompetent patient and review previous cases. The T-SPOT.TB test might be useful in diagnosing such cases.
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625668/towards-area-wide-management-of-insect-vectored-viruses-of-tomatoes-in-the-bowen-district
#4
P R Campbell, J E Cremer, R L Roach, V Steele, S Subramaniam, V Sivasubramaniam, C Monsour, T Mullins, D M Persley, C F Gambley
The Bowen region of Northern Queensland is an important winter production area for tomatoes in Australia. There are three economically important viruses in the region that affect tomato, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV), which are vectored by whiteflies, thrips and aphids, respectively. An area wide management approach is required to lower the primary inoculum throughout the district. To this end, we undertook investigations into the virus incidence and alternative hosts for the virus and vectors in different cropping regions throughout the district, as well as local management options such as insecticide application and possible non-host cover crops for the wet-season break in production...
June 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625271/-advances-in-immunotherapeutic-research-of-sepsis
#5
Lihua Dong, Juan Lyu, Lili Ding, Zhongmin Liu
Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulated host responses to infection. Despite decades of research, it remains the leading cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs). None of the current treatment, including antibiotics, organ protection and liquid resuscitation, is specifically effective for sepsis. Immunosuppression is one of the currently accepted pathogenesis and immunotherapy is one of the hot spot of current sepsis research. Immune related treatments include restricting the release of pathogen toxin and its removal, controlling the excessive inflammatory reaction and apoptosis inhibition, etc...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624470/molecular-cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-ccl25-and-its-receptor-ccr9s-from-epinephelus-coioides-post-cryptocaryon-irritans-infection
#6
Man Yang, Ling Zhou, Hai-Qing Wang, Xiao-Chun Luo, Xue-Ming Dan, Yan-Wei Li
Among other functions, CCL25/CCR9 has an important role in regulating the trafficking of developing T cells in the thymus, and in homing memory T cells to the small intestine. The function of this chemokine-receptor complex is not well studied in fish. We identified a CCL25-like (EcCCL25, 108 aa) and two CCR9-like sequences (EcCCR9aa 373 aa; and EcCCR9b, 375 aa) from a transcriptome database of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). EcCCL25, EcCCR9a, and EcCCR9b shared conserved structural features with homologs from mammals and from other fish, and a consistent relationship with phylogenetic trees and sequence identities...
June 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613863/structural-characterization-of-a-eukaryotic-cyanase-from-tetranychus-urticae
#7
Caleb R Schlachter, Vincent Klapper, Nicky Wybouw, Taylor Radford, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Miodrag Grbic, Maksymilian Chruszcz
The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a polyphagous agricultural pest and poses a high risk to global crop production as it is rapidly developing pesticide resistance. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis has revealed the presence of a remarkable cyanase gene in T. urticae and related mite species within the Acariformes lineage. Cyanase catalyzes the detoxification of cyanate and is potentially an attractive protein target for the development of new acaricides. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that within the Acariformes, the cyanase gene originates from a single horizontal gene transfer event, preceding subsequent speciation...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610424/single-molecule-chemistry-with-surface-and-tip-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#8
Alyssa B Zrimsek, Naihao Chiang, Michael Mattei, Stephanie Zaleski, Michael O McAnally, Craig T Chapman, Anne-Isabelle Henry, George C Schatz, Richard P Van Duyne
Single-molecule (SM) surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) have emerged as analytical techniques for characterizing molecular systems in nanoscale environments. SERS and TERS use plasmonically enhanced Raman scattering to characterize the chemical information on single molecules. Additionally, TERS can image single molecules with subnanometer spatial resolution. In this review, we cover the development and history of SERS and TERS, including the concept of SERS hot spots and the plasmonic nanostructures necessary for SM detection, the past and current methodologies for verifying SMSERS, and investigations into understanding the signal heterogeneities observed with SMSERS...
June 14, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610262/a-new-species-of-i-leptolalax-i-anura-megophryidae-from-vietnam
#9
Jodi J L Rowley, Vinh Q Dau, Trung T Cao
We describe a new, medium-sized Leptolalax species from north central Vietnam. Leptolalax puhoatensis sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of having a body size range of 24.2-28.1 mm in eight adult males and 27.3-31.5 mm in three adult females; distinct dorsolateral markings including blackish spots on the flank and dark canthal and/or temporal streaks; males with a reddish-brown venter, often with faint white dusting and females with a pale pink venter; skin on dorsum with tiny, indistinct, low tubercles in preservative, more distinct and forming low dorsal ridges on dorsal surface in life; toes with webbing basal and narrow lateral fringes; iris copper in upper half and golden in lower half; and a call consisting of a single note and a dominant frequency of 4...
