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Psychological Evaluation

Lotte H J M Lemmens, Viola N L S Müller, Arnoud Arntz, Marcus J H Huibers
We present a systematic empirical update and critical evaluation of the current status of research aimed at identifying a variety of psychological mediators in various forms of psychotherapy for depression. We summarize study characteristics and results of 35 relevant studies, and discuss the extent to which these studies meet several important requirements for mechanism research. Our review indicates that in spite of increased attention for the topic, advances in theoretical consensus about necessities for mechanism research, and sophistication of study designs, research in this field is still heterogeneous and unsatisfactory in methodological respect...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Rodrigo Antonio Rocha da Cruz Adry, Lucas Crociati Meguins, Sebastião Carlos da Silva Júnior, Carlos Umberto Pereira, Gerardo Maria de Araújo Filho, Lúcia Helena Neves Marques
BACKGROUND: Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common disease found in an epilepsy surgery series. Early age of onset, a history of febrile convulsions, epileptiform discharges on EEG, duration of epilepsy, number of generalized seizures and severity of psychiatric disorders are possible prognostic factors in patients with MTS. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review the clinical, semiotic, psychological, electrophysiological and neuroradiological researches and relate their findings to the prognosis of patients with MTS who underwent anteromedial temporal lobectomy (ATL)...
October 21, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Hanna F Skjåkødegård, Yngvild S Danielsen, Mette Morken, Sara-Rebekka F Linde, Rachel P Kolko, Katherine N Balantekin, Denise E Wilfley, Pétur B Júlíusson
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the FABO-study is to evaluate the effect of family-based behavioral social facilitation treatment (FBSFT), designed to target children's family and social support networks to enhance weight loss outcomes, compared to the standard treatment (treatment as usual, TAU) given to children and adolescents with obesity in a routine clinical practice. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which families (n = 120) are recruited from the children and adolescents (ages 6-18 years) referred to the Obesity Outpatient Clinic (OOC), Haukeland University Hospital, Norway...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Masanori Nagamine, Nahoko Harada, Jun Shigemura, Kosuke Dobashi, Makiko Yoshiga, Naoki Esaki, Miyuki Tanaka, Masaaki Tanichi, Aihide Yoshino, Kunio Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Defense Force workers engaged in disaster relief activities might suffer from strong psychological stress due to the tasks that they had been involved. We evaluated how living environments, work environments, and individual factors psychologically affect those who engaged in disaster relief activities. METHOD: Data generated with 1506 personnel engaged in the Great East Japan Earthquake relief activity were analyzed. Those who scored ≥25 points on the Impact of Events Scale-Revised and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) were allocated into the high post-traumatic stress response (high-PTSR) group, and the high general psychological distress (high-GPD) group, respectively...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Lisa K Fazio, Casey A Kennedy, Robert S Siegler
We examined whether playing a computerized fraction game, based on the integrated theory of numerical development and on the Common Core State Standards' suggestions for teaching fractions, would improve children's fraction magnitude understanding. Fourth and fifth-graders were given brief instruction about unit fractions and played Catch the Monster with Fractions, a game in which they estimated fraction locations on a number line and received feedback on the accuracy of their estimates. The intervention lasted less than 15 minutes...
2016: PloS One
Mona Agel
Data sourcesPubMed, Embase, Ebsco/PsycInfo, Ebsco/CINAHL and ISI/Web of Science databases.Study selectionStudies that evaluated the association between the psychosocial correlates and oral hygiene behaviour varying from self-reports to clinical measurements, including plaque and bleeding scores were considered.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently selected studies, abstracted data and assessed study quality using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.ResultsTwenty-four studies were included providing 31 datasets...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
O Laporta-Hoyos, J Ballester-Plané, P Póo, A Macaya, M Meléndez-Plumed, E Vázquez, I Delgado, L Zubiaurre-Elorza, V L Botellero, A Narberhaus, E Toro-Tamargo, D Segarra, R Pueyo
PURPOSE: Quality of life (QOL) is a key outcome for people with cerebral palsy (CP), and executive functioning is an important predictor of QOL in other health-related conditions. Little is known about this association in CP or about its neural substrate. We aim to analyze the influence of executive functioning (including cognitive flexibility) as well as that of other psychological, motor, communication and socioeconomic variables on QOL and to identify neuroanatomical areas related to QOL in adolescents and adults with CP...
October 20, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Y Kimura, J Maeda, M Yamada, K Takahata, K Yokokawa, Y Ikoma, C Seki, H Ito, M Higuchi, T Suhara
RATIONALE: The beneficial effects of psychostimulant drugs in the treatment of psychiatric disorders occur because they increase the extracellular dopamine concentration by inhibiting re-uptake of extracellular dopamine at dopamine transporters. However, the psychological effects at low dopamine transporter occupancy have not been well demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the psychological effects, dopamine transporter occupancy, and dopamine release induced by a single oral administration of a clinical dose of mazindol...
October 20, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Nirbhay N Singh, Giulio E Lancioni, Bryan T Karazsia, Jeffrey Chan, Alan S W Winton
Caregivers of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often end up having their medical and psychological well-being compromised due to the stressful nature of caregiving, especially when those in their care engage in aggressive behavior. In this study, we provided caregivers with mindfulness-based training to enable them to better manage their psychological well-being and, through this, to also enhance specific indices of quality of life of the individuals in their care. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) and Training-as-Usual (TAU) for caregivers in a congregate care facility for individuals with severe and profound IDD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Linda Witek Janusek, Dina Tell, Noni Gaylord-Harden, Herbert L Mathews
African American men (AAM) who are exposed to trauma and adversity during their early life are at greater risk for poor health over their lifespan. Exposure to adversity during critical developmental windows may embed an epigenetic signature that alters expression of genes that regulate stress response systems, including those genes that regulate the inflammatory response to stress. Such an epigenetic signature may increase risk for diseases exacerbated by inflammation, and may contribute to health disparity...
