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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801429/multicentric-randomised-study-of-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-and-pepsinogen-testing-for-prevention-of-gastric-cancer-mortality-the-gistar-study
#1
Marcis Leja, Jin Young Park, Raul Murillo, Inta Liepniece-Karele, Sergejs Isajevs, Ilze Kikuste, Dace Rudzite, Petra Krike, Sergei Parshutin, Inese Polaka, Arnis Kirsners, Daiga Santare, Valdis Folkmanis, Ilva Daugule, Martyn Plummer, Rolando Herrero
INTRODUCTION: Population-based eradication of Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to be cost-effective and is recommended by international guidelines. However, the potential adverse effects of widespread antibiotic use that this would entail have not been sufficiently studied. An alternative way to decrease gastric cancer mortality is by non-invasive search for precancerous lesions, in particular gastric atrophy; pepsinogen tests are the best currently available alternative. The primary objective of GISTAR is to determine whether H pylori eradication combined with pepsinogen testing reduces mortality from gastric cancer among 40-64-year-old individuals...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783164/effect-of-sequence-variants-on-variance-in-glucose-levels-predicts-type-2-diabetes-risk-and-accounts-for-heritability
#2
Erna V Ivarsdottir, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Maryam S Daneshpour, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Patrick Sulem, Hilma Holm, Snaevar Sigurdsson, Astradur B Hreidarsson, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Ragnar Bjarnason, Arni V Thorsson, Rafn Benediktsson, Gudmundur Eyjolfsson, Olof Sigurdardottir, Isleifur Olafsson, Sirous Zeinali, Fereidoun Azizi, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Kari Stefansson
Sequence variants that affect mean fasting glucose levels do not necessarily affect risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). We assessed the effects of 36 reported glucose-associated sequence variants on between- and within-subject variance in fasting glucose levels in 69,142 Icelanders. The variant in TCF7L2 that increases fasting glucose levels increases between-subject variance (5.7% per allele, P = 4.2 × 10(-10)), whereas variants in GCK and G6PC2 that increase fasting glucose levels decrease between-subject variance (7...
August 7, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724245/radioactively-hot-particles-detected-in-dusts-and-soils-from-northern-japan-by-combination-of-gamma-spectrometry-autoradiography-and-sem-eds-analysis-and-implications-in-radiation-risk-assessment
#3
Marco Kaltofen, Arnie Gundersen
After the March 11, 2011, nuclear reactor meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi, 180 samples of Japanese particulate matter (dusts and surface soils) and 235 similar U.S. and Canadian samples were collected and analyzed sequentially by gamma spectrometry, autoradiography, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Samples were collected and analyzed over a five-year period, from 2011 to 2016. Detectable levels of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were found in 142 of 180 (80%) Japanese particulate matter samples...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714615/-arni-new-abbreviation-for-a-new-class-of-treatment-of-heart-failure
#4
Soran Karimzadeh, Hazrije Mustafić, Tomoe Stampfli Andres
ARNI (Angiontensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor) are a new class of drug : the angiotensin and neprilysin inhibitors. This combined effect allows an optimisation of the heart failure treatment by acting on both pathways of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and of the natriuretic peptides. LCZ696 is a combined molecule of valsartan and sacubitril and is currently the only one on the market. Its efficacy has been shown in a large randomised trial in 2014, and LCZ696 is now part of the last 2016 European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of heart failure...
March 1, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713581/short-term-elevation-in-dietary-protein-intake-does-not-worsen-insulin-resistance-or-lipids-in-older-adults-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Il-Young Kim, Scott E Schutzler, Gohar Azhar, Robert R Wolfe, Arny A Ferrando, Robert H Coker
BACKGROUND: There is a great deal of controversy as to whether higher protein intake improves or worsens insulin sensitivity in humans. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of a short-term elevation in dietary protein on hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in twelve older subjects (51-70 yrs) with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Individuals were randomly assigned to one of the dietary groups: recommended protein intake (RPI, 10% of daily calorie intake) or elevated protein intake (EPI, 20% of daily calorie intake) for 4 weeks...
