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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724359/the-burden-of-hiv-on-tuberculosis-patients-in-the-volta-region-of-ghana-from-2012-to-2015-implication-for-tuberculosis-control
#1
Eric Osei, Joyce Der, Richard Owusu, Philip Kofie, Wisdom Kudzo Axame
BACKGROUND: The impact of HIV on TB, and the implications for TB control, has been acknowledged as a public health challenge. It is imperative therefore to assess the burden of HIV on TB patients as an indicator for monitoring the control efforts of the two diseases in this part of the world. This study aimed at determining the burden of HIV infection in TB patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of TB registers in five districts of the Volta Region of Ghana...
July 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719299/conventional-wisdom-versus-actual-outcomes-challenges-in-the-conduct-of-an-ebola-vaccine-trial-in-liberia-during-the-international-public-health-emergency
#2
Gregg S Larson, Beth R Baseler, Marie L Hoover, Jerome F Pierson, Jemee K Tegli, Melvin P Johnson, Mark W S Kieh, Laura A McNay, Wissedi Sio Njoh
Clinical trials are challenging endeavors. Planning and implementing an investigational vaccine trial in Liberia, in the midst of an Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that World Health Organization classified a public health emergency of international concern, presented extraordinary challenges. Normally, years of preparation and a litany of tasks lay the groundwork for a successful, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial focused on safety and efficacy. Difficult research settings, unpredictable events, and other unique circumstances can add complexity...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718193/metacommunity-theory-meets-restoration-isolation-may-mediate-how-ecological-communities-respond-to-stream-restoration
#3
Christopher M Swan, Bryan L Brown
An often-cited benefit of river restoration is an increase in biodiversity or shift in composition to more desirable taxa. Yet, hard manipulations of habitat structure often fail to elicit a significant response in terms of biodiversity patterns. In contrast to conventional wisdom, the dispersal of organisms may have as large an influence on biodiversity patterns as environmental conditions. This influence of dispersal may be particularly influential in river networks which are linear branching, or dendritic, and thus constrain most dispersal to the river corridor...
July 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713191/long-term-recovery-in-stroke-accompanied-by-aphasia-a-reconsideration
#4
Audrey Holland, Davida Fromm, Margaret Forbes, Brian MacWhinney
BACKGROUND: This work focuses on the twenty-six individuals who provided data to AphasiaBank on at least two occasions, with initial testing between 6 months and 5.8 years post-onset of aphasia. The data are archival in nature and were collected from the extensive database of aphasic discourse in AphasiaBank. AIMS: The aim is to furnish data on the nature of long-term changes in both the impairment of aphasia as measured by the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised (WAB-R) and its expression in spoken discourse...
2017: Aphasiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699556/community-led-trials-intervention-co-design-in-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Neil Andersson
In conventional randomised controlled trials (RCTs), researchers design the interventions. In the Camino Verde trial, each intervention community designed its own programmes to prevent dengue. Instead of fixed actions or menus of activities to choose from, the trial randomised clusters to a participatory research protocol that began with sharing and discussing evidence from a local survey, going on to local authorship of the action plan for vector control.Adding equitable stakeholder engagement to RCT infrastructure anchors the research culturally, making it more meaningful to stakeholders...
May 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697921/new-frameworks-for-understanding-sudden-unexpected-deaths-in-infancy-sudi-in-socially-vulnerable-families
#6
REVIEW
Rebecca Shipstone, Jeanine Young, Lauren Kearney
THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES: Sociological frameworks may enhance understanding of the complex and multidimensional nature of disadvantage, which is prevalent among families who experience Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI). PHENOMENA ADDRESSED: SUDI is the largest category of postneonatal death and largely associated with the social determinants of health. The highly successful 'Back to Sleep' campaign has resulted in a more than 85% decrease in SUDI. However, social inequalities have accompanied this decrease, and the burden of SUDI now lies with the most disadvantaged and socially vulnerable families...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692979/perceptual-biases-in-font-size-as-a-data-encoding
#7
Eric Carlson Alexander, Chih-Ching Chang, Mariana Shimabukuro, Steve Franconeri, Christopher Collins, Michael Gleicher
Many visualizations, including word clouds, cartographic labels, and word trees, encode data within the sizes of fonts. While font size can be an intuitive dimension for the viewer, using it as an encoding can introduce factors that may bias the perception of the underlying values. Viewers might conflate the size of a word's font with a word's length, the number of letters it contains, or with the larger or smaller heights of particular characters ('o' vs. 'p' vs. 'b'). We present a collection of empirical studies showing that such factors-which are irrelevant to the encoded values-can indeed influence comparative judgements of font size, though less than conventional wisdom might suggest...
