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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099733/implementation-of-a-modified-obstetric-early-warning-system-to-improve-the-quality-of-obstetric-care-in-zimbabwe
#1
Abi Merriel, Bobb T Murove, Samuel W D Merriel, Thabani Sibanda, Sikangezile Moyo, Joanna Crofts
OBJECTIVE: To implement a modified obstetric early warning system (MOEWS) to promote identification and stabilization of unwell women. METHODS: A before-and-after study of MOEWS implementation took place between April 2013 and January 2014 in a government referral hospital in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. After piloting MOEWS, cesarean case files were retrospectively assessed to compare preoperative stabilization. A longitudinal "spot-check" study measured use of MOEWS and action taken on abnormal results...
February 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099492/priming-cross-protective-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-specific-immunity-using-live-vectored-mosaic-antigens
#2
Shehnaz Lokhandwala, Xin Fang, Suryakant D Waghela, Jocelyn Bray, Leo M Njongmeta, Andy Herring, Karim W Abdelsalam, Christopher Chase, Waithaka Mwangi
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) plays a key role in bovine respiratory disease complex, which can lead to pneumonia, diarrhea and death of calves. Current vaccines are not very effective due, in part, to immunosuppressive traits and failure to induce broad protection. There are diverse BVDV strains and thus, current vaccines contain representative genotype 1 and 2 viruses (BVDV-1 & 2) to broaden coverage. BVDV modified live virus (MLV) vaccines are superior to killed virus vaccines, but they are susceptible to neutralization and complement-mediated destruction triggered by passively acquired antibodies, thus limiting their efficacy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095893/clinical-biochemical-and-molecular-characterization-of-korean-patients-with-mucolipidosis-ii-iii-and-successful-prenatal-diagnosis
#3
Mina Yang, Sung Yun Cho, Hyung-Doo Park, Rihwa Choi, Young-Eun Kim, Jinsup Kim, Soo-Youn Lee, Chang-Seok Ki, Jong-Won Kim, Young Bae Sohn, Junghan Song, Dong-Kyu Jin
BACKGROUND: Mucolipidosis types II and III (ML II/III) are autosomal recessive disorders caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase. We investigated the molecular genetic characteristics of the GNPTAB gene, which codes for the alpha/beta subunits of a phosphotransferase, in Korean ML II/III patients. We included prenatal tests and evaluated the spectrum of mutations in East Asian populations with ML II/III through a literature review. METHODS: Seven patients from six families were enrolled in the study including two prenatal tests using chorionic villi samples...
January 17, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095566/prospective-evaluation-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-a-1060-nm-large-spot-size-vacuum-assisted-hair-removal-diode-laser-system-in-asian-pacific-fitzpatrick-s-skin-types-iv-v-patients
#4
Sushil T Tahiliani, Harsh S Tahiliani
Laser-based photoepilation of dark skin types demands a delicate combination of appropriate light wavelengths and spot size to achieve optimal epidermal-to-follicular energy absorption ratios. This prospective study assessed the axillary, arm, thigh, and back hair clearing ef cacy of the LightSheer In nity 1060 nm diode laser in 10 Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V patients. Each area was treated up to ve times, at 4-6-week intervals, after which immediate skin responses and adverse events were recorded. Hair count, color and coarseness were assessed before each treatment session, as well as 1, 3, and 6 months following the last session...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081046/evaluation-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-serological-tests-for-use-with-dried-blood-spots-in-kenya
#5
Marcia M Hobbs, Sophie W Mwanyumba, Winnie K Luseno, Shane Hartman, Carolyn T Halpern, Denise D Hallfors, Hyunsan Cho
We evaluated 2 assays to detect antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 in dried blood spots prepared from blood specimens submitted to a reference laboratory in Kenya. Dried blood spots did not perform well with the Kalon herpes simplex virus type 2 assay. Focus HerpeSelect 2 was 98.8% sensitive and 98.9% specific with dried blood spots.