2017: BMC Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709109/no-arousal-biased-competition-in-focused-visuospatial-attention
#6
Árni Gunnar Ásgeirsson, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Arousal sometimes enhances and sometimes impairs perception and memory. A recent theory attempts to reconcile these findings by proposing that arousal amplifies the competition between stimulus representations, strengthening already strong representations and weakening already weak representations. Here, we report a stringent test of this arousal-biased competition theory in the context of focused visuospatial attention. Participants were required to identify a briefly presented target in the context of multiple distractors, which varied in the degree to which they competed for representation with the target, as revealed by psychophysics...
July 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666392/organized-leisure-time-sport-participation-and-academic-achievement-in-preadolescents
#7
Elvar Smari Sævarsson, Erla Svansdottir, Thorarinn Sveinsson, Tinna Laufey Asgeirsdottir, Sigurbjorn Arni Arngrimsson, Erlingur Johannsson
AIMS: The aims of this study were to study the correlation between lifestyle-related factors, such as organized leisure-time sport participation (OLSP), cardiorespiratory fitness, and adiposity, and academic achievement among preadolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 248 nine-year-old school children was carried out. OLSP was self-reported with parental assistance, categorized as ≤ 1× a week, 2-3× a week, and ≥ 4× times a week or more. Academic achievement was estimated with results from standardized test scores in Icelandic and math...
June 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663917/use-of-a-handheld-terahertz-pulsed-imaging-device-to-differentiate-benign-and-malignant-breast-tissue
#8
Maarten R Grootendorst, Anthony J Fitzgerald, Susan G Brouwer de Koning, Aida Santaolalla, Alessia Portieri, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Matthew R Young, Julie Owen, Massi Cariati, Michael Pepper, Vincent P Wallace, Sarah E Pinder, Arnie Purushotham
Since nearly 20% of breast-conserving surgeries (BCS) require re-operation, there is a clear need for developing new techniques to more accurately assess tumor resection margins intraoperatively. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of a handheld terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) system to discriminate benign from malignant breast tissue ex vivo. Forty six freshly excised breast cancer samples were scanned with a TPI handheld probe system, and histology was obtained for comparison. The image pixels on TPI were classified using (1) parameters in combination with support vector machine (SVM) and (2) Gaussian wavelet deconvolution in combination with Bayesian classification...
June 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662936/angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibition%C3%A2-in-heart-failure-with-preserved%C3%A2-ejection-fraction-rationale-and-design-of-the-paragon-hf-trial
#9
REVIEW
Scott D Solomon, Adel R Rizkala, Jianjian Gong, Wenyan Wang, Inder S Anand, Junbo Ge, Carolyn S P Lam, Aldo P Maggioni, Felipe Martinez, Milton Packer, Marc A Pfeffer, Burkert Pieske, Margaret M Redfield, Jean L Rouleau, Dirk J Van Veldhuisen, Faiez Zannad, Michael R Zile, Akshay S Desai, Victor C Shi, Martin P Lefkowitz, John J V McMurray
OBJECTIVES: The PARAGON-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ARB Global Outcomes in HF With Preserved Ejection Fraction) trial is designed to determine the efficacy and safety of the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan compared with valsartan in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: HFpEF is highly prevalent, associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, and in need of effective therapies that improve outcomes...
