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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815466/medical-students-perceptions-of-a%C3%A2-novel-institutional-incident-reporting-system-a%C3%A2-thematic-analysis
#1
Morris Gordon, Dillan Parakh
BACKGROUND: Errors in healthcare are a major patient safety issue, with incident reporting a key solution. The incident reporting system has been integrated within a new medical curriculum, encouraging medical students to take part in this key safety process. The aim of this study was to describe the system and assess how students perceived the reporting system with regards to its role in enhancing safety. METHODS: Employing a thematic analysis, this study used interviews with medical students at the end of the first year...
August 16, 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808090/the-wisdom-of-crowds-regulating-cell-function-through-condensed-states-of-living-matter
#2
REVIEW
Simon Alberti
Our understanding of cells has progressed rapidly in recent years, mainly because of technological advances. Modern technology now allows us to observe molecular processes in living cells with high spatial and temporal resolution. At the same time, we are beginning to compile the molecular parts list of cells. However, how all these parts work together to yield complex cellular behavior is still unclear. In addition, the established paradigm of molecular biology, which sees proteins as well-folded enzymes that undergo specific lock-and-key type interactions, is increasingly being challenged...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805511/special-issue-on-the-pace-trial
#3
David F Marks
We are proud that this issue marks a special contribution by the Journal of Health Psychology to the literature concerning interventions to manage adaptation to chronic health problems. The PACE Trial debate reveals deeply embedded differences between critics and investigators. It reveals an unwillingness of the co-principal investigators of the PACE trial to engage in authentic discussion and debate. It leads one to question the wisdom of such a large investment from the public purse (£5million) on what is a textbook example of a poorly done trial...
August 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796847/population-size-estimation-of-female-sex-workers-in-iran-synthesis-of-methods-and-results
#4
Hamid Sharifi, Mohammad Karamouzian, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Mostafa Shokoohi, AliAkbar Haghdoost, Willi McFarland, Ali Mirzazadeh
INTRODUCTION: Estimating the number of key populations at risk of HIV is essential for planning, monitoring, and evaluating prevention, care, and treatment programmes. We conducted this study to estimate the number of female sex workers (FSW) in major cities of Iran. METHODS: We used three population size estimation methods (i.e., wisdom of the crowds, multiplier method, and network scale-up) to calculate the number of FSW in 13 cities in Iran. The wisdom of the crowds and multiplier methods were integrated into a nationwide bio-behavioural surveillance survey in 2015, and the network scale-up method was included in a national survey of the general population in 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795094/data-and-analyses-of-woody-restoration-planting-survival-and-growth-as-a-function-of-wild-ungulate-herbivory
#5
Joshua P Averett, Michael J Wisdom, Bridgett J Naylor, Mary M Rowland, Bryan A Endress
These data and analyses support the research article "Wild ungulate herbivory suppresses deciduous woody plant establishment following salmonid stream restoration" Averett et al. (2017) [1]. The data and analyses presented here include: (1) planting density, survival and growth (two years post restoration) of riparian plantings along an ~11 km stream reach in northeastern Oregon as a function of herbivory treatment (protected/not protected from wild ungulate herbivory), habitat type, and planting species; and (2) abundance and height distributions of naturally occurring deciduous woody species along the restored stream reach two years post restoration...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777995/beyond-stereotypes-of-adolescent-risk-taking-placing-the-adolescent-brain-in-developmental-context
#6
REVIEW
Daniel Romer, Valerie F Reyna, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Recent neuroscience models of adolescent brain development attribute the morbidity and mortality of this period to structural and functional imbalances between more fully developed limbic regions that subserve reward and emotion as opposed to those that enable cognitive control. We challenge this interpretation of adolescent development by distinguishing risk-taking that peaks during adolescence (sensation seeking and impulsive action) from risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood (impulsive choice and other decisions under known risk)...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762222/-smart-medicine-and-healthcare
#7
Yen-Chiao Angel Lu, Li-Chin Chen
Innovation and rapid technological development in Smart Medicine or Smart Healthcare impact profoundly on many aspects of healthcare. It is believed that Health Information Technology (HIT) has the potential to improve integration between care providers, reduce administrative costs and burdens, reduce medical errors, and improve care quality and patient outcomes. However, issues such as interoperability, compatibility, and integration are critical to effectively integrating hardware and software in order to fully realize the benefits of HIT...