February 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077588/first-in-human-evaluation-of-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-an-intranasally-administered-replication-competent-sendai-virus-vectored-hiv-type-1-gag-vaccine-induction-of-potent-t-cell-or-antibody-responses-in-prime-boost-regimens
#6
Julien Nyombayire, Omu Anzala, Brian Gazzard, Etienne Karita, Philip Bergin, Peter Hayes, Jakub Kopycinski, Gloria Omosa-Manyonyi, Akil Jackson, Jean Bizimana, Bashir Farah, Eddy Sayeed, Christopher L Parks, Makoto Inoue, Takashi Hironaka, Hiroto Hara, Tsugumine Shu, Tetsuro Matano, Len Dally, Burc Barin, Harriet Park, Jill Gilmour, Angela Lombardo, Jean-Louis Excler, Patricia Fast, Dagna S Laufer, Josephine H Cox
BACKGROUND:  We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine. METHODS:  Sixty-five HIV-1-uninfected adults in Kenya, Rwanda, and the United Kingdom were assigned to receive 1 of 4 prime-boost regimens (administered at 0 and 4 months, respectively; ratio of vaccine to placebo recipients, 12:4): priming with a lower-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with an adenovirus 35-vectored vaccine encoding HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) given intramuscularly (SLA); priming with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly (SHA); priming with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly, followed by boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (ASH); and priming and boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (SHSH)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077022/feasibility-of-a-novel-multispot-nanoarray-for-antibiotic-screening-in-honey
#7
Sara E McNamee, Giulia Rosar, Lidija Persic, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Practical solutions for multiple antibiotic determination in food is required by the food industry and regulators for cost effective screening purposes. This study describes the feasibility in development and preliminary performance of a novel multispot nanoarray for antibiotic screening in honey. Using a multiplex approach the metabolites of the four main nitrofuran antibiotics including morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidone (AMOZ), 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), semicarbazide (SEM), 1-aminohydantoin (AHD) and chloramphenicol (CAP) were simultaneously detected...
January 12, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074221/exploring-the-thermostable-properties-of-halohydrin-dehalogenase-from-agrobacterium-radiobacter-ad1-by-a-combinatorial-directed-evolution-strategy
#8
Zhiyun Wu, Wenfeng Deng, Yapei Tong, Qian Liao, Dongmin Xin, Huashun Yu, Juan Feng, Lixia Tang
As a crucial factor for biocatalysts, protein thermostability often arises from a combination of factors that are often difficult to rationalize. In this work, the thermostable nature of halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 (HheC) was systematically explored using a combinatorial directed evolution approach. For this, a mutagenesis library of HheC mutants was first constructed using error-prone PCR with low mutagenesis frequency. After screening approximately 2000 colonies, six mutants with eight mutation sites were obtained...
January 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061954/multiple-cytokine-responses-in-discriminating-between-active-tuberculosis-and-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#9
Jing Wu, Sen Wang, Chanyi Lu, Lingyun Shao, Yan Gao, Zumo Zhou, Heqing Huang, Ying Zhang, Wenhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cytokines play an important role in cell-mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Cytokine profile specifically associated with active tuberculosis (ATB) patients, subjects with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and non-infected individuals remains to be determined. METHODS: We enrolled a total of 92 subjects including patients with ATB (n = 25), LTBI (n = 36) and healthy controls (HC, n = 31) to investigate the cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells after Mtb purified protein derivative (PPD) stimulation which was evaluated by a beads-based multiplex assay system...