July 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642676/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-protein-and-exercise
#10
REVIEW
Ralf Jäger, Chad M Kerksick, Bill I Campbell, Paul J Cribb, Shawn D Wells, Tim M Skwiat, Martin Purpura, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Arny A Ferrando, Shawn M Arent, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jeffrey R Stout, Paul J Arciero, Michael J Ormsbee, Lem W Taylor, Colin D Wilborn, Doug S Kalman, Richard B Kreider, Darryn S Willoughby, Jay R Hoffman, Jamie L Krzykowski, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632652/utility-of-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-management-of-adult-congenital-heart-disease
#11
Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Aurelio Secinaro, Paolo Ciliberti, Megan Fuqua, Arni Nutting
The increasing number of patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) calls for the development of noninvasive imaging techniques that allow a long-term evaluation of native and postsurgical anatomy and function. Echocardiography remains the imaging modality of choice for congenital heart disease, but it is affected by limited acoustic windows and poor tissue characterization. Cardiac computed tomography and cardiac catheter angiography are 2 valid alternatives for the anatomic and functional assessment of ACHD; however, both use ionizing radiation, and cardiac catheter angiography requires an invasive approach...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587802/cytokine-filtration-modulates-pulmonary-metabolism-and-edema-formation-during-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion
#12
Ilker Iskender, Tugba Cosgun, Stephan Arni, Michael Trinkwitz, Stefan Fehlings, Yoshito Yamada, Nikola Cesarovic, Keke Yu, Thomas Frauenfelder, Wolfgang Jungraithmayr, Walter Weder, Ilhan Inci
BACKGROUND: Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has improved the process of donor lung management. Cytokine accumulation during EVLP has been shown to correlate with worse outcome after lung transplantation. Our objective in this study was to test the safety and efficacy of cytokine filtration during EVLP in a large animal model. METHODS: Pig donor lungs were preserved for 24 hours at 4°C, followed by 12 hours of EVLP, according to the Toronto protocol. The perfusate was continuously run through an absorbent device (CytoSorb) via a veno-venous shunt from the reservoir in the filter group...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571558/protein-profile-analysis-of-two-australian-snake-venoms-by-one-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis-and-ms-ms-experiments
#13
Dessi Georgieva, Diana Hildebrand, Rodrigo Simas, Monika A Coronado, Marcel Kwiatkowski, Hartmut Schlüter, Raghuvir Arni, Patrick Spencer, Christian Betzel
The Pseudechis colletti and Pseudechis butleri venoms were analyzed by 1-D gel electrophoresis, followed by mass spectrometric analysis of tryptic peptides obtained from the protein bands. Both venoms contain highly potent pharmacologically active components, which were assigned to the following protein families: basic and acidic phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs), P-III metalloproteinases (P-III SVMPs), 5'-nucleotidases (5'-NTDs), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), venom nerve growth factors (VNGFs) and post-synaptic neurotoxins...
May 31, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557128/detection-of-gastric-atrophy-by-circulating-pepsinogens-a-comparison-of-three-assays
#14
Marcis Leja, M Constanza Camargo, Inese Polaka, Sergejs Isajevs, Inta Liepniece-Karele, Dainius Janciauskas, Dace Rudzite, Ilze Kikuste, Aigars Vanags, Ilona Kojalo, Valdis Folkmanis, Arnis Kirsners, Ivars Tolmanis, Charles S Rabkin
BACKGROUND: Circulating levels of pepsinogens have been used in high gastric cancer-risk Asian and European populations to triage endoscopic evaluation for more severe pathology. There are different analytic methods with uncertain correlations. We therefore compared diagnostic performance of three commonly used pepsinogen assays to detect histologically confirmed gastric atrophy. METHODS: We tested plasma samples from adult patients with (n=50) and without (n=755) moderate or severe gastric corpus atrophy, as determined histologically by consensus of three expert pathologists...
May 29, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556274/a-new-methodological-approach-to-adjust-alcohol-exposure-distributions-to-improve-the-estimation-of-alcohol-attributable-fractions
#15
William J Parish, Arnie Aldridge, Benjamin Allaire, Donatus U Ekwueme, Diana Phelps, Gery P Guy, Cheryll C Thomas, Justin G Trogdon
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To assess the burden of excessive alcohol use, researchers routinely estimate alcohol-attributable fractions (AAFs). However, underreporting in survey data can bias these estimates. We present an approach that adjusts for underreporting in the estimation of AAFs, particularly across subgroups. This framework is a refinement of a previous method (Rehm et al., 2010). METHODS: We use a measurement error model to derive the "true" alcohol distribution from a "reported" alcohol distribution...
