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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104292/hepatic-prominin-1-expression-is-associated-with-biliary-fibrosis
#1
Marie V Nguyen, Jessica A Zagory, William H Dietz, Alex Park, Michael Fenlon, Menghan Zhao, Jiabo Xu, Ingrid Lua, Nirmala Mavila, Kenji Asahina, Kasper S Wang
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic biliary fibrosis, as seen with cholestatic liver injuries such as biliary atresia, is mechanistically distinct from fibrosis caused by hepatocyte toxicity. We previously demonstrated the expansion of cells expressing the stem/progenitor cell marker Prominin-1, within regions of developing fibrosis in biliary atresia. Thus, we hypothesized that Prominin-1 expression is biliary fibrosis-specific. METHODS: Gene expression of Prominin-1 was analyzed in adult mice undergoing either cholestatic bile duct ligation or hepatotoxic carbon tetrachloride administration by quantitative polymerase chair reaction...
January 16, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090506/cystic-duct-variation-detected-by-near-infrared-fluorescent-cholangiography-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#2
Nam Seok Kim, Hyeong Yong Jin, Eun Young Kim, Tae Ho Hong
Near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) is an emerging technique for easy intraoperative recognition of biliary anatomy. We present a case of cystic duct variation detected by NIRFC which had a potential risk for biliary injury if not detected. A 32-year-old female was admitted to the Seoul St. Mary's Hospital for surgery for an incidental gallbladder polyp. We performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy with NIRFC. In fluorescence mode, a long cystic duct and an accessory short hepatic duct joining to the cystic duct were found and the operation was completed safely...
January 2017: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090474/post-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-biloma-in-a-child-managed-by-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangio-pancreatography-and-stenting-a-case-report
#3
Charu Tiwari, Om Prakash Makhija, Deepa Makhija, Shalika Jayaswal, Hemanshi Shah
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, though an uncommon surgical procedure in paediatric age group is still associated with a higher risk of post-operative bile duct injuries when compared with the open procedure. Small leaks from extra hepatic biliary apparatus usually lead to the formation of a localized sub-hepatic bile collection, also known as biloma. Such leaks are rare complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, especially in paediatric age group. Minor bile leaks can usually be managed non-surgically by percutaneous drainage combined with endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP)...
December 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079575/cystic-biliary-atresia-and-choledochal-cysts-are-distinct-histopathologic-entities
#4
Inna N Lobeck, Rachel Sheridan, Mark Lovell, Phylicia Dupree, Greg M Tiao, Kevin E Bove
Cystic biliary atresia (CBA), a rare cystic expansion of atretic extrahepatic bile ducts in young infants, overlaps in age at presentation and imaging features with early choledochal cysts (CC). Treatment and prognosis differ; histologic differences are unsettled. We compared 10 patients with CBA, 1975 to 2015, to an age-similar cohort of 13 infants, and to older patients who had surgery for CC. Operative details, imaging, and clinical courses were correlated to pathologic specimens. Immunostains for smooth muscle actin and myosin heavy chain were used to evaluate cyst walls and atretic segments...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074540/complications-of-percutaneous-liver-biopsy-with-klatskin-needles-a-36-year-single-centre-experience
#5
V Takyar, O Etzion, T Heller, D E Kleiner, Y Rotman, M G Ghany, N Fryzek, V H Williams, E Rivera, S Auh, T J Liang, J H Hoofnagle, C Koh
BACKGROUND: Liver biopsy is the gold standard in evaluating liver diseases but is susceptible to complications. Safety data on aspiration needle biopsies remain limited. AIM: To evaluate the safety of percutaneous liver biopsy performed with Klatskin needle. METHODS: Clinical and biochemical data were retrospectively retrieved from sequential subjects who underwent liver biopsy with Klatskin needle from 1978 to 2015. Subjects with complications underwent thorough chart reviews for hospital course...
January 10, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058010/protocol-for-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-is-it-rocket-science
#6
REVIEW
Tomohide Hori, Fumitaka Oike, Hiroaki Furuyama, Takafumi Machimoto, Yoshio Kadokawa, Toshiyuki Hata, Shigeru Kato, Daiki Yasukawa, Yuki Aisu, Maho Sasaki, Yusuke Kimura, Yuichiro Takamatsu, Masato Naito, Masaya Nakauchi, Takahiro Tanaka, Daigo Gunji, Kiyokuni Nakamura, Kiyoko Sato, Masahiro Mizuno, Taku Iida, Shintaro Yagi, Shinji Uemoto, Tsunehiro Yoshimura
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) does not require advanced techniques, and its performance has therefore rapidly spread worldwide. However, the rate of biliary injuries has not decreased. The concept of the critical view of safety (CVS) was first documented two decades ago. Unexpected injuries are principally due to misidentification of human factors. The surgeon's assumption is a major cause of misidentification, and a high level of experience alone is not sufficient for successful LC. We herein describe tips and pitfalls of LC in detail and discuss various technical considerations...
