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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220398/a-minimally-invasive-optical-trapping-system-to-understand-cellular-interactions-at-onset-of-an-immune-response
#1
David G Glass, Niall McAlinden, Owain R Millington, Amanda J Wright
T-cells and antigen presenting cells are an essential part of the adaptive immune response system and how they interact is crucial in how the body effectively fights infection or responds to vaccines. Much of the experimental work studying interaction forces between cells has looked at the average properties of bulk samples of cells or applied microscopy to image the dynamic contact between these cells. In this paper we present a novel optical trapping technique for interrogating the force of this interaction and measuring relative interaction forces at the single-cell level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219335/experimental-observation-of-convective-cell-formation-due-to-a-fast-wave-antenna-in-the-large-plasma-device
#2
M J Martin, W Gekelman, B Van Compernolle, P Pribyl, T Carter
An experiment in a linear device, the Large Plasma Device, is used to study sheaths caused by an actively powered radio frequency (rf) antenna. The rf antenna used in the experiment consists of a single current strap recessed inside a copper box enclosure without a Faraday screen. A large increase in the plasma potential was observed along magnetic field lines that connect to the antenna limiter. The electric field from the spatial variation of the rectified plasma potential generated E[over →]×B[over →]_{0} flows, often referred to as convective cells...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216277/immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-differently-affect-igras-accuracy-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-diagnosis-in-clinical-practice
#3
Irene Latorre, Sonia Mínguez, José-Manuel Carrascosa, Juan Naves, Raquel Villar-Hernández, Beatriz Muriel, Cristina Prat, Esther García-García, Irma Casas, Eugeni Domènech, Carlos Ferrándiz, Lourdes Mateo, Jose Domínguez
BACKGROUND: Clinical accuracy of IGRAs remains unclear on patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). Here, we assess the impact of immunosuppressants and IMIDs on QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFN-G-IT) and T-SPOT.TB accuracy. METHODS: Patients with IMIDs who required latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening were enrolled and classified into: (i) 50 patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, (ii) 50 patients with psoriasis and (iii) 30 patients with Crohn's disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212713/a-degradation-fragment-of-type-x-collagen-is-a-real-time-marker-for-bone-growth-velocity
#4
Ryan F Coghlan, Jon A Oberdorf, Susan Sienko, Michael D Aiona, Bruce A Boston, Kara J Connelly, Chelsea Bahney, Jeremie LaRouche, Sarah M Almubarak, Daniel T Coleman, Irute Girkontaite, Klaus von der Mark, Gregory P Lunstrum, William A Horton
Despite its importance as a key parameter of child health and development, growth velocity is difficult to determine in real time because skeletal growth is slow and clinical tools to accurately detect very small increments of growth do not exist. We report discovery of a marker for skeletal growth in infants and children. The intact trimeric noncollagenous 1 (NC1) domain of type X collagen, the marker we designated as CXM for Collagen X Marker, is a degradation by-product of endochondral ossification that is released into the circulation in proportion to overall growth plate activity...
December 6, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211755/comparison-between-the-diagnostic-validities-of-xpert-mtb-rif-and-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assays-for-tuberculous-pericarditis-using-pericardial-tissue
#5
Guocan Yu, Bo Ye, Da Chen, Fangming Zhong, Gang Chen, Jun Yang, Liliang Xu, Xudong Xu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of Xpert MTB/RIF for tuberculous pericarditis (TBP) using pericardial tissues. METHODS: The study involved 30 patients admitted with suspected TBP from January-December 2016; three patients were later excluded. The interferon-γ release assay (T-SPOT.TB) and the Xpert MTB/RIF test were performed using peripheral blood and pericardial tissues, respectively. TBP was confirmed using pericardial histopathology and a composite reference standard (CRS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210520/supplementation-during-pregnancy-with-small-quantity-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements-or-multiple-micronutrients-compared-with-iron-and-folic-acid-increases-women-s-urinary-iodine-concentration-in-semiurban-ghana-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Rebecca T Young, Anna Lartey, Harriet Okronipa, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Mamane Zeilani, Kathryn G Dewey
There is little information on whether prenatal multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplements containing iodine affect women's iodine status. In the International Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements DYAD-Ghana trial, we aimed to assess women's urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L) during pregnancy, as one of the planned secondary outcomes. Women (n = 1,320) <20 weeks of gestation were randomized to consume 60 mg iron and 400 μg folic acid per day (iron and folic acid [IFA]); 18 vitamins and minerals including 250 μg iodine per day (MMN); or 20 g/day of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with the same and additional 4 vitamins and minerals as the MMN (LNS)...
