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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335978/systematic-assessment-of-surfactants-for-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#1
Bijay Banstola, Eulalie T Grodner, Fan Cao, Fabrizio Donnarumma, Kermit K Murray
A systematic method for evaluation of MALDI profiling and imaging was developed and applied to the use of three surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Triton X-100, and Tween 20, on rat brain tissue. For profiling studies, mass spectra were acquired from regular arrays of spots with manually deposited surfactant and matrix. The studies recorded the total number of peaks in the mass spectra from 2 to 20 kDa and compared the number of peaks and peak intensities with and without surfactant. It was found that SDS decreases the total number of peaks at all concentrations but does lead to an increase in the number of peaks below 5 kDa...
April 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331603/low-leopard-populations-in-protected-areas-of-maputaland-a-consequence-of-poaching-habitat-condition-abundance-of-prey-and-a-top-predator
#2
Tharmalingam Ramesh, Riddhika Kalle, Havard Rosenlund, Colleen T Downs
Identifying the primary causes affecting population densities and distribution of flagship species are necessary in developing sustainable management strategies for large carnivore conservation. We modeled drivers of spatial density of the common leopard (Panthera pardus) using a spatially explicit capture-recapture-Bayesian approach to understand their population dynamics in the Maputaland Conservation Unit, South Africa. We camera-trapped leopards in four protected areas (PAs) of varying sizes and disturbance levels covering 198 camera stations...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328038/superbasic-alkyl-substituted-bisphosphazene-proton-sponges-a-new-class-of-deprotonating-matrices-for-negative-ion-matrix-assisted-ionization-laser-desorption-mass-spectrometry-of-low-molecular-weight-hardly-ionizable-analytes
#3
C D Calvano, T R I Cataldi, J F Kögel, A Monopoli, F Palmisano, J Sundermeyer
RATIONALE: Here hardly ionizable and low molecular weight compounds are detected in negative ion mode by using novel superbasic proton sponges based on 1,8-bisphosphazenylnaphthalene (PN) as MALDI matrices. Among the selected proton sponges, 1,8-bis(trispyrrolidinophosphazenyl)naphthalene (TPPN) has shown the best behaviour as matrix since it allows the direct detection of intact cholesterol without derivatization also in real challenging samples. METHODS: Very weakly acidic compounds such as sterols, steroids, fatty alcohols and saccharides were detected in reflectron negative ion mode by a MALDI TOF/TOF system equipped with a neodymium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) laser (345 nm) with typical mass accuracy of 10 ppm...
July 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317810/comparison-of-cost-effectiveness-between-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-and-t-spot-tests-for-screening-health-care-workers-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#4
Shigeto Mukai, Katsumi Shigemura, Fukashi Yamamichi, Koichi Kitagawa, Nozomi Takami, Masashi Nomi, Soichi Arakawa, Masato Fujisawa
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: There are several methods used to screen for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) including the QuantiFERON-TB Gold-in-Tube (QFT-GIT) and T-SPOT-TB (T-SPOT) tests. Many studies have reported the equivalence of these two methods, but it is unclear which of them is more cost effective. We investigated the age and cost issues of these tests in screening for LTBI among health-care workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty new employees during 2008-2011 in our hospital were screened using the QFT-GIT test, and 140 new employees during 2011-2014 were screened with the T-SPOT test for LTBI...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316991/interferon-gamma-release-assay-performance-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-peripheral-blood-in-tuberculous-meningitis-in-china
#5
Liping Pan, Fei Liu, Jinli Zhang, Xinting Yang, Shiqi Zheng, Jing Li, Hongyan Jia, Xiaoyou Chen, Mengqiu Gao, Zongde Zhang
The aim of this study was to examine the performance of T-SPOT.TB on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB) in diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in China. Of 100 patients with presumed TBM prospectively enrolled from Sep 2012 to Oct 2014, 53 were TBM (21 definite and 32 probable TBM cases) and 37 were non-TBM cases; the other 10 patients were excluded from analysis due to inconclusive diagnosis, no sufficient CSF samples, or incomplete follow-up. T-SPOT.TB on CSF and PB and routine laboratory tests of CSF were performed simultaneously...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315060/results-of-a-phase-ib-trial-of-combination-immunotherapy-with-a-cd8-%C3%A2-t-cell-eliciting-vaccine-and-trastuzumab-in-breast-cancer-patients
#6
