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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678924/sirnas-and-pirnas-collaborate-for-transposon-control-in-the-two-spotted-spider-mite
#1
Mosharrof Mondal, Kody Mansfield, Alex Flynt
RNAi has revolutionized genetic research, and is being commercialized as an insect pest control technology. Mechanisms exploited for this purpose are antiviral and therefore rapidly evolving. Ideally, RNAi will also be used for non-insect pests, however, differences in RNAi biology makes this uncertain. Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite) is a destructive non-insect pest, which has a proclivity to develop pesticide resistance. Here we provide a comprehensive study of the endogenous RNAi pathways of spider mites to inform design of exogenous RNAi triggers...
April 20, 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676352/comparison-of-lymphangiogenesis-lymphatic-invasion-and-axillary-lymph-node-metastasis-in-breast-carcinoma
#2
Prerna Guleria, V Srinivas, D Basannar, Vibha Dutta
Context: Lymphangiogenesis correlates with poor prognosis in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) breast. D2-40 antibody, a specific marker for lymphatic endothelium, differentiates lymphatic from vascular endothelium. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate lymphangiogenesis using D2-40 antibody and correlate with lymphatic invasion (LI) and axillary lymph node (LN) status and compare lymphatic mean vessel density (LMVD) with Tumor (T) and Node (N) stages and grade of tumor. Methods and Material: The study was conducted on fifty consecutive cases of IDC breast who underwent modified radical mastectomy (MRM) from Jan 2009 to March 2011...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674074/fluorescent-microarray-for-multiplexed-quantification-of-environmental-contaminants-in-seawater-samples
#3
Ana Sanchis, J-Pablo Salvador, Katrina Campbell, Christopher T Elliott, Weilin L Shelver, Qing X Li, M-Pilar Marco
The development of a fluorescent multiplexed microarray platform able to detect and quantify a wide variety of pollutants in seawater is reported. The microarray platform has been manufactured by spotting 6 different bioconjugate competitors and it uses a cocktail of 6 monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies raised against important families of chemical pollutants such as triazine biocide (i.e. Irgarol 1051®), sulfonamide and chloramphenicol antibiotics, polybrominated diphenyl ether flame-retardant (PBDE, i.e...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671825/visual-non-instrumental-on-site-detection-of-fumonisin-b%C3%A2-b%C3%A2-and-b%C3%A2-in-cereal-samples-using-a-clean-up-combined-with-gel-based-immunoaffinity-test-column-assay
#4
Wei Sheng, Hesen Wu, Weihong Ji, Zhi Li, Fangyu Chu, Shuo Wang
A visual immunoaffinity test column (IATC) assay was developed to detect fumonisins in cereal samples for spot tests without the need for special instruments. The developed IATC assay had equivalent recognition capability for fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), fumonisin B₂ (FB₂), or fumonisin B₃ (FB₃), and exhibited no cross-reactivity with aflatoxin B₁, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, or the T-2 toxin. The sample pretreatment was accomplished more rapidly and with greater ease, the entire assay procedure was completed in approximately 10 min, including sample pretreatment and testing...
April 19, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666623/autoimmunity-to-tropomyosin-specific-peptides-induced-by-mycobacterium-leprae-in-leprosy-patients-identification-of-mimicking-proteins
#5
Itu Singh, Asha Ram Yadav, Keshar Kunja Mohanty, Kiran Katoch, Prashant Sharma, Vinay Kumar Pathak, Deepa Bisht, Umesh D Gupta, Utpal Sengupta
Background: It has been shown earlier that there is a rise in the levels of autoantibodies and T cell response to cytoskeletal proteins in leprosy. Our group recently demonstrated a rise in both T and B cell responses to keratin and myelin basic protein in all types of leprosy patients and their associations in type 1 reaction (T1R) group of leprosy. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the association of levels of autoantibodies and lymphoproliferation against myosin in leprosy patients across the spectrum and tried to find out the mimicking proteins or epitopes between host protein and protein/s of Mycobacterium leprae ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664561/the-function-and-dysfunction-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-tumor-immunity
#6
REVIEW
James L Reading, Felipe Gálvez-Cancino, Charles Swanton, Alvaro Lladser, Karl S Peggs, Sergio A Quezada
The generation and maintenance of CD8+ T cell memory is crucial to long-term host survival, yet the basic tenets of CD8+ T cell immunity are still being established. Recent work has led to the discovery of tissue-resident memory cells and refined our understanding of the transcriptional and epigenetic basis of CD8+ T cell differentiation and dysregulation. In parallel, the unprecedented clinical success of immunotherapy has galvanized an intense, global research effort to decipher and de-repress the anti-tumor response...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663972/a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-restore-an-unconventional-crown-removal-of-traumatized-permanent-central-incisors
#7
Richard E Campbell, Heather T Morris, Kyle T Reynolds, Elizabeth S Gosnell