December 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055006/biliary-tract-instillation-of-a-smac-mimetic-induces-trail-dependent-acute-sclerosing-cholangitis-like-injury-in-mice
#7
Maria Eugenia Guicciardi, Anuradha Krishnan, Steven F Bronk, Petra Hirsova, Thomas S Griffith, Gregory J Gores
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiopathogenesis characterized by fibrous cholangiopathy of large and small bile ducts. Systemic administration of a murine TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor agonist induces a sclerosing cholangitis injury in C57BL/6 mice, suggesting endogenous TRAIL may contribute to sclerosing cholangitis syndromes. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAP-1 and cIAP-2) are negative regulators of inflammation and TRAIL receptor signaling...
January 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049946/ursodeoxycholic-acid-ameliorates-intrahepatic-cholestasis-independent-of-biliary-bicarbonate-secretion-in-vil2-kd-kd-mice
#8
Ryo Hatano, Kotoku Kawaguchi, Fumitaka Togashi, Masato Sugata, Shizuka Masuda, Shinji Asano
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a hydrophilic bile acid that possesses many pharmacological effects, including increasing bile flow, changing the hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool, and modulation of the immune response. UDCA has been approved for treating cholestatic liver disease, such as primary biliary cholangitis. However, several unanticipated severe side effects of UDCA are observed in cholestatic patients, and its pharmacological benefits remain controversial. We reported that ezrin-knockdown (Vil2(kd/kd)) mice exhibited severe hepatic injury because of a functional disorder in bile duct fluidity and alkalinity regulation, resembling human intrahepatic cholestatic disease...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049044/lymphocytes-contribute-to-biliary-injury-and-fibrosis-in-experimental-xenobiotic-induced-cholestasis
#9
Nikita Joshi, Anna K Kopec, Holly Cline-Fedewa, James P Luyendyk
The etiology of chronic bile duct injury and fibrosis in patients with autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases is complex, and likely involves immune cells such as lymphocytes. However, most models of biliary fibrosis are not autoimmune in nature. Biliary fibrosis can be induced experimentally by prolonged exposure of mice to the bile duct toxicant alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT). We determined whether lymphocytes contributed to ANIT-mediated biliary hyperplasia and fibrosis in mice. Hepatic accumulation of T-lymphocytes and increased serum levels of anti-nuclear-autoantibodies were evident in wild-type mice exposed to ANIT (0...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039157/extracellular-vesicles-in-liver-diseases
#10
Sayantan Maji, Akiko Matsuda, Irene K Yan, Mansi Parasramka, Tushar Patel
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles that are released by cells into their extracellular environment, have selective enrichment of specific proteins and RNA, and can mediate inter-cellular communication. In this review we highlight recent observations of the role of EVs in liver injury, viral hepatitis, alcoholic or non-alcoholic liver disease, biliary tract disease and liver cancers. Potential applications as markers of diseases or for therapeutic applications are outlined to emphasize the new opportunities that are arising from the study of EVs...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034761/bile-acid-receptor-tgr5-overexpression-is-associated-with-decreased-intestinal-mucosal-injury-and-epithelial-cell-proliferation-in-obstructive-jaundice
#11
Chen-Guang Ji, Xiao-Li Xie, Jie Yin, Wei Qi, Lei Chen, Yun Bai, Na Wang, Dong-Qiang Zhao, Xiao-Yu Jiang, Hui-Qing Jiang
Bile acids stimulate intestinal epithelial proliferation in vitro. We sought to investigate the role of the bile acid receptor TGR5 in the protection of intestinal epithelial proliferation in obstructive jaundice. Intestinal tissues and serum samples were obtained from patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and from bile duct ligation (BDL) rats. Intestinal permeability and morphological changes in the intestinal mucosa were observed. The functions of TGR5 in cell proliferation in intestinal epithelial injury were determined by overexpression or knockdown studies in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
December 18, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028561/management-of-paediatric-liver-trauma
#12
REVIEW
A B van As, Alastair J W Millar
Of all the intra-abdominal solid organs, the liver is the most vulnerable to blunt abdominal trauma. The majority of liver ruptures present in combination with other abdominal or extra-abdominal injuries. Over the last three decades, the management of blunt liver trauma has evolved from obligatory operative to non-operative management in over 90% of cases. Penetrating liver injuries more often require operative intervention and are managed according to adult protocols. The greatest clinical challenge remains the timely identification of the severely damaged liver with immediate and aggressive resuscitation and expedition to laparotomy...
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025230/mechanisms-for-hepatobiliary-toxicity-in-rats-treated-with-an-antagonist-of-melanin-concentrating-hormone-receptor-1-mchr1
#13
Monicah A Otieno, Vasanthi Bhaskaran, Evan Janovitz, Yimer Callejas, William B Foster, William Washburn, John R Megill, Lois Lehman-McKeeman, Brian Gemzik
The objective of this work was to investigate the mechanisms of hepatobiliary toxicity caused by thienopyrimidone MCHR1 antagonists using BMS-773174 as a tool molecule. Co-administration of the pan CYP inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole with BMS-773174 prevented hepatobiliary damage, and direct delivery of the diol metabolite BMS-769750 caused hepatobiliary toxicity, identifying the diol and possibly its downstream hydroxyacid (BMS-800754) metabolite as the toxic species. Rat liver gene expression revealed treatment-related changes in hepatic transporters and induction of oval cell-specific genes including deleted malignant tumor 1 (Dmbt1)...