January 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057123/-ptps-gene-analysis-and-prenatal-diagnosis-in-patients-with-6-pyruvoyl-tetra-hydropterin-synthase-deficiency
#10
N Liu, D H Zhao, X L Li, L X Cui, Q H Wu, M Jiang, X D Kong
Objective: To analyze the variations of PTPS gene in patients with suspected 6-pyruvoyl-tetra hydropterin synthase deficiency (PTPSD) and to make prenatal diagnosis in high-risk families. Methods: Chemiluminescence was used for phenylalanine detection in blood or dried blood spots.Patients with phenylalanine concentration over 120 μmol/L were detected by urine pterin analysis, and the activity of dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) was detected. tetrahydrobiopterin loading tests were performed in suspected patients with abnormal urinary pterin profiles...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056841/thymus-activity-measured-by-t-cell-receptor-excision-circles-in-patients-with-different-severities-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#11
Kiran Aftab Gul, Tonje Sonerud, Hans O Fjærli, Britt Nakstad, Tore Gunnar Abrahamsen, Christopher S Inchley
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is an important cause of hospitalization in previously healthy infants. Immunological mechanisms predisposing infants to severe disease are poorly understood. Early biomarkers for disease severity may assist clinical decisions. We investigated T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC), episomal DNA made during thymic T-cell receptor rearrangement, and a marker for thymus activity, both during disease and in neonatal screening cards as a risk factor for RSV disease severity...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055247/-staging-of-breast-cancer-and-the-advanced-applications-of-digital-mammogram-what-the-physician-needs-to-know
#12
Maha Hussien Helal, Sahar Mahmoud Mansour, Mai Zaglol, Lamia Adel Salaleldin, Omniya Mokhtar Nada, Marwa Anas Haggag
OBJECTIVE: To study the role of advanced applications of digital mammogram whether contrast enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) or digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in the "T" staging of histologically proven breast cancer prior management planning. METHODS: This prospective analysis, we evaluated 98 proved malignant breast masses regarding their size, multiplicity and presence of associated clusters of microcalcifications. Evaluation methods included digital mammography, 3-D tomosynthesis and contrast enhanced spectral mammography...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053874/long-term-outcome-of-isobutyryl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency-diagnosed-following-an-episode-of-ketotic-hypoglycaemia
#13
S Santra, A Macdonald, M A Preece, R K Olsen, B S Andresen
Isobutyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (IBDD) is an inherited disorder of valine metabolism caused by mutations in ACAD8. Most reported patients have been diagnosed through newborn screening programmes due to elevated C4-carnitine levels and appear clinically asymptomatic. One reported non-screened patient had dilated cardiomyopathy and anaemia at the age of two years. We report a 13 month old girl diagnosed with IBDD after developing hypoglycaemic encephalopathy (blood glucose 1.9 mmol/l) during an episode of rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis...
March 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053524/dynamic-imaging-of-allogeneic-adipose-derived-regenerative-cells-transplanted-in-ischemic-hind-limb-of-apolipoprotein-e-mouse-model
#14
Yi Zheng, Jinbao Qin, Xin Wang, Zhiyou Peng, Peiyong Hou, Xinwu Lu
BACKGROUND: Transplantation of allogeneic adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) is a promising treatment modality for severe ischemic diseases. However, minimal information is available on the in vivo effects, fate, and migration of ADRCs, as well as the mechanisms of their therapeutic angiogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, green fluorescent protein-expressing ADRCs (GFP-ADRCs) were obtained, labeled with acetylated 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTS)-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (APTS NPs), and injected into an old apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-KO) mouse model with hind limb ischemia...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048878/th-cd-209-08-quantification-of-the-interplay-effect-in-proton-pencil-beam-scanning-treatment-of-lung
#15
M Kang, S Huang, T Solberg, R Mayer, A Thomas, B Teo, J McDonough, C Simone, L Lin