G Travis Clifton, Jennifer K Litton, Karen Arrington, Sathibalan Ponniah, Nuhad K Ibrahim, Victor Gall, Gheath Alatrash, George E Peoples, Elizabeth A Mittendorf
BACKGROUND: CD8+ T cell-eliciting vaccines are being investigated in breast cancer patients. Preclinical data showed that trastuzumab increases the susceptibility of tumor cells to lysis by vaccine-generated CD8+ T cells, suggesting potential benefit of a combination immunotherapy strategy. The current trial was undertaken to demonstrate the safety of this approach. METHODS: This study was designed as a dose-escalation trial enrolling clinically disease-free, human leukocyte antigen A2+ or A3+ , human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer patients...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314860/a-newborn-screening-method-for-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-using-bile-alcohol-glucuronides-and-metabolite-ratios
#7
Frédéric M Vaz, Albert H Bootsma, Willem Kulik, Aad Verrips, Ron A Wevers, Peter C Schielen, Andrea E DeBarber, Hidde H Huidekoper
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a treatable neurodegenerative metabolic disorder of bile acid synthesis where symptoms can be prevented if treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid supplementation is initiated early in life, making CTX an excellent candidate for newborn screening. We developed a new dried blood spot screening assay for this disorder based on different ratios between the accumulating cholestanetetrol glucuronide (tetrol) and specific bile acids/bile acid intermediates, without the need for derivatization...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303582/generation-and-analysis-of-clinically-relevant-breast-imaging-x-ray-spectra
#8
Andrew M Hernandez, J Anthony Seibert, Anita Nosratieh, John M Boone
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to develop and make available x-ray spectra for some of the most widely used digital mammography (DM), breast tomosynthesis (BT), and breast CT (bCT) systems in North America. METHODS: The Monte Carlo code MCNP6 was used to simulate minimally-filtered (only beryllium) x-ray spectra at 8 tube potentials from 20 to 49 kV for DM/BT, and 9 tube potentials from 35 to 70 kV for bCT. Vendor-specific anode compositions, effective anode angles, focal spot sizes, source-to-detector distances, and beryllium filtration were simulated...
March 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303192/adaptation-of-acaricide-stress-facilitates-tetranychus-urticae-expanding-against-tetranychus-cinnabarinus-in-china
#9
Wencai Lu, Mengyao Wang, Zhifeng Xu, Guangmao Shen, Peng Wei, Ming Li, William Reid, Lin He
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, and the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, are invasive and native species in China, respectively. Compared with T. cinnabarinus, T. urticae has expanded into most parts of China and has become the dominant species of spider mite since 1983, when it was first reported in China. However, the mechanism of the demographic conversion has not been illuminated. In this study, one T. urticae field population and one T. cinnabarinus field population were isolated from the same plant in the same field, and the toxicological characteristics were compared between these two species...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299660/etv6-runx1-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-in-identical-twins
#10
Anthony M Ford, Mel Greaves
Acute leukaemia is the major subtype of paediatric cancer with a cumulative risk of 1 in 2000 for children up to the age of 15 years. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a biologically and clinically diverse disease with distinctive subtypes; multiple chromosomal translocations exist within the subtypes and each carries its own prognostic relevance. The most common chromosome translocation observed is the t(12;21) that results in an in-frame fusion between the first five exons of ETV6 (TEL) and almost the entire coding region of RUNX1 (AML1)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299415/multi-mycotoxin-analysis-using-dried-blood-spots-and-dried-serum-spots
#11
Bernd Osteresch, Susana Viegas, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
In this study, a rapid multi-mycotoxin approach was developed for biomonitoring and quantification of 27 important mycotoxins and mycotoxin metabolites in human blood samples. HPLC-MS/MS detection was used for the analysis of dried serum spots (DSS) and dried blood spots (DBS). Detection of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1), trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, DON; DON-3-glucoronic acid, DON-3-GlcA; T-2; HT-2; and HT-2-4-GlcA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), ochratoxins (OTA and its thermal degradation product 2'R-OTA; OTα; 10-hydroxychratoxin A, 10-OH-OTA), citrinin (CIT and its urinary metabolite dihydrocitrinone, DH-CIT), zearalenone and zearalanone (ZEN, ZAN), altenuene (ALT), alternariols (AOH; alternariol monomethyl ether, AME), enniatins (EnA, EnA1, EnB, EnB1) and beauvericin (Bea) was validated for two matrices, serum (DSS), and whole blood (DBS)...