August 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761795/geometric-morphometrics-reveals-sex-differential-shape-allometry-in-a-spider
#8
Carmen Fernández-Montraveta, Jesús Marugán-Lobón
Common scientific wisdom assumes that spider sexual dimorphism (SD) mostly results from sexual selection operating on males. However, testing predictions from this hypothesis, particularly male size hyperallometry, has been restricted by methodological constraints. Here, using geometric morphometrics (GMM) we studied for the first time sex-differential shape allometry in a spider (Donacosa merlini, Araneae: Lycosidae) known to exhibit the reverse pattern (i.e., male-biased) of spider sexual size dimorphism...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758992/demystifying-traditional-herbal-medicine-with-modern-approach
#9
Fu-Shuang Li, Jing-Ke Weng
Plants have long been recognized for their therapeutic properties. For centuries, indigenous cultures around the world have used traditional herbal medicine to treat a myriad of maladies. By contrast, the rise of the modern pharmaceutical industry in the past century has been based on exploiting individual active compounds with precise modes of action. This surge has yielded highly effective drugs that are widely used in the clinic, including many plant natural products and analogues derived from these products, but has fallen short of delivering effective cures for complex human diseases with complicated causes, such as cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders and degenerative diseases...
July 31, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758395/hydrophilic-phage-mimicking-membrane-active-antimicrobials-reveal-nanostructure-dependent-activity-and-selectivity
#10
Yunjiang Jiang, Wan Zheng, Liangju Kuang, Hairong Ma, Hongjun Liang
The prevalent wisdom on developing membrane active antimicrobials (MAAs) is to seek a delicate, yet unquantified cationic-hydrophobic balance. Inspired by phages that use nanostructured protein devices to invade bacteria efficiently and selectively, we study here the antibiotic role of nanostructures by designing spherical and rod-like polymer molecular brushes (PMBs) that mimic the two basic structural motifs of bacteriophages. Three model PMBs with different well-defined geometries consisting of multiple identical copies of densely packed poly(4-vinyl-N-methylpyridine iodide) branches are synthesized by controlled/"living" polymerization, reminiscence of the viral structural motifs comprised of multiple copies of protein subunits...
July 31, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753344/scaling-analysis-of-the-screening-length-in-concentrated-electrolytes
#11
Alpha A Lee, Carla S Perez-Martinez, Alexander M Smith, Susan Perkin
The interaction between charged objects in an electrolyte solution is a fundamental question in soft matter physics. It is well known that the electrostatic contribution to the interaction energy decays exponentially with object separation. Recent measurements reveal that, contrary to the conventional wisdom given by the classic Poisson-Boltzmann theory, the decay length increases with the ion concentration for concentrated electrolytes and can be an order of magnitude larger than the ion diameter in ionic liquids...
July 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739078/mutualisms-are-not-on-the-verge-of-breakdown
#12
REVIEW
Megan E Frederickson
Mutualisms teeter on a knife-edge between conflict and cooperation, or so the conventional wisdom goes. The costs and benefits of mutualism often depend on the abiotic or biotic context in which an interaction occurs, and experimental manipulations can induce shifts in interaction outcomes from mutualism all the way to parasitism. Yet, research suggests that mutualisms rarely turn parasitic in nature. Similarly, despite the potential for 'cheating' to undermine mutualism evolution, empirical evidence for fitness conflicts between partners and, thus, selection for cheating in mutualisms is scant...