July 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687960/dental-pulp-stem-cells-and-neurogenesis
#8
Ibrahim Mortada, Rola Mortada, Mohamad Al Bazzal
Recent advances in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy are bringing promising perspectives for the use of stem cells in clinical trials. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells capable of multilineage differentiation and available in numerous sources in the human body. Dental pulp constitutes an attractive source of these cells since collecting mesenchymal stem cells from this site is a noninvasive procedure which can be done following a common surgical extraction of supernumerary or wisdom teeth. Thus tissue sacrifice is very low and several cytotypes can be obtained owing to these cells' multipotency, in addition to the fact that they can be cryopreserved and stored for long periods...
July 8, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685531/impact-of-rantes-from-jawbone-on-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#9
J Lechner, K Huesker, V Von Baehr
This study elucidates the question of whether chronic inflammation in the jawbone contributes to the development of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Fatty degenerative osteonecrosis in jawbone (FDOJ) may contribute to CFS by induction of inflammatory mediators. We examined seven cytokines by multiplex analysis in jawbone samples from two groups of patients. In order to clarify neurological interrelations, specimens from 21 CFS patients were analyzed from areas of previous surgery in the retromolar wisdom tooth area...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683212/a-randomized-crossover-trial-evaluating-patient-handling-preference-and-ease-of-use-of-the-fluticasone-propionate-formoterol-breath-triggered-inhaler
#10
David Bell, Lucielle Mansfield, Mark Lomax
BACKGROUND: Appropriate inhaler selection is of fundamental importance in obstructive lung disease management. Key factors in device selection include a patient's capacity to operate a particular device and their preference for it. METHODS: This randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover study (NCT01739387) compared the ability of adolescent and adult patients with obstructive lung disease to correctly handle the fluticasone propionate/formoterol fumarate (FP/FORM; Flutiform(®)) pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) and FP/FORM K-haler(®), a novel breath-triggered inhaler (BTI), following a simple, standardized training regimen...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679507/information-without-wisdom
#11
Iona Heath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676688/engaging-narratives-evoke-similar-neural-activity-and-lead-to-similar-time-perception
#12
Samantha S Cohen, Simon Henin, Lucas C Parra
It is said that we lose track of time - that "time flies" - when we are engrossed in a story. How does engagement with the story cause this distorted perception of time, and what are its neural correlates? People commit both time and attentional resources to an engaging stimulus. For narrative videos, attentional engagement can be represented as the level of similarity between the electroencephalographic responses of different viewers. Here we show that this measure of neural engagement predicted the duration of time that viewers were willing to commit to narrative videos...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665640/quantum-synchronization-blockade-energy-quantization-hinders-synchronization-of-identical-oscillators
#13
Niels Lörch, Simon E Nigg, Andreas Nunnenkamp, Rakesh P Tiwari, Christoph Bruder
Classically, the tendency towards spontaneous synchronization is strongest if the natural frequencies of the self-oscillators are as close as possible. We show that this wisdom fails in the deep quantum regime, where the uncertainty of amplitude narrows down to the level of single quanta. Under these circumstances identical self-oscillators cannot synchronize and detuning their frequencies can actually help synchronization. The effect can be understood in a simple picture: Interaction requires an exchange of energy...