March 15, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297453/spot-scanning-proton-therapy-minimizes-neutron-dose-in-the-setting-of-radiation-therapy-administered-during-pregnancy
#12
Xin Wang, Falk Poenisch, Narayan Sahoo, Ronald X Zhu, MingFwu Lii, Michael T Gillin, Jing Li, David Grosshans
This is a real case study to minimize the neutron dose equivalent (H) to a fetus using spot scanning proton beams with favorable beam energies and angles. Minimum neutron dose exposure to the fetus was achieved with iterative planning under the guidance of neutron H measurement. Two highly conformal treatment plans, each with three spot scanning beams, were planned to treat a 25-year-old pregnant female with aggressive recurrent chordoma of the base of skull who elected not to proceed with termination. Each plan was scheduled for delivery every other day for robust target coverage...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297289/a-dosimetric-evaluation-of-knowledge-based-vmat-planning-with-simultaneous-integrated-boosting-for-rectal-cancer-patients
#13
Hao Wu, Fan Jiang, Haizhen Yue, Sha Li, Yibao Zhang
RapidPlan, a commercial knowledge-based optimizer, has been tested on head and neck, lung, esophageal, breast, liver, and prostate cancer patients. To appraise its performance on VMAT planning with simultaneous integrated boosting (SIB) for rectal cancer, this study configured a DVH (dose-volume histogram) estimation model consisting 80 best-effort manual cases of this type. Using the model- generated objectives, the MLC (multileaf collimator) sequences of other 70 clinically approved plans were reoptimized, while the remaining parameters, such as field geometry and photon energy, were maintained...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294329/multidie-led-combined-with-homogenizing-optics-to-improve-frequency-response-and-intensity-for-flim-applications
#14
H-T Liu, W-L Lin, Y-L Feng, Y Lin, Y-C Chen
Application of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) has been limited by the trade-off between modulation frequency and illumination intensity of LEDs, which affects the signal-to-noise ratio in fluorescence lifetime measurements. To increase modulation frequency without sacrificing output power of LEDs, we propose to use LEDs with multiple dice connected in series. The LED capacitance was reduced with series connection; therefore, the frequency response of multidie LED was significantly increased...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294305/differential-impacts-of-wildfire-on-the-population-dynamics-of-an-old-forest-species
#15
Jeremy T Rockweit, Alan B Franklin, Peter C Carlson
Ecological disturbances shape and maintain natural communities, but climate change and human land use can alter disturbance regimes and affect population persistence and vital rates in unpredictable ways. Species inhabiting landscapes shaped by wildfire have evolved mechanisms allowing them to persist under this dynamic disturbance type, which creates habitats of varying quality for these species. We utilized data from a 26-year demographic study of northern spotted owls to analyze the influence of wildfire on apparent survival and recruitment rates...