December 6, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205353/subconjunctival-dirofilaria-repens-infection-in-a-dog-resident-in-the-uk
#7
D Agapito, N-A A Aziz, T Wang, E R Morgan, I Wright
Dirofilaria repens infection was diagnosed in a 5-year-old female German shepherd crossbreed, originally from Romania but brought into the UK in February 2014. The dog presented with conjunctivitis in March 2014 and then again 2 months later with additional ocular and nasal mucopurulent discharge. Bacterial cultures from the nasolacrimal duct were negative for bacterial growth. The case was referred in August 2014 for ophthalmic examination, which revealed abnormalities in both eyes, especially the left. They included mild palpebral conjunctival hyperaemia and marked follicular conjunctivitis, as well as a dorsonasal bulbar conjunctival mass...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204384/approach-to-a-child-with-primary-immunodeficiency-made-simple
#8
REVIEW
Dhrubajyoti Sharma, Ankur K Jindal, Amit Rawat, Surjit Singh
Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are a group of disorders affecting the capability to fight against infection. These include defects in T cells and B cells affecting cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively, combined humoral and cell-mediated immunodeficiency, defects in phagocytosis, complement defects, and defects in cytokine or cytokine signalling pathways which are detrimental for immune function. Depending upon the type and severity, age at onset of symptoms can vary from neonatal period to late childhood...
November 2017: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198123/comparative-analysis-of-human-omental-milky-spots-between-the-patients-with-colon-cancer-and-the-control-group
#9
L Havrlentova, H Faistova, M Mazur, D Ziak, S Polak
AIM: Morphological description of milky spots (MSs) in the human greater omentum. METHOD: Samples of the greater omentum collected during surgical procedures were subjected to further histological analysis. Two groups of patients were studied. Group A consisted of patients with colon cancer and peritonitis (stimulated MSs), group B consisted of patients without colon cancer and without peritonitis (unstimulated MSs). In the research, we focused on the cellular composition and differences between stimulated and unstimulated MSs...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194071/revisiting-the-phenotypic-and-genetic-profiling-of-anergic-t-cells-mediating-long-term-transplant-tolerance
#10
Sylvaine You, Lucienne Chatenoud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Herein our focus will be to revisit peripheral tolerance mechanisms and in particular 'active' or 'dominant' tolerance as originally defined and mediated by regulatory CD4FoxP3 T lymphocytes (Treg) and also T-cell anergy that appears as a major mainstay to support long-term allograft survival. RECENT FINDINGS: It is at the same time interesting and rewarding that the tool that recently guided our efforts along this path is the in-vivo use of CD3 antibody, the first monoclonal introduced in the clinic (Orthoclone OKT3) about 35 years ago to treat and prevent rejection of renal allografts...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193778/a-substitution-mutation-in-ospelota-confers-bacterial-blight-resistance-by-activating-the-salicylic-acid-pathway
#11
Xiao-Bo Zhang, Bao-Hua Feng, Hui-Mei Wang, Xia Xu, Yong-Feng Shi, Yan He, Zheng Chen, Atul Prakash Sathe, Lei Shi, Jian-Li Wu
We previously reported a spotted-leaf mutant pelota (originally termed HM47) in rice displaying arrested growth and enhanced resistance to multiple races of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Here, we report the map-based cloning of the causal gene OsPELOTA (originally termed splHM47 ). We identified a single base substitution from T to A at position 556 in the coding sequence of OsPELOTA, effectively mutating Phe to Ile at position 186 in the translated protein sequence. Both functional complementation and over-expression could rescue the spotted-leaf phenotype...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191170/the-arabidopsis-elp3-elo3-and-elp4-elo1-genes-enhance-disease-resistance-in-fragaria-vesca-l
#12
Katchen Julliany P Silva, Asha M Brunings, Juliana A Pereira, Natalia A Peres, Kevin M Folta, Zhonglin Mou
BACKGROUND: Plant immune response is associated with a large-scale transcriptional reprogramming, which is regulated by numerous transcription regulators such as the Elongator complex. Elongator is a multitasking protein complex involved in diverse cellular processes, including histone modification, DNA methylation, and tRNA modification. In recent years, Elongator is emerging as a key regulator of plant immune responses. However, characterization of Elongator's function in plant immunity has been conducted only in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana...