A 13-year-old female presented with traumatized maxillary central incisors that had been endodontically treated. Five years later, at a different dental office, she had the clinical crowns removed, leaving subgingival margins. From the patient's history and our initial assessment, it seemed as if the teeth had been fractured and luxated but not avulsed. Endodontic posts with spot-welded orthodontic brackets were temporarily cemented to enable orthodontic extrusion. Once access to restorable margins was obtained, the temporary posts were removed and conventional fiber posts with interim composite crowns were placed...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Dentistry for Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663957/high-utility-of-active-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-an-ethiopian-prison
#8
Y Merid, Y Woldeamanuel, M Abebe, D G Datiko, T Hailu, G Habtamu, G Assefa, R R Kempker, H M Blumberg, A Aseffa
SETTING: Hawassa Prison, Southern Region of Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) using active case finding among prisoners. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, prisoners were screened for TB using a symptom screen. Those with cough of 2 weeks had spot and morning sputum samples collected for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and molecular diagnostic testing (Xpert® MTB/RIF). RESULTS: Among 2068 prisoners, 372 (18%) had a positive cough screen...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660847/glu-571-of-phet-plays-a-pivotal-role-in-the-thermal-stability-of-escherichia-coli-phers-enzyme
#9
Sridar Ashwin Sri Bala, Irulappan Madhumathi, Sengottuvel Vinodha, M Hussain Munavar
As of date the two temperature sensitive mutations isolated in pheST operon include pheS5 (G293 →A293 ) and pheT354. Recently, we reported that G673 of pheS defines a hot spot for intragenic suppressors of pheS5. In this investigation, in 13 independent experiments, a collection of temperature sensitive mutants were isolated by localized mutagenesis. Complementation using clones bearing pheS+ , pheT+ , and pheS+ T+ indicated that 34 mutants could harbor lesion(s) in pheS and four could be in pheT and one mutant might be a double mutant...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659623/loss-of-cxcr6-coreceptor-usage-characterizes-pathogenic-lentiviruses
#10
Katherine S Wetzel, Yanjie Yi, Anjana Yadav, Anya M Bauer, Ezekiel A Bello, Dino C Romero, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Beatrice H Hahn, Mirko Paiardini, Guido Silvestri, Martine Peeters, Ronald G Collman
Pandemic HIV-1 originated from the cross-species transmission of SIVcpz, which infects chimpanzees, while SIVcpz itself emerged following the cross-species transmission and recombination of monkey SIVs, with env contributed by the SIVgsn/mus/mon lineage that infects greater spot-nosed, mustached and mona monkeys. SIVcpz and HIV-1 are pathogenic in their respective hosts, while the phenotype of their SIVgsn/mus/mon ancestors is unknown. However, two well-studied SIV infected natural hosts, sooty mangabeys (SMs) and African green monkeys (AGMs), typically remain healthy despite high viral loads; these species express low levels of the canonical coreceptor CCR5, and recent work shows that CXCR6 is a major coreceptor for SIV in these hosts...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655350/decrease-in-electrical-resistivity-on-depletion-of-islands-of-mobility-during-aging-of-a-bulk-metal-glass
#11
Daisman P B Aji, G P Johari
The effect of structural relaxation on electrical resistivity, ρglass , of strain-free Zr46.75 Ti8.25 Cu7.5 Ni10 Be27.5 bulk metallic glass was studied during isothermal aging at several temperatures, Ta s. Since cooling of a liquid metal increases its resistivity ρliq , one expects ρglass to increase on aging toward ρliq at T = Ta . Instead, ρglass decreased non-exponentially with the aging time. The activation energy of aging kinetics is 189 kJ mol-1 , which is higher than the activation energy of the Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651163/prospective-comparison-of-qft-git-and-t-spot-tb-assays-for-diagnosis-of-active-tuberculosis
#12
Fengjiao Du, Li Xie, Yonghong Zhang, Fei Gao, Huibin Zhang, Wei Chen, Bingqi Sun, Wei Sha, Yong Fang, Hongyan Jia, Aiying Xing, Boping Du, Li Zheng, Mengqiu Gao, Zongde Zhang
T-SPOT.TB and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) tests, as two commercial blood assays for diagnosing active tuberculosis (ATB), are not yet fully validated. Especially, there are no reports on comparing the efficacy between the two tests in the same population in China. A multicenter, prospective comparison study was undertaken at four hospitals specializing in pulmonary diseases. A total of 746 suspected pulmonary TB were enrolled and categorized, including 185 confirmed TB, 298 probable TB and 263 non-TB...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644059/mutations-in-membrane-cofactor-protein-cd46-gene-in-indian-children-with-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#13
Priyanka Khandelwal, Shweta Birla, Divya Bhatia, Mamta Puraswani, Himanshi Saini, Aditi Sinha, Pankaj Hari, Arundhati Sharma, Arvind Bagga
Background: Mutations in the CD46 gene account for an important proportion of patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) who characteristically show multiple relapses, no response to plasma exchange and low recurrence risk in allograft. We screened for mutations in CD46 in patients with and without circulating anti-factor H (FH) antibodies-associated aHUS. Methods: We estimated CD46 surface expression by flow cytometry and sequenced the CD46 gene in 23 and 56 patients with and without circulating anti-FH antibodies, respectively...