March 14, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294107/antifungal-mechanisms-of-zno-and-ag-nanoparticles-to-sclerotinia-homoeocarpa
#16
Junli Li, Hyunkyu Sang, Huiyuan Guo, James T Popko, Lili He, Jason C White, Om Parkash Dhankher, Geunhwa Jung, Baoshan Xing
Fungicides have extensively been used to effectively combat fungal diseases on a range of plant species, but resistance to multiple active ingredients has developed in pathogens such as Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the causal agent of dollar spot on cool-season turfgrasses. Recently, ZnO and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have received increased attention due to their antimicrobial activities. In this study, the NPs' toxicity and mechanisms of action were investigated as alternative antifungal agents against S. homoeocarpa isolates that varied in their resistance to demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides...
April 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290600/possible-protective-role-of-the-abca4-gene-c-1268a-g-missense-variant-in-stargardt-disease-and-syndromic-retinitis-pigmentosa-in-a-sicilian-family-preliminary-data
#17
Rosalia D'Angelo, Luigi Donato, Isabella Venza, Concetta Scimone, Pasquale Aragona, Antonina Sidoti
In the wide horizon of ophthalmologically rare diseases among retinitis pigmentosa forms, Stargardt disease has gradually assumed a significant role due to its heterogeneity. In the present study, we aimed to support one of two opposite hypotheses concerning the causative or protective role of heterozygous c.1268A>G missense variant of the ABCA4 gene in Stargardt disease and in syndromic retinitis pigmentosa. This study was based on a family consisting of three members: proband, age 54, with high myopia, myopic chorioretinitis and retinal dystrophy; wife, age 65, with mild symptoms; daughter, age 29, asymptomatic...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288696/immune-recognition-of-salivary-proteins-from-the-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-microplus-differs-according-to-the-genotype-of-the-bovine-host
#18
Gustavo Rocha Garcia, Sandra Regina Maruyama, Kristina T Nelson, José Marcos Chaves Ribeiro, Luiz Gustavo Gardinassi, Antonio Augusto Mendes Maia, Beatriz Rossetti Ferreira, Frans N J Kooyman, Isabel K F de Miranda Santos
BACKGROUND: Males of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus produce salivary immunoglobulin-binding proteins and allotypic variations in IgG are associated with tick loads in bovines. These findings indicate that antibody responses may be essential to control tick infestations. Infestation loads with cattle ticks are heritable: some breeds carry high loads of reproductively successful ticks, in others, few ticks feed and they reproduce inefficiently. Different patterns of humoral immunity against tick salivary proteins may explain these phenotypes...
March 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286257/grouper-epinephelus-coioides-tcr-signaling-pathway-was-involved-in-response-against-cryptocaryon-irritans-infection
#19
Ze-Xiang Li, Yan-Wei Li, Shun Xu, Yang Xu, Ze-Quan Mo, Xue-Ming Dan, Xiao-Chun Luo
T cell activation is a complicated process accompanying with the activation of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway, which is not well described in teleost fish. The initiation of this pathway depends on the interaction of membrane TCR co-receptors (e.g. CD4/8, CD3 and CD45) and a series of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases (e.g. Lck, Fyn and ZAP70). Cyptocaryon irritans is a ciliate pathogen of marine fish white spot disease causing huge economic lost in marine aquaculture. This parasite can infect fish gill and skin and is considered to be a good pathogen model for fish gill and skin mucosal immunity...
March 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284092/antibiotic-resistant-pseudomonas-spp-in-the-aquatic-environment-a-prevalence-study-under-tropical-and-temperate-climate-conditions
#20
Naresh Devarajan, Thilo Köhler, Periyasamy Sivalingam, Christian van Delden, Crispin K Mulaji, Pius T Mpiana, Bastiaan W Ibelings, John Poté
Microbial populations which are resistant to antibiotics are an emerging environmental concern with potentially serious implications for public health. Thus, there is a growing concern in exploring the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in the environment with no limitations to the factors that contribute to their emergence. The aquatic environment is considered to be a hot-spot for the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance due to pollution with emerging contaminants derived from anthropogenic activities...
February 27, 2017: Water Research
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