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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907264/the-legacy-of-large-regime-shifts-in-shallow-lakes
#1
Joy M Ramstack Hobbs, William O Hobbs, Mark B Edlund, Kyle D Zimmer, Kevin M Theissen, Natalie Hoidal, Leah M Domine, Mark A Hanson, Brian R Herwig, James B Cotner
Ecological shifts in shallow lakes from clear-water macrophyte-dominated to turbid-water phytoplankton-dominated are generally thought of as rapid short-term transitions. Diatom remains in sediment records from shallow lakes in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America provide new evidence that the long-term ecological stability of these lakes is defined by the legacy of large regime shifts. We examine the modern and historical stability of 11 shallow lakes. Currently, four of the lakes are in a clear-water state, three are consistently turbid-water, and four have been observed to change state from year to year (transitional)...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898309/diverging-temporal-trends-of-human-exposure-to-bisphenols-and-plastizisers-such-as-phthalates-caused-by-substitution-of-legacy-edcs
#2
Irina Gyllenhammar, Anders Glynn, Bo A G Jönsson, Christian H Lindh, Per Ola Darnerud, Kettil Svensson, Sanna Lignell
Phthalates and phenolic substances were investigated in urine samples from first-time mothers in Uppsala, Sweden, collected between 2009 and 2014. These substances have a comparably fast metabolism and urinary metabolites are predominantly analysed. The main aim was to investigate if measures to decrease production and use of certain phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have resulted in decreased human exposure, and to determine if exposures to replacement chemicals have increased. Temporal trends were evaluated for metabolites (n=13) of seven phthalates, a phthalate replacer, four different bisphenols, triclosan, one organophosphate-based flame retardant, and for two pesticides...
November 26, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884867/narrative-medicine-and-death-in-the-icu-word-clouds-as-a-visual-legacy
#3
Meredith Vanstone, Feli Toledo, France Clarke, Anne Boyle, Mita Giacomini, Marilyn Swinton, Lois Saunders, Melissa Shears, Nicole Zytaruk, Anne Woods, Trudy Rose, Tracey Hand-Breckenridge, Diane Heels-Ansdell, Shelley Anderson-White, Robert Sheppard, Deborah Cook
OBJECTIVE: The Word Cloud is a frequent wish in the 3 Wishes Project developed to nurture peace and ease the grieving process for dying critically ill patients. The objective was to examine whether Word Clouds can act as a heuristic approach to encourage a narrative orientation to medicine. Narrative medicine is an approach which can strengthen relationships, compassion and resilience. DESIGN: Word Clouds were created for 42 dying patients, and we interviewed 37 family members and 73 clinicians about their impact...
November 24, 2016: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881890/co-management-as-a-catalyst-pathways-to-post-colonial-forestry-in-the-klamath-basin-california
#4
Sibyl Diver
Co-management frameworks are intended to facilitate sustainable resource management and more equitable power sharing between state agencies and Indigenous communities. However, there is significant debate about who benefits from co-management in practice. This article addresses two competing perspectives in the literature, which alternately portrays co-management as an instrument for co-optation or for transformation. Through a case study of co-management negotiations involving the Karuk Tribe and the U.S. Forest Service in the Klamath Basin of Northern California, this study examines how Indigenous communities use co-management to build greater equity in environmental decision-making, despite its limitations...
2016: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875013/-icu-survivorship-a-constructivist-grounded-theory-of-surviving-critical-illness
#5
Susanne Kean, Lisa G Salisbury, Janice Rattray, Timothy S Walsh, Guro Huby, Pamela Ramsay
AIMS & OBJECTIVE: To theorise ICU survivorship after a critical illness based on longitudinal qualitative data. BACKGROUND: Increasingly patients survive episodes of critical illness. However, the short and long term impact of critical illness include physical, psychological, social and economic challenges long after hospital discharge. An appreciation is emerging that care needs to extend beyond critical illness to enable patients to reclaim their lives post-discharge with the term 'Survivorship' being increasingly used in this context...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863317/evaluating-promis-%C3%A2-applied-cognition-items-in-a-sample-of-older-adults-at-risk-for-cognitive-decline
#6
Molly Howland, Curtis Tatsuoka, Kathleen A Smyth, Martha Sajatovic
PROMIS(®) Applied Cognition is a short self-assessment of cognitive abilities and concerns that eliminates the need for a trained rater and provides online question banks that can be uniformly used across health care providers. This 12-month prospective study of 281 elderly individuals evaluates self-perceptions of cognitive functioning in relation to objective cognition, or assessment by an external rater, and compares PROMIS® Applied Cognition Abilities and Concerns subsets with commonly used "legacy" instruments...
November 1, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853621/silicone-wristbands-detect-individuals-pesticide-exposures-in-west-africa
#7
Carey E Donald, Richard P Scott, Kathy L Blaustein, Mary L Halbleib, Makhfousse Sarr, Paul C Jepson, Kim A Anderson
We detected between 2 and 10 pesticides per person with novel sampling devices worn by 35 participants who were actively engaged in farming in Diender, Senegal. Participants were recruited to wear silicone wristbands for each of two separate periods of up to 5 days. Pesticide exposure profiles were highly individualized with only limited associations with demographic data. Using a 63-pesticide dual-column gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method, we detected pyrethoid insecticides most frequently, followed by organophosphate pesticides which have been linked to adverse health outcomes...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852266/trends-and-determinants-of-inequities-in-childhood-stunting-in-bangladesh-from-1996-7-to-2014
#8
Atonu Rabbani, Akib Khan, Sifat Yusuf, Alayne Adams
BACKGROUND: We explore long-term trends and determinants of socioeconomic inequities in chronic childhood undernutrition measured by stunting among under-five children in Bangladesh. Given that one in three children remain stunted in Bangladesh, the socioeconomic mapping of stunting prevalence may be critical in designing public policies and interventions to eradicate childhood undernutrition. METHODS: Six rounds of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data are utilized, spanning the period 1996/97 to 2014...