October 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Raquel González-Martínez, Ma Del Mar Jovani-Sancho, Isidoro Cortell-Ballester
PURPOSE: Our purpose were to determine the influence of psychological profile on hemodynamic changes in patients who undergo surgical removal of the third molars under intravenous sedation and to evaluate the effect on patients' anxiety and postoperative recovery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 100 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I and II; aged ≥18 years) seen in the CIMIVClinic (Department of Oral Surgery, Casa de Salud University Hospital, Valencia, Spain) who underwent extractions of all third molars under intravenous sedation...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Benjamin Bohman, Finn Rasmussen, Ata Ghaderi
BACKGROUND: Parental self-efficacy (PSE) refers to beliefs of parents to effectively engage in behaviors that result in desired outcomes for their children. There are several instruments of PSE for promoting healthy dietary or physical activity (PA) behaviors in children. These measures typically assess PSE in relation to some quantity or frequency of behavior, for example, number of servings or times per week. However, measuring PSE in relation to contextual circumstances, for example, psychological states and situational demands, may be a more informative approach...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Isabelle E Bauer, Martin Hautzinger, Thomas D Meyer
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive complaints are common features of bipolar disorder (BD). Not much is, however, known about the potential moderator effects of these factors on the outcome of talking therapies. The goal of our study was to explore whether learning and memory abilities predict risk of recurrence of mood episodes or interact with a psychological intervention. METHOD: We analyzed data collected as part of a clinical trial evaluating relapse rates following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Therapy (ST) (Meyer and Hautzinger, 2012)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Chiara Concetta Incerti, Ornella Argento, Giuseppe Magistrale, Elisabetta Ferraro, Carlo Caltagirone, Valerio Pisani, Ugo Nocentini
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and working status have recently arisen great interest. Fatigue, physical disability, cognition, and psychological disturbances have been linked to unemployment, as well to accidents during daily activities. The aim of our study was to determine frequency of different types of accidents at workplace (AWE) and possible clinical differences among employed (MSe) and unemployed (MSu) MS patients. Sixty MS patients (31 employed, 29 unemployed) and twenty healthy control subjects were recruited...
October 19, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Nora K Horick, Adoma Manful, Jan Lowery, Susan Domchek, Patricia Moorman, Constance Griffin, Kala Visvanathan, Claudine Isaacs, Anita Y Kinney, Dianne M Finkelstein
PURPOSE: Registries provide a unique tool for tracking quality of life in rare cancer survivors, whose survivorship experience is less known than for common cancers. This paper reports on these outcomes in 321 patients enrolled in the Rare Cancer Genetics Registry diagnosed with rare gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecologic, sarcoma, head/neck, or hematologic cancers. METHODS: Four outcomes were assessed, reflecting registrants' self-reported physical and mental health, psychological distress, and loneliness...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Qiuyu Wang, Chuan Cao, Rui Guo, Xiaoge Li, Lele Lu, Wenping Wang, Shirong Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in an aesthetic surgery setting in the region of Southwest China, and to ascertain the differences in terms of body images between patients in the aesthetic setting and general Chinese population. This study tracked patient satisfaction with their body image changes while undergoing aesthetic medical procedures to identify whether the condition of patients who were presenting with BDD symptoms or their psychological symptoms could be improved by enhancing their appearance...
October 19, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Hamidreza Roohafza, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Hamed Daghaghzadeh, Hamid Afshar, Zahra Erfani, Peyman Adibi
BACKGROUND: The frequency and the perceived intensity of life stressors, coping strategies, and social supports are very important in everybody's well-being. This study intended to estimate the relation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and these factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Isfahan on 2013. Data were extracted from the framework of the study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health, and nutrition...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
Geoffrey L Dickens, Catherine Frogley, Fiona Mason, Katina Anagnostakis, Marco M Picchioni
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medicine which can cause significant side-effects. It is often prescribed off-license in severe cases of borderline personality disorder contrary to national treatment guidelines. Little is known about the experiences of those who take clozapine for borderline personality disorder. We explored the lived-experience of women in secure inpatient care who were prescribed clozapine for borderline personality disorder. FINDINGS: Adult females (N = 20) participated in audio-taped semi-structured interviews...
2016: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
M J J Kunst, M Van de Wiel
The current study investigated whether mental health practitioners are influenced by the narrative fallacy when assessing the psychological injuries of trauma victims. The narrative fallacy is associated with our tendency to establish logical links between different facts. In psychodiagnostic assessments, this tendency may result in overdiagnosis of mental disorders when psychological symptoms can be attributed to a traumatic event. Consequently, legal decision makers may be at risk of awarding compensation for psychological injuries which are not severe enough to justify financial reimbursement...
2016: Psychological Injury and Law
Paola Perozzo, Adriana Salatino, Paolo Cerrato, Raffaella Ricci
Mood, anxiety, and other psychological symptoms are common in dystonic patients suffering from blepharospasm (BSP) and spasmodic torticollis (ST). Since sexual well-being is an important aspect of mental health, here, we investigated whether these patients may also experience a worsening of their sexual life. In particular, quality of sexual life was evaluated in patients suffering from BSP (N = 30), ST (N = 30), and in a control group of patient with Hemifacial spasm (HFS; N = 30), undergoing botulinum toxin type A therapy...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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