June 16, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665327/green-mind-theory-how-brain-body-behaviour-links-into-natural-and-social-environments-for-healthy-habits
#14
Jules Pretty, Mike Rogerson, Jo Barton
We propose a Green Mind Theory (GMT) to link the human mind with the brain and body, and connect the body into natural and social environments. The processes are reciprocal: environments shape bodies, brains, and minds; minds change body behaviours that shape the external environment. GMT offers routes to improved individual well-being whilst building towards greener economies. It builds upon research on green exercise and nature-based therapies, and draws on understanding derived from neuroscience and brain plasticity, spiritual and wisdom traditions, the lifeways of original cultures, and material consumption behaviours...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657463/transplantation-of-human-dental-pulp-derived-stem-cells-hdpscs-or-differentiated-neuronal-cells-from-hdpscs-identically-enhances-regeneration-of-the-injured-peripheral-nerve
#15
Imran Ullah, Ju-Mi Park, Young-Hoon Kang, June-Ho Byun, Dae-Geon Kim, Joo-Heon Kim, Gyu-Jin Rho, Bong-Wook Park
Human dental mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the dental follicle, pulp and root apical papilla of extracted wisdom teeth have been known to exhibit successful and potent neurogenic differentiation capacity. In particular, human dental pulp-derived stem cells (hDPSCs) stand out as the most prominent source for in vitro neuronal differentiation. In the present study, to evaluate the in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration potential of hDPSCs and differentiated neuronal cells from DPSCs (DF-DPSCs), a total of 1 × 10<sup>6</sup> hDPSCs or DF-hDPSCs labeled with PKH26 tracking dye and supplemented with fibrin glue scaffold and collagen tubulization were transplanted into the sciatic-nerve resection (5-mm gap) of rat models...
June 28, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654290/effect-of-surface-crowding-and-surface-hydrophilicity-on-the-activity-stability-and-molecular-orientation-of-a-covalently-tethered-enzyme
#16
McKenna M Schroeder, Qiuming Wang, Somayesadat Badieyan, Zhan Chen, E Neil G Marsh
We have investigated two surface properties that are generally thought to have an important influence of enzyme activity and stability: surface hydrophobicity and surface crowding. Here two variants of an engineered bacterial nitro-reductase were covalently tethered to orient the protein's pseudo-2-fold symmetry axis either parallel or perpendicular to the surface. The surface hydrophobicity was systematically varied by changing the ratio of methyl- to hydroxyl-groups displayed on the SAM surface, and the effects on enzyme activity, thermal stability, and structure investigated...
July 5, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654218/unlocking-the-potential-of-organ-donation
#17
EDITORIAL
J M Smits
In the 8th century AD, under the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, the House of Wisdom was inaugurated in Baghdad.(1) This was a center of learning and transmission of classical wisdom, where scholars from all parts of the world gathered to learn and to transmit all the world's knowledge. So it is an ancient, albeit brilliant, concept to bring together all the beautiful minds and by exchanging and confronting opinions and ideas, gain new knowledge. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653364/bigeminal-sandwiches-galore
#18
Thomas Lindow, Angelica Niklasson, Daniel Manna, Olle Pahlm
A long run of PVCs "sandwiched" in between the sinus beats resulting in an almost doubling of the heart rate-interpolated PVCs in bigeminy-is described. This case illustrates three interesting aspects of interpolated PVCs. Although they are not uncommon, long runs of interpolated PVCs in bigeminy are rare findings. In this case, the arrhythmia had a duration of 3 minutes. Second, it illustrates the "age-old wisdom" of partial retrograde conduction. Also, even though the arrhythmia resulted in an almost doubling of the heart rate, the patient remained asymptomatic...
June 27, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635381/provoked-eagle-syndrome-after-dental-procedure-a-review-of-the-literature
#19
Shuo Li, Neeraj Blatt, Jubin Jacob, Nishant Gupta, Yogesh Kumar, Scott Smith
Eagle syndrome is an uncommon condition caused by an elongated ossified styloid process. The majority of individuals with an elongated ossified styloid process are asymptomatic. Therefore, this condition is diagnosed based on clinical presentation, with radiologic imaging serving to confirm the diagnosis. The styloid process is considered elongated if measuring greater than 3 cm, but there is little correlation between length of the styloid process and severity of symptoms. This syndrome was originally described in post-tonsillectomy patients, but has since been seen in other clinical settings...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634933/3d-cell-culture-in-interpenetrating-networks-of-alginate-and-rbm-matrix
#20
Katrina Wisdom, Ovijit Chaudhuri
Altered tissue mechanical properties have been implicated in many key physiological and pathological processes. Hydrogel-based materials systems, made with native extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, nonnative biopolymers, or synthetic polymers are often used to study these processes in vitro in 3D cell culture experiments. However, each of these materials systems present major limitations when used in mechanobiological studies. While native ECM-based hydrogels may enable good recapitulation of physiological behavior, the mechanics of these hydrogels are often manipulated by increasing or decreasing the protein concentration...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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