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One legacy

Carol MacKintosh, David E K Ferrier
Ancient whole-genome duplications (WGDs)- paleopolyploidy events-are key to solving Darwin's 'abominable mystery' of how flowering plants evolved and radiated into a rich variety of species. The vertebrates also emerged from their invertebrate ancestors via two WGDs, and genomes of diverse gymnosperm trees, unicellular eukaryotes, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians and even a rodent carry evidence of lineage-specific WGDs. Modern polyploidy is common in eukaryotes, and it can be induced, enabling mechanisms and short-term cost-benefit assessments of polyploidy to be studied experimentally...
2017: F1000Research
Shuting Zhang, Xiaojiao Liu, Qipeng Jiang, Guihua Shen, Wei Ding
Chloropicrin is widely used to control ginger wilt in China, which have an enormous impact on soil microbial diversity. However, little is known on the possible legacy effects on soil microbial community composition with continuous fumigation over different years. In this report, we used high throughput Illumina sequencing and Biolog ECO microplates to determine the bacterial community and microbial metabolic activity in ginger harvest fields of non-fumigation (NF), chloropicrin-fumigation for 1 year (F_1) and continuous chloropicrin-fumigation for 3 years (F_3)...
September 18, 2017: AMB Express
Golan Shahar, Linda C Mayes
A number of broad-based, theoretical-philosophical tenets are to be gleaned from Sidney Blatt's voluminous, extensive, and unique scholarly work. Dominant themes in Blatt's life and work include (1) his fascination with cognition, particularly mental maps, or representations, of reality; (2) the influence of humanistic values (e.g., agency, need for growth, gestalts, need for balance, and an optimistic focus on resilience); and (3) a steadfast adherence to Freud's revolutionary discovery of the dynamic unconscious...
June 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Roberta Bettinetti, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Davide A L Vignati
Risk management of toxic substances is often based on Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) set for the water compartment, assuming they will also protect benthic organisms. In the absence of experimental data, EQS for sediments can be estimated by the equilibrium partitioning approach. The present study investigates whether this approach is protective of benthic organisms against pentachlorophenol (PCP), a legacy contaminant and EU priority substance still used in some parts of the world. Three freshwater species of invertebrates with different life cycles and feeding behaviors (the oligochaetes Lumbriculus variegatus, Tubifex tubifex and the dipteran insect Chironomus riparius) were exposed to PCP spiked sediments (2...
September 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
David Kyalo, Punam Amratia, Clara W Mundia, Charles M Mbogo, Maureen Coetzee, Robert W Snow
Background: Understanding the distribution of anopheline vectors of malaria is an important prelude to the design of national malaria control and elimination programmes. A single, geo-coded continental inventory of anophelines using all available published and unpublished data has not been undertaken since the 1960s. Methods: We have searched African, European and World Health Organization archives to identify unpublished reports on anopheline surveys in 48 sub-Saharan Africa countries. This search was supplemented by identification of reports that formed part of post-graduate theses, conference abstracts, regional insecticide resistance databases and more traditional bibliographic searches of peer-reviewed literature...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
Paul Freeman
Spencer Bayer cared about people; his legacy is one of hard work and high moral and ethical standards.
September 9, 2017: Veterinary Record
Lukas Mustajärvi, Espen Eek, Gerard Cornelissen, Ann-Kristin Eriksson-Wiklund, Emma Undeman, Anna Sobek
Contaminated sediment can release hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) and thereby act as a secondary source of primarily legacy hazardous substances to the water column. There is therefore a need for assessments of the release of HOCs from contaminated sediment for prioritization of management actions. In situ assessment of HOC sediment-to-water flux is currently done with (closed) benthic flux chambers, which have a sampling time exceeding one month. During this time, the water inside the chamber is depleted of oxygen and the effect of bioturbation on the sediment-to-water release of HOCs is largely ignored...
September 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Jing Zhu, Min Li, Mick Whelan
Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients for crop productivity and P deficiency is a common phenomenon in agricultural soils worldwide. Despite long-term application of phosphate fertilizers to increase crop yields, P availability is often low, due to the high affinity of phosphate for the soil solid phase. It has been suggested that the accumulated (surplus) P in agricultural soils is sufficient to sustain crop yields worldwide for about 100years. In this paper, we try to clear up the potential for making use of legacy P in soils for crop growth potentially alleviating the global P resource shortage...
August 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Taqdir Ali, Maqbool Hussain, Wajahat Ali Khan, Muhammad Afzal, Jamil Hussain, Rahman Ali, Waseem Hassan, Arif Jamshed, Byeong Ho Kang, Sungyoung Lee
OBJECTIVE: Technologically integrated healthcare environments can be realized if physicians are encouraged to use smart systems for the creation and sharing of knowledge used in clinical decision support systems (CDSS). While CDSSs are heading toward smart environments, they lack support for abstraction of technology-oriented knowledge from physicians. Therefore, abstraction in the form of a user-friendly and flexible authoring environment is required in order for physicians to create shareable and interoperable knowledge for CDSS workflows...
October 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Wei Gao, Sam Kwong, Yuheng Jia
In this paper, a joint machine learning and game theory modeling (MLGT) framework is proposed for inter frame coding tree unit (CTU) level bit allocation and rate control (RC) optimization in High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). First, a support vector machine (SVM) based multi-classification scheme is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy of CTU-level Rate-Distortion (R-D) model. The legacy "chicken-and-egg" dilemma in video coding is proposed to be overcome by the learning-based R-D model. Second, a mixed R-D model based cooperative bargaining game theory is proposed for bit allocation optimization, where the convexity of the mixed R-D model based utility function is proved, and Nash bargaining solution (NBS) is achieved by the proposed iterative solution search method...