May 27, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528902/x-cells-are-globally-distributed-genetically-divergent-fish-parasites-related-to-perkinsids-and-dinoflagellates
#16
Mark A Freeman, Janina Fuss, Árni Kristmundsson, Marit F M Bjorbækmo, Jean-François Mangot, Javier Del Campo, Patrick J Keeling, Kamran Shalchian-Tabrizi, David Bass
"X-cells" have long been associated with tumor-like formations (xenomas) in marine fish, including many of commercial interest. The name was first used to refer to the large polygonal cells that were found in epidermal xenomas from flatfish from the Pacific Northwest [1]. Similar looking cells from pseudobranchial xenomas had previously been reported from cod in the Atlantic [2] and Pacific Oceans [3]. X-cell pathologies have been reported from five teleost orders: Pleuronectiformes (flatfish), Perciformes (perch-like fish), Gadiformes (cods), Siluriformes (catfish), and Salmoniformes (salmonids)...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528433/hydrolysis-of-phosphatidylcholine-isoprostanes-ptdcho-ip-by-peripheral-human-group-iia-v-and-x-secretory-phospholipases-a2-spla2
#17
Arnis Kuksis, Waldemar Pruzanski
Biologically active F- and E/D-type-prostane ring isomers (F2-IP and E2/D2-IP, respectively) are produced in situ by non-enzymatic peroxidation of arachidonic acid esterified to GroPCho (PtdCho-IP) and are universally distributed in tissue lipoproteins and cell membranes. Previous work has shown that platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolases (PAF-AH) are the main endogenous PLA2 involved in degradation of PtdCho-IP. The present study shows that the PtdCho-IP are also subject to hydrolysis by group IIA, V and X secretory PLA2, which also have a wide peripheral tissue distribution...
May 20, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520449/-novelties-in-the-treatment-of-heart-failure
#18
Filip Souček, Jan Novak
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome which is manifested by characteristic symptoms and objective signs of cardiac insufficiency. The incidence of HF, particularly its chronic form, is estimated 0.4-2 % in the central and western Europe, with an increase in higher age groups, affecting 10-20 % of the population aged over 80. With respect to its growing incidence and prevalence, novel modalities of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment are being developed in order to improve quality of life and survival of the affected patients...
December 0: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512738/first-in-class-composite-angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitors-arni-in-practice
#19
REVIEW
M H Barghash, A S Desai
Sacubitril/valsartan, a first-in-class angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) inhibits angiotensin II and neprilysin, enhancing circulating vasoactive peptides. It is recommended in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) as a result of the PARADIGM-HF trial.(1) This review discusses the rationale for neprilysin inhibition, data supporting efficacy, and practical tips for patient selection and utilization.
August 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504994/preoperative-low-dose-aspirin-exposure-and-outcomes-after-emergency-neurosurgery-for-traumatic-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-elderly-patients
#20
Alex T Lee, Arni Gagnidze, Sharon R Pan, Pimwan Sookplung, Bala Nair, Shu-Fang Newman, Alon Ben-Ari, Ahmed Zaky, Kevin Cain, Monica S Vavilala, Irene Rozet
BACKGROUND: Antiplatelet medications are usually discontinued before elective neurosurgery, but this is not an option for emergent neurosurgery. We performed a retrospective cohort study to examine whether preoperative aspirin use was associated with worse outcomes after emergency neurosurgery in elderly patients. METHODS: We analyzed all cases of emergency neurosurgical procedures for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage from 2008 to 2012 at a level 1 trauma center...
August 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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