PURPOSE: To quantify the dose degradation caused by the interplay effect based on a beam specific motion analysis in proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) treatment of lung tumors METHODS: PBS plans were optimized on average CT using a beam-specific PTV method for 10 consecutive patients with locally advanced non-small-cell-lung-cancer (NSCLC) treated with proton therapy to 6660/180 cGy. End inhalation (CT0) and end exhalation (CT50) were selected as the two extreme scenarios to acquire the relative stopping power ratio difference (Δrsp) for a respiration cycle...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048841/mo-fg-campus-jep1-02-proton-range-verification-of-scanned-pencil-beams-using-prompt-gamma-imaging
#16
Y Xie, E Bentefour, G Janssens, J Smeets, D Dolney, L Yin, L Hotoiu, F Vander Stappen, S Avery, F O'Grady, D Prieels, J McDonough, T Solberg, A Lin, B Teo
PURPOSE: Prompt gammas are emitted along the proton beam path and have an emission profile correlated with the depth dose profile. In this study, the accuracy of in-vivo proton range verification using a 1-D prompt gamma camera is assessed. METHODS: The 1-D camera is comprised of a tungsten slit collimator positioned in front of a linear array of LYSO scintillating crystals coupled to silicon photomultipliers. The imaged gamma profiles of individual pencil beam spots and energy layers were analyzed by determining the relative shifts from the expected gamma profiles based on analytic prediction or reference measurements...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048820/su-f-t-11-scintillator-based-quality-assurance-device-for-hdr-brachytherapy
#17
G Jozsef
PURPOSE: To build a test device for HDR afterloaders capable of checking source positions, times at positions and estimate the activity of the source. METHODS: A catheter is taped on a plastic scintillation sheet. When a source travels through the catheter, the scintillator sheet lights up around the source. The sheet is monitored with a video camera, and records the movement of the light spot. The center of the spot on each image on the video provides the source location, and the time stamps of the images can provide the dwell time the source spend in each location...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048803/su-f-t-152-experimental-validation-and-calculation-benchmark-for-a-commercial-monte-carlo-pencil-beamscanning-proton-therapy-treatment-planning-system-in-heterogeneous-media
#18
L Lin, S Huang, M Kang, C Ainsley, C Simone, J McDonough, T Solberg
PURPOSE: Eclipse AcurosPT 13.7, the first commercial Monte Carlo pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy treatment planning system (TPS), was experimentally validated for an IBA dedicated PBS nozzle in the CIRS 002LFC thoracic phantom. METHODS: A two-stage procedure involving the use of TOPAS 1.3 simulations was performed. First, Geant4-based TOPAS simulations in this phantom were experimentally validated for single and multi-spot profiles at several depths for 100, 115, 150, 180, 210 and 225 MeV proton beams, using the combination of a Lynx scintillation detector and a MatriXXPT ionization chamber array...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048688/su-f-t-155-validation-of-a-commercial-monte-carlo-dose-calculation-algorithm-for-proton-therapy
#19
J Saini, S St James, E Traneus, T Wong, R Stewart, C Bloch
PURPOSE: Compare proton pencil beam scanning dose measurements to GATE/GEANT4 (GMC) and RayStation™ Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations. METHODS: Proton pencil beam models of the IBA gantry at the Seattle Proton Therapy Center were developed in the GMC code system and a research build of the RMC. For RMC, a preliminary beam model that does not account for upstream halo was used. Depth dose and lateral profiles are compared for the RMC, GMC and a RayStation™ pencil beam dose (RPB) model for three spread out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) in homogenous water phantom...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048682/su-f-t-188-a-robust-treatment-planning-technique-for-proton-pencil-beam-scanning-cranial-spinal-irradiation
#20
M Zhu, M Yam, M Mehta, S Badiyan, K Young, R Malyapa, W Regine, K Langen
PURPOSE: To propose a proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) cranial spinal irradiation (CSI) treatment planning technique robust against patient roll, isocenter offset and proton range uncertainty. METHOD: Proton PBS plans were created (Eclipse V11) for three previously treated CSI patients to 36 Gy (1.8 Gy/fractions). The target volume was separated into three regions: brain, upper spine and lower spine. One posterior-anterior (PA) beam was used for each spine region, and two posterior-oblique beams (15° apart from PA direction, denoted as 2PO_15) for the brain region...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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