August 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Samuel Alexander Festing Bonnett, Edward Maltby, Chris Freeman
Peatland ecosystems contain one-third of the world's soil carbon store and many have been exposed to drought leading to a loss of carbon. Understanding biogeochemical mechanisms affecting decomposition in peatlands is essential for improving resilience of ecosystem function to predicted climate change. We investigated biogeochemical changes along a chronosequence of hydrological restoration (dry eroded gully, drain-blocked <2 years, drain blocked <7 years and wet pristine site), and examined whether hydrological legacy alters the response of β-glucosidase kinetics (i...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Saioa López, Mark G Thomas, Lucy van Dorp, Naser Ansari-Pour, Sarah Stewart, Abigail L Jones, Erik Jelinek, Lounès Chikhi, Tudor Parfitt, Neil Bradman, Michael E Weale, Garrett Hellenthal
Zoroastrianism is one of the oldest extant religions in the world, originating in Persia (present-day Iran) during the second millennium BCE. Historical records indicate that migrants from Persia brought Zoroastrianism to India, but there is debate over the timing of these migrations. Here we present genome-wide autosomal, Y chromosome, and mitochondrial DNA data from Iranian and Indian Zoroastrians and neighboring modern-day Indian and Iranian populations and conduct a comprehensive genome-wide genetic analysis in these groups...
September 7, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
Abhishek Shankar, Shubham Roy, Menal Bhandari, G K Rath, Aalekhya Sharma Biswas, Ravi Kanodia, Narayan Adhikari, Rashika Sachan
Oral Mucositis (OM) is among the most common and dreaded toxicities of cancer therapy. It occurs in almost all patients who receive radiation therapy in which areas of oral and oropharyngeal mucosa are included in the treatment field. With the advent of chemotherapy in 1940 and its extended clinical legacy, it is only within the past two decade or so that mucositis’ complex pathobiology has become fully appreciated. There are still many unanswered questions about the risk factors for developing OM, but historically, risk factors have been attributed to both therapy and patient m characteristics...
August 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Gyu-Seob Jeong, Woorham Bae, Deog-Kyoon Jeong
The bandwidth requirement of wireline communications has increased exponentially because of the ever-increasing demand for data centers and high-performance computing systems. However, it becomes difficult to satisfy the requirement with legacy electrical links which suffer from frequency-dependent losses due to skin effects, dielectric losses, channel reflections, and crosstalk, resulting in a severe bandwidth limitation. In order to overcome this challenge, it is necessary to introduce optical communication technology, which has been mainly used for long-reach communications, such as long-haul networks and metropolitan area networks, to the medium- and short-reach communication systems...
August 25, 2017: Sensors
Nicole Deutsch, Prem Singh, Vivek Singh, Rod Curtis, Anisur Rahman Siddique
The Social Mobilization Network (SMNet) has been lauded as one of the most successsful community engagement strategies in public health for its role in polio elimination in India. The UNICEF-managed SMNet was created as a strategy to eradicate polio by engaging >7000 frontline social mobilizers to advocate for vaccination in some of the most underserved, marginalized, and at-risk communities in India. This network focused initially on generating demand for polio vaccination but later expanded its messaging to promote routine immunization and other health and sanitation interventions related to maternal and children's health...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Sonny Nordmarken, Samuel Ace
In this piece, we combine autoethnographic and poetic methods/genres to examine intimate and social experiences we have had as two transmasculine queers with complex sexual and gender histories in an intergenerational relationship. If queerness/transness is a "species," our title, playing on Darwin, promises an answer to oft-asked problematic questions of queer/trans origins. Refusing to address this question, we instead turn Darwin on himself and examine intimate moments in our lives to show how we have experienced the constant formation and personal evolution of desire and identity...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Lesbian Studies
James W Weaver, Andrew R Murray, Fran V Kremer
For protecting drinking water supplies, the locations of areas with reliance on private domestic wells (hereafter referred to as "wells") and their relationship to contaminant sources need to be determined. A key resource in the U.S. was the 1990 Census where the source of domestic drinking water was a survey question. Two methods are developed to update estimates of the areal density of well use using readily accessible data. The first uses well logs reported to the states and the addition of housing units reported to the Census Bureau at the county, census tract and census block group scales...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Erica Kiemele, Colleen Anne Dell, Carol Hopkins, Joel Beckstead, John A Fromson
Binge drinking among American Indians and Alaskan Natives is an acute health issue in the United States. The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University convened a one-day meeting with North American experts to identify key elements for developing research methodologies to measure treatment outcomes founded in Indigenous cultural ways of knowing. Three were identified: recognize culture as treatment, overcome Western interpretations of research, and apply culturally appropriate research methodologies...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Eric D Morway, Carl E Thodal, Mark Marvin-DiPasquale
The Carson River is a vital water resource for local municipalities and migratory birds travelling the Pacific Flyway. Historic mining practices that used mercury (Hg) to extract gold from Comstock Lode ore has left much of the river system heavily contaminated with Hg, a practice that continues in many parts of the world today. Between 1998 and 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) collected and analyzed Carson River water for Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations resulting in a sixteen year record of unfiltered total mercury (uf...
October 2017: Environmental Pollution
Ahmed Alzahrani, Muhammad Shuaib Qureshi, Vijey Thayananthan
This paper aims to analyze possible next generation of networked radio frequency identification (NGN-RFID) system for customer relationship management (CRM) in healthcare industries. Customer relationship and its management techniques in a specific healthcare industry are considered in this development. The key objective of using NGN-RFID scheme is to enhance the handling of patients' data to improve the CRM efficiency in healthcare industries. The proposed NGN-RFID system is one of the valid points to improve the ability of CRM by analyzing different prior and current traditional approaches...
July 25, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
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