July 21, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736906/dental-pulp-stem-cells-and-the-management-of-neurological-diseases-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Ibrahim Mortada, Rola Mortada, Mohamad Al Bazzal
Medical research in regenerative medicine has brought promising perspectives for the use of stem cells in clinical trials. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells capable of multilineage differentiation and available in numerous sources in the human body. Dental pulp constitutes an attractive source of these cells since collecting mesenchymal stem cells from this site is a noninvasive practice that can be performed after a common surgical extraction of supernumerary or wisdom teeth. Thus, tissue sacrifice is very low and several cytotypes can be obtained owing to these cells' multipotency, in addition to the fact that they can be cryopreserved and stored for long periods...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731795/plant-size-and-competitive-dynamics-along-nutrient-gradients
#14
Deborah E Goldberg, Jason P Martina, Kenneth J Elgersma, William S Currie
Resource competition theory in plants has focused largely on resource acquisition traits that are independent of size, such as traits of individual leaves or roots or proportional allocation to different functions. However, plants also differ in maximum potential size, which could outweigh differences in module-level traits. We used a community ecosystem model called mondrian to investigate whether larger size inevitably increases competitive ability and how size interacts with nitrogen supply. Contrary to the conventional wisdom that bigger is better, we found that invader success and competitive ability are unimodal functions of maximum potential size, such that plants that are too large (or too small) are disproportionately suppressed by competition...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724359/the-burden-of-hiv-on-tuberculosis-patients-in-the-volta-region-of-ghana-from-2012-to-2015-implication-for-tuberculosis-control
#15
Eric Osei, Joyce Der, Richard Owusu, Philip Kofie, Wisdom Kudzo Axame
BACKGROUND: The impact of HIV on TB, and the implications for TB control, has been acknowledged as a public health challenge. It is imperative therefore to assess the burden of HIV on TB patients as an indicator for monitoring the control efforts of the two diseases in this part of the world. This study aimed at determining the burden of HIV infection in TB patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of TB registers in five districts of the Volta Region of Ghana...
July 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719299/conventional-wisdom-versus-actual-outcomes-challenges-in-the-conduct-of-an-ebola-vaccine-trial-in-liberia-during-the-international-public-health-emergency
#16
Gregg S Larson, Beth R Baseler, Marie L Hoover, Jerome F Pierson, Jemee K Tegli, Melvin P Johnson, Mark W S Kieh, Laura A McNay, Wissedi Sio Njoh
Clinical trials are challenging endeavors. Planning and implementing an investigational vaccine trial in Liberia, in the midst of an Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that World Health Organization classified a public health emergency of international concern, presented extraordinary challenges. Normally, years of preparation and a litany of tasks lay the groundwork for a successful, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial focused on safety and efficacy. Difficult research settings, unpredictable events, and other unique circumstances can add complexity...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718193/metacommunity-theory-meets-restoration-isolation-may-mediate-how-ecological-communities-respond-to-stream-restoration
#17
Christopher M Swan, Bryan L Brown
An often-cited benefit of river restoration is an increase in biodiversity or shift in composition to more desirable taxa. Yet, hard manipulations of habitat structure often fail to elicit a significant response in terms of biodiversity patterns. In contrast to conventional wisdom, the dispersal of organisms may have as large an influence on biodiversity patterns as environmental conditions. This influence of dispersal may be particularly influential in river networks which are linear branching, or dendritic, and thus constrain most dispersal to the river corridor...
July 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713191/long-term-recovery-in-stroke-accompanied-by-aphasia-a-reconsideration
#18
Audrey Holland, Davida Fromm, Margaret Forbes, Brian MacWhinney
BACKGROUND: This work focuses on the twenty-six individuals who provided data to AphasiaBank on at least two occasions, with initial testing between 6 months and 5.8 years post-onset of aphasia. The data are archival in nature and were collected from the extensive database of aphasic discourse in AphasiaBank. AIMS: The aim is to furnish data on the nature of long-term changes in both the impairment of aphasia as measured by the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised (WAB-R) and its expression in spoken discourse...
2017: Aphasiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699556/community-led-trials-intervention-co-design-in-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Neil Andersson
In conventional randomised controlled trials (RCTs), researchers design the interventions. In the Camino Verde trial, each intervention community designed its own programmes to prevent dengue. Instead of fixed actions or menus of activities to choose from, the trial randomised clusters to a participatory research protocol that began with sharing and discussing evidence from a local survey, going on to local authorship of the action plan for vector control.Adding equitable stakeholder engagement to RCT infrastructure anchors the research culturally, making it more meaningful to stakeholders...
May 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697921/new-frameworks-for-understanding-sudden-unexpected-deaths-in-infancy-sudi-in-socially-vulnerable-families
#20
REVIEW
Rebecca Shipstone, Jeanine Young, Lauren Kearney
THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES: Sociological frameworks may enhance understanding of the complex and multidimensional nature of disadvantage, which is prevalent among families who experience Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI). PHENOMENA ADDRESSED: SUDI is the largest category of postneonatal death and largely associated with the social determinants of health. The highly successful 'Back to Sleep' campaign has resulted in a more than 85% decrease in SUDI. However, social inequalities have accompanied this decrease, and the burden of SUDI now lies with the most disadvantaged and socially vulnerable families...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
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