December 1, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189482/analysis-of-biomarkers-within-the-initial-2-years-posttransplant-and-5-year-kidney-transplant-outcomes-results-from-clinical-trials-in-organ-transplantation-17
#13
Geovani Faddoul, Girish N Nadkarni, Nancy D Bridges, Jens Goebel, Donald E Hricik, Richard Formica, Madhav C Menon, Yvonne Morrison, Barbara Murphy, Kenneth Newell, Peter Nickerson, Emilio D Poggio, David Rush, Peter S Heeger
BACKGROUND: An early posttransplant biomarker/surrogate marker for kidney allograft loss has the potential to guide targeted interventions. Previously published findings, including results from the Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation (CTOT)-01 study, showed that elevated urinary chemokine CXCL9 levels and elevated frequencies of donor-reactive interferon gamma-(IFNγ)-producing T cells by enzyme linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay associated with acute cellular rejection within the first year and with lower 1-year posttransplant estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
November 20, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187669/usefulness-of-the-combination-of-tuberculin-skin-test-and-interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-diagnosing-children-with-tuberculosis
#14
Hiroyuki Shimizu, Masaaki Mori
Japan is still designated as a medium incidence country, worldwide. Although the definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis is made by detecting pathogen from tissue specimens, collecting those from children is physically difficult. Therefore, we must frequently depend on the results of tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). However, the value of IGRA in diagnosing tuberculosis in infants remains unclear. We implemented TST and IGRA concurrently and examined the significance of combining these two tests by analyzing cases where conflicting results were evident from other tests...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187651/-comparison-of-effects-between-il-2-and-il-7-on-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-65-reactive-t-cell-responses-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#15
Jiao Yuan, Qiuyan Cui, Wei Tang, Chen Chao, Zhiguang Zhou, Lin Yang
To explore the type of cytokine (IL-2 or IL-7) and its most optimal concentration regarding the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) in enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay in Type 1 diabetic (T1DM) patients.
 Methods: Twenty T1DM patients (Group A) and sixteen healthy controls matched with age and sex (Group B) were enrolled in our study, and their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated by Ficoll method. GAD65, internal control and Pediacel served as "five-for-one" vaccine were selected as the stimulating antigen...
November 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187355/state-of-the-science-in-dried-blood-spots
#16
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Freeman, Lori M Rosman, Jeremy D Ratcliff, Paul T Strickland, David R Graham, Ellen K Silbergeld
BACKGROUND: Advancements in the quality and availability of highly sensitive analytical instrumentation and methodologies have led to increased interest in the use of microsamples. Among microsamples, dried blood spots (DBS) are the most well-known. Although there have been a variety of review papers published on DBS, there has been no attempt at describing the full range of analytes measurable in DBS, or any systematic approach published for characterizing the strengths and weaknesses associated with adoption of DBS analyses...
November 29, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187340/enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-spot-elispot-monitoring-of-cytokine-producing-cells-for-the-prediction-of-acute-rejection-in-renal-transplant-patients
#17
Fatemeh Mohammadi, Ghasem Solgi, Maryam Tajik, Pedram Ahmadpoor, Hasan Nikoeinejad, Behzad Einollahi, Banafsheh Nazari, Mahboob Lessan-Pezeshki, Aliakbar Amirzargar
The purpose of this study was to evaluate T-cell immunity markers using serial post-transplantation monitoring of cytokine-producing cells during the first post-transplant months for the prediction of acute rejection and potentially chronic rejection of kidney allograft. We followed 57 kidney allograft recipients for meanly 3 years post-transplantation. Blood samples were collected pre-transplant, 2, 4 and 12 weeks post-transplant. The frequencies of IL-10-, IL-17- and IFN-γ-producing cells were determined in all time-points using ELISPOT assay...
September 1, 2017: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186964/yeast-two-hybrid-and-pull-down-assays-propose-an-interaction-between-p50-of-apple-chlorotic-leaf-spot-virus-and-pr-10-of-malus-sylvestris-cv-r12740-7a
#18
Y Wang, N Li, X Zhao, J Hu, Y He, T Hu, S Wang, Y Wang, K Cao
Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) movement protein (P50) is involved in cell-to-cell transport and influences the long-distance spread of silencing activity. Previously, we obtained 69 P50-interacting proteins from Malus sylvestris cv. R12740-7A and using bioinformatics analyzed their biological functions. In this study, we used the GAL4-based two-hybrid yeast system and His pull-down assays to confirm an interaction between PR-10 of M. sylvestris cv. R12740-7A and ACLSV P50. Our results provide a theoretical basis for further research on the biological function of PR-10 in ACLSV infection and the interacting mechanism between host and virus...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182688/interferon-gamma-release-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-a-latent-class-analysis
#19
Tan N Doan, Damon P Eisen, Morgan T Rose, Andrew Slack, Grace Stearnes, Emma S McBryde
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis and subsequent treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is essential for TB elimination. However, the absence of a gold standard test for diagnosing LTBI makes assessment of the true prevalence of LTBI and the accuracy of diagnostic tests challenging. Bayesian latent class models can be used to make inferences about disease prevalence and the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using data on the concordance between tests. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date aiming to evaluate the performance of tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) for LTBI diagnosis in various patient populations using Bayesian latent class modelling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180334/-quantitative-and-comparative-proteomics-analysis-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-and-adjacent-noncancerous-tissues-by-2-d-dige
#20
Zhuang-Fei Chen, Yao-Jun Xiao, Ze-Hai Huang, Tong Chen, Shan-Chao Zhao, Yao-Dong Jiang, Peng Wu, Shao-Bin Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To identify specific protein markers for renal cell carcinoma detection and diagnosis, as well as develop new potential therapeutic targets of the disease. METHODS: We used two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) technique conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS) for the identification of significant differentially expressed proteins between 15cases of paired clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and adjacent normal renal tissues...
November 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
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