June 1, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609301/a-light-weight-compact-proton-gantry-design-with-a-novel-dose-delivery-system-for-broad-energetic-laser-accelerated-beams
#10
U Masood, T E Cowan, W Enghardt, K M Hofmann, L Karsch, F Kroll, U Schramm, J J Wilkens, J Pawelke
Proton beams may provide superior dose-conformity in radiation therapy. However, the large sizes and costs limit the widespread use of proton therapy (PT). The recent progress in proton acceleration via high-power laser systems has made it a compelling alternative to conventional accelerators, as it could potentially reduce the overall size and cost of the PT facilities. However, the laser-accelerated beams exhibit different characteristics than conventionally accelerated beams, i.e. very intense proton bunches with large divergences and broad-energy spectra...
July 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605520/serial-tuberculosis-screening-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-under-anti-tnf%C3%AE-therapy
#11
Cândida Abreu, Joana Afonso, Cláudia Camila Dias, Rogério Ruas, António Sarmento, Fernando Magro
Background and aims: One of the adverse effects of the tumour necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases is a higher propensity for tuberculosis development. The aim of this study was to explore the utility and sensitivity of serial tuberculosis screening during anti-TNFα treatment. Methods: A cohort of 46 inflammatory bowel disease patients on infliximab was prospectively recruited and followed for 26 months...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601127/increase-in-spot-urine-protein-excretion-is-associated-with-late-kidney-graft-rejection-and-predicts-rejection-phenotype
#12
Miha Arnol, Manca Oblak, Gregor Mlinšek, Jelka Lindič, Aljoša Kandus, Dušan Ferluga, Nika Kojc, Jadranka Buturović-Ponikvar
AIMS: A noninvasive test that foretells kidney graft rejection before loss of kidney function would be desirable. We hypothesized that an increase in estimated protein excretion rate (ePER) from spot urine samples is associated with graft rejection and predicts rejection phenotype. METHODS: 151 patients who had undergone first-indication kidney biopsy due to graft dysfunction beyond 3 months after transplant were identified from a national cohort of 616 transplant recipients between 2000 and 2012 (25%)...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599708/quantification-of-metabolites-in-dried-blood-spots-by-direct-infusion-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#13
Monique G M de Sain-van der Velden, Maria van der Ham, Johan Gerrits, Hubertus C M T Prinsen, Marcel Willemsen, Mia L Pras-Raves, Judith J Jans, Nanda M Verhoeven-Duif
Diagnosis and treatment of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) require the analysis of a variety of metabolites. These compounds are usually quantified by targeted platforms. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has the potential to detect hundreds to thousands of metabolites simultaneously. A chip-based nanoelectrospray source (chip-based nanoESI) enables the direct infusion of biological samples. Major advantages of this system include high sample throughput, no sample carryover, and low sample consumption...
August 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599235/a-digital-image-method-of-spot-tests-for-determination-of-copper-in-sugar-cane-spirits
#14
Kenia Dias Pessoa, Willian Toito Suarez, Marina Ferreira Dos Reis, Mathews de Oliveira Krambeck Franco, Renata Pereira Lopes Moreira, Vagner Bezerra Dos Santos
In this work the development and validation of analytical methodology for determination of copper in sugarcane spirit samples is carried out. The digital image based (DIB) method was applied along with spot test from the colorimetric reaction employing the RGB color model. For the determination of copper concentration, it was used the cuprizone - a bidentate organic reagent - which forms with copper a blue chelate in an alkaline medium. A linear calibration curve over the concentration range from 0.75 to 5...
May 31, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598270/investigating-the-adult-ixodid-tick-populations-and-their-associated-anaplasma-ehrlichia-and-rickettsia-bacteria-at-a-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-hotspot-in-western-tennessee
#15
Rebecca T Trout Fryxell, Brain M Hendricks, Kimberly Pompo, Sarah E Mays, Dave J Paulsen, Darwin J Operario, Allan E Houston
Ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are two common bacterial tick-borne diseases in the southeastern United States. Ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichiae transmitted by Amblyomma americanum and rickettsiosis is caused by rickettsiae transmitted by Amblyomma maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis. These ticks are common and have overlapping distributions in the region. The objective of this study was to identify Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species associated with questing ticks in a Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) hotspot, and identify habitats, time periods, and collection methods for collecting questing-infected ticks...