April 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623137/assessing-a-novel-method-to-reduce-anesthesia-machine-contamination-a-prospective-observational-trial
#14
Chuck J Biddle, Beverly George-Gay, Praveen Prasanna, Emily M Hill, Thomas C Davis, Brad Verhulst
Background: Anesthesia machines are known reservoirs of bacterial species, potentially contributing to healthcare associated infections (HAIs). An inexpensive, disposable, nonpermeable, transparent anesthesia machine wrap (AMW) may reduce microbial contamination of the anesthesia machine. This study quantified the density and diversity of bacterial species found on anesthesia machines after terminal cleaning and between cases during actual anesthesia care to assess the impact of the AMW...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621744/undergraduate-peer-assisted-learning-tutors-performance-in-summative-anatomy-examinations-a-pilot-study
#15
Andee Agius, Isabel Stabile
Objectives: To compare summative anatomy examination results of Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) tutors and learners in the same undergraduate classroom. Methods: Comparative study of Year-1 medical students who did/did not serve as PAL tutors. PAL tutors gave six hours of teaching in lower limb anatomy. Percent marks for written and spotting examinations were compared between PAL tutors and PAL learners. Results: The 12 self-selected PAL tutors were not significantly different from their peers (n=191) in terms of age or nationality, but 20% were female compared to 51% of PAL learners...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617402/carnivore-hotspots-in-peninsular-malaysia-and-their-landscape-attributes
#16
Shyamala Ratnayeke, Frank T van Manen, Gopalasamy Reuben Clements, Noor Azleen Mohd Kulaimi, Stuart P Sharp
Mammalian carnivores play a vital role in ecosystem functioning. However, they are prone to extinction because of low population densities and growth rates, and high levels of persecution or exploitation. In tropical biodiversity hotspots such as Peninsular Malaysia, rapid conversion of natural habitats threatens the persistence of this vulnerable group of animals. Here, we carried out the first comprehensive literature review on 31 carnivore species reported to occur in Peninsular Malaysia and updated their probable distribution...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616023/immune-control-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-common-high-frequency-t-cell-responses-to-a-broad-repertoire-of-immunoprevalent-epitopes
#17
Arnone Nithichanon, Darawan Rinchai, Surachat Buddhisa, Pornpun Saenmuang, Chidchamai Kewcharoenwong, Bianca Kessler, Prasong Khaenam, Ploenchan Chetchotisakd, Bernard Maillere, John Robinson, Catherine J Reynolds, Rosemary J Boyton, Daniel M Altmann, Ganjana Lertmemongkolchai
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is an environmental bacterial pathogen that causes potentially lethal sepsis in susceptible individuals and is considered a Category B, Tier-1 biothreat agent. As such, it is crucial to gain an improved understanding of protective immunity and potential vaccine candidates. The nature of immune correlates dictating why most exposed individuals in endemic regions undergo asymptomatic seroconversion while others succumb to life-threatening sepsis is largely uncharted. Bp seroreactive, immunogenic proteins have previously been identified by antigen microarray...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611070/pathogenic-differences-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-isaria-cateniannulata-to-the-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae-trombidiformes-tetranychidae-and-its-predator-euseius-nicholsi-mesostigmata-phytoseiidae
#18
Xiao-Na Zhang, Jian-Jun Guo, Xiao Zou, Dao-Chao Jin
Isaria cateniannulata and Euseius nicholsi are two important biological control agents currently being used in many areas of China to control a variety of pests. In order to determine the possibility of a concomitant application with the two agents in a biocontrol program involving the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, we quantified the pathogenicity of a strain of I. cateniannulata (08XS-1) against females of both T. urticae and E. nicholsi. We observed the infection process using scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy to distinguish differences in fungal performance...
April 2, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607471/presentation-of-children-with-advanced-retinoblastoma-for-treatment-in-ghana-the-caretakers-perspectives
#19
V A Essuman, I Z Braimah, T A Ndanu, C T Ntim-Amponsah
BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma, the commonest childhood malignant intraocular tumour, is diagnosed late, with less than 50% survival in developing countries, including Ghana. OBJECTIVES: To determine, from caretakers' perspective, contributing factors to late presentation of children with retinoblastoma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving questionnaire administration to consenting caretakers of consecutive children diagnosed with advanced retinoblastoma at the Eye Unit, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana, from September 2008-June 2011...
January 2018: West African Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607349/non-equilibrium-lattice-dynamics-of-one-dimensional-in-chains-on-si-111-upon-ultrafast-optical-excitation
#20
T Frigge, B Hafke, T Witte, B Krenzer, M Horn-von Hoegen
The photoinduced structural dynamics of the atomic wire system on the Si(111)-In surface has been studied by ultrafast electron diffraction in reflection geometry. Upon intense fs-laser excitation, this system can be driven in around 1 ps from the insulating [Formula: see text] reconstructed low temperature phase to a metastable metallic [Formula: see text] reconstructed high temperature phase. Subsequent to the structural transition, the surface heats up on a 6 times slower timescale as determined from a transient Debye-Waller analysis of the diffraction spots...
March 2018: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
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