October 20, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013213/environmental-xenoestrogens-super-activate-a-variant-murine-er-beta-in-cholangiocytes
#14
Stephanie K Meyer, Philip M E Probert, Anne K Lakey, Alastair C Leitch, Lynsay I Blake, Paul A Jowsey, Martin P Cooke, Peter G Blain, Matthew C Wright
High systemic levels of oestrogens are cholestatic and primary biliary cholangitis - which is characterised by hepatic ductular inflammation - is thought to be triggered by exposure to xenobiotics such as those around landfill sites. Xenoestrogens may be a component of this chemical trigger. We therefore hypothesised that xenoestrogens are present at higher levels in the proximity of landfill sites. To test this hypothesis, soil samples were collected, extracts prepared and biological oestrogenic activity examined using cell-based reporter gene assays...
December 24, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008998/impaired-hepatic-adaptation-to-chronic-cholestasis-induced-by-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#15
Malgorzata Milkiewicz, Marta Klak, Agnieszka Kempinska-Podhorodecka, Anna Wiechowska-Kozlowska, Elzbieta Urasinska, Malgorzata Blatkiewicz, Ewa Wunsch, Elwyn Elias, Piotr Milkiewicz
Pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) may involve impaired bile acid (BA) homeostasis. We analyzed expressions of factors mediating enterohepatic circulation of BA using ileal and colonic (ascending and sigmoid) biopsies obtained from patients with PSC with and without ulcerative colitis (UC) and explanted PSC livers. Two-fold increase of BA-activated farnesoid X receptor (FXR) protein levels were seen in ascending and sigmoid colon of PSC patients with correspondingly decreased apical sodium-dependent BA transporter (ASBT) gene expression...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998427/-the-clinical-characteristics-and-surgical-treatment-strategy-of-acute-gangrenous-cholecystitis-after-biliary-tract-stenting
#16
J Ma, S C Lü, J T Kou, X L Li, J Q Zhu, H M Dong, Q He
Objective: To analysis of the possible cause and surgical diagnosis and treatment strategies of acute gangrenous cholecystitis (AGC) after biliary stent drainage. Methods: The clinical data of 273 patients who received biliary stent drainage in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from January 2015 to March 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Among them, 22 patients who underwent surgical treatment were divided into two groups: 9 cases of AGC group and 13 cases of non-AGC group. The risk factors of AGC and surgical approach were analyzed...
December 13, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995906/acg-clinical-guideline-evaluation-of-abnormal-liver-chemistries
#17
Paul Y Kwo, Stanley M Cohen, Joseph K Lim
Clinicians are required to assess abnormal liver chemistries on a daily basis. The most common liver chemistries ordered are serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. These tests should be termed liver chemistries or liver tests. Hepatocellular injury is defined as disproportionate elevation of AST and ALT levels compared with alkaline phosphatase levels. Cholestatic injury is defined as disproportionate elevation of alkaline phosphatase level as compared with AST and ALT levels...
January 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965673/the-role-of-lymphatic-endothelial-cells-in-liver-injury-and-tumor-development
#18
REVIEW
Veronika Lukacs-Kornek
Lymphatics and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) possess multiple immunological functions besides affecting immune cell migration, such as inhibiting T cell proliferation and antigen presentation by dendritic cells. Moreover, they control the trans-endothelial transport of multiple molecules and antigens. Emerging evidence suggest their active involvements in immunregulation, tumor, and metastases formation. In the liver, increased lymphangiogenesis, specifically at the portal area has been associated with multiple liver diseases in particular primary biliary cirrhosis, idiopathic portal hypertension, and liver malignancies...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959300/cholestatic-liver-injury-care-of-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-or-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#19
Laurie Larson, Michelle James, Andrea Gossard
The most common causes of chronic cholestatic liver disease are primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Both disease processes are characterized by a destruction of intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic biliary ducts. The etiology is not entirely clear; however, there is an underlying autoimmune component contributing to both disease processes. Although PBC and PSC are often diagnosed and managed in the outpatient setting, in some instances, a patient may have jaundice, fatigue, and pruritus requiring evaluation and determination of the cholestatic cause...
October 2016: AACN Advanced Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941745/cystic-lymph-node-caution-of-safety-in-calot-s-triangle-dissection
#20
M A Channa, M Zubair, S Haider, L Habib, M R Mirza
Different landmarks are described in laparoscopic cholecystectomy for correct identification and orientation of structures to make the procedure as safe as possible. Among these one of the important landmarks is cystic lymphnode which always lies lateral to the biliary tree and forms the medial end point of dissection. This study was done to determine frequency of identification of cystic lymph node in our population. This retrospective descriptive study was conducted on 217 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis from January 2012 to December 2013 over a period of two years in Jamal Noor Hospital and Hamdard University Hospital Karachi...
October 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
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