June 9, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595916/combination-of-restriction-endonuclease-digestion-with-the-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-ct-method-in-real-time-pcr-to-monitor-etoxazole-resistance-allele-frequency-in-the-two-spotted-spider-mite
#16
Masahiro Osakabe, Tsuyoshi Imamura, Ryohei Nakano, Satoshi Kamikawa, Misono Tadatsu, Yoshinori Kunimoto, Makoto Doi
Monitoring resistance allele frequency at the early stage of resistance development is important for the successful acaricide resistance management. Etoxazole is a mite growth inhibitor to which resistance is conferred by an amino acid substitution in the chitin synthase 1 (CHS1; I1017F) in T. urticae. If the susceptible allele can be specifically digested by restriction endonuclease, the ΔΔCt method using real-time PCR for genomic DNA (RED-ΔΔCt method) may be available for monitoring the resistance allele frequency...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594104/the-risk-factor-of-false-negative-and-false-positive-for-t-spot-tb-in-active-tuberculosis
#17
Li Di, Yan Li
OBJECTIVES: T-SPOT.TB is a promising diagnosis tool to identify both pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, as well as latent tuberculosis; however, the factors that affect the results of T-SPOT.TB remains unclear. In this study, we aim to figure out the risk factor of T-SPOT.TB for active TB. METHODS: A total of 349 patients were recruited between January 1st, 2016 and January 22st, 2017 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, including 98 subjects with TB and 251 subjects with non-TB disease, and received T-SPOT...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593686/hypostomus-sertanejo-siluriformes-loricariidae-new-armoured-catfish-species-from-north-eastern-brazil
#18
C H Zawadzki, T P A Ramos, M Sabaj
A re-evaluation of the armoured catfish species of Hypostomus in the Rio Jaguaribe, north-eastern Brazil, was prompted by the discovery of specimens with pale spots on a dark background collected from that basin c. 1936 and deposited at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Recent field collections in the Rio Jarguaribe basin confirmed the presence of the pale-spotted specimens and its distinctiveness as a new species. Hypostomus sertanejo n. sp. is diagnosed from other species of Hypostomus by having fins and dermal-plated regions of head and body with pale spots or vermiculations on darker background, teeth slender, asymmetrically bicuspid and numerous (34-75) on dentary and premaxilla, depressed dorsal-fin spine not reaching adipose spine, unbranched pectoral-fin spine longer than unbranched pelvic-fin ray, seven branched dorsal-fin rays and one (rarely two) predorsal plate(s) bordering supraoccipital...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587832/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-three-xcr1-like-receptors-from-epinephelus-coioides-after-cryptocaryon-irritans-infection
#19
Lu-Yun Ni, Ling Zhou, Hai-Qing Wang, Xiao-Chun Luo, Xue-Ming Dan, Yan-Wei Li
The unique receptor XCR1 of the XC subfamily of chemokines is specially expressed in CD8α-like dendritic cells. This receptor has one ligand in mice (XCL1) and two ligands in humans (XCL1 and XCL2). In mammals, the XCR1-XCL1 complex performs a vital role in regulating the localization and function of T cells, dendritic cells, and other cell types. In this study, three XCR1-like receptors (EcXCR1, EcXCR1L, and EcCCR12) were identified from a transcriptome database of orange-spotted grouper. The open reading frames (ORFs) of EcXCR1, EcXCR1L, and EcCCR12 predictably encode 337, 348, and 358 amino acids, respectively...
June 3, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587447/identification-of-n-glycosites-in-chicken-egg-white-proteins-using-an-omics-strategy
#20
Fang Geng, Jinqiu Wang, Dayu Liu, Yong Guo Jin, Meihu Ma
Chicken egg white (CEW) is a perfect source of natural proteins that possesses outstanding functional properties and various bioactivities. The glycosylation structure of CEW proteins plays important roles in their functions, bioactivities, and allergies. The present work attempted to identify N-glycosites of CEW proteins using an omics strategy. CEW proteins were digested with trypsin and chymotrypsin; glycopeptides were enriched and deglycosylated using PNGase F in H218O water, followed by analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS)...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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