November 16, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846230/influence-of-elevation-data-resolution-on-spatial-prediction-of-colluvial-soils-in-a-luvisol-region
#9
Vít Penížek, Tereza Zádorová, Radka Kodešová, Aleš Vaněk
The development of a soil cover is a dynamic process. Soil cover can be altered within a few decades, which requires updating of the legacy soil maps. Soil erosion is one of the most important processes quickly altering soil cover on agriculture land. Colluvial soils develop in concave parts of the landscape as a consequence of sedimentation of eroded material. Colluvial soils are recognised as important soil units because they are a vast sink of soil organic carbon. Terrain derivatives became an important tool in digital soil mapping and are among the most popular auxiliary data used for quantitative spatial prediction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830645/thoughts-about-dying-in-america-enhancing-the-impact-of-one-s-life-journey-and-legacy-by-also-planning-for-the-end-of-life
#10
Philip A Pizzo
This Perspective offers a summary of the recommendations in the Institute of Medicine report Dying in America How we die is a deeply personal issue that each of us will face. However, the approach to end-of-life (EOL) care in the United States needs improvement. Too frequently, healthcare delivery is uncoordinated and has many providers who are not adequately prepared to have meaningful conversations about EOL planning. This is amplified by payment systems and policies that create impediments, misunderstanding, and sometimes misinformation...
November 8, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783970/realities-of-environmental-toxicity-and-their-ramifications-for-community-engagement
#11
Justin T Clapp, Jody A Roberts, Britt Dahlberg, Lee Sullivan Berry, Lisa M Jacobs, Edward A Emmett, Frances K Barg
Research on community responses to environmental toxicity has richly described the struggles of citizens to identify unrecognized toxins, collect their own environmental health facts, and use them to lobby authorities for recognition and remediation. Much of this literature is based on an empiricist premise: it is concerned with exploring differences in how laypeople and experts perceive what is presumed to be a singular toxic reality that preexists these varying perspectives. Here, we seek to reexamine this topic by shifting the focus from facts to facticity-that is, by exploring the many types of knowledge that communities develop about toxicity and how these knowledges articulate with the ideas of scientific and governmental authorities about what kinds of information are valid bases for policymaking...
December 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760152/mapping-the-elephants-of-the-19th-century-east-african-ivory-trade-with-a-multi-isotope-approach
#12
Ashley N Coutu, Julia Lee-Thorp, Matthew J Collins, Paul J Lane
East African elephants have been hunted for their ivory for millennia but the nineteenth century witnessed strongly escalating demand from Europe and North America. It has been suggested that one consequence was that by the 1880s elephant herds along the coast had become scarce, and to meet demand, trade caravans trekked farther into interior regions of East Africa, extending the extraction frontier. The steady decimation of elephant populations coupled with the extension of trade networks have also been claimed to have triggered significant ecological and socio-economic changes that left lasting legacies across the region...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755688/co-occurring-nonnative-woody-shrubs-have-additive-and-non-additive-soil-legacies
#13
Sara E Kuebbing, Courtney M Patterson, Aimée T Classen, Daniel Simberloff
To maximize limited conservation funds and prioritize management projects that are likely to succeed, accurate assessment of invasive nonnative species impacts is essential. A common challenge to prioritization is a limited knowledge of the difference between the impacts of a single nonnative species compared to the impacts of nonnative species when they co-occur, and in particular predicting when impacts of co-occurring nonnative species will be non-additive. Understanding non-additivity is important for management decisions because the management of only one co-occurring invader will not necessarily lead to a predictable reduction in the impact or growth of the other nonnative plant...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748982/mobile-nmr-an-essential-tool-for-protecting-our-cultural-heritage
#14
Maria Baias
What is "cultural heritage"? Is it simply our legacy of physical artifacts - or is it our collective legacy as human societies - how we want to be remembered by future generations? With time, negligence, and even military conflict working to erase the past, we must ask: Can a better understanding of our shared heritage assist us in addressing cultural differences in the present day? And how can science both help us understand the historic record and work to preserve it? In this perspective article we examine an emerging scientific method, mobile nuclear magnetic resonance, that can help us examine in a non-invasive way important objects and sites of our cultural heritage...
October 17, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740610/microbial-legacies-alter-decomposition-in-response-to-simulated-global-change
#15
Jennifer Bh Martiny, Adam C Martiny, Claudia Weihe, Ying Lu, Renaud Berlemont, Eoin L Brodie, Michael L Goulden, Kathleen K Treseder, Steven D Allison
Terrestrial ecosystem models assume that microbial communities respond instantaneously, or are immediately resilient, to environmental change. Here we tested this assumption by quantifying the resilience of a leaf litter community to changes in precipitation or nitrogen availability. By manipulating composition within a global change experiment, we decoupled the legacies of abiotic parameters versus that of the microbial community itself. After one rainy season, more variation in fungal composition could be explained by the original microbial inoculum than the litterbag environment (18% versus 5...
October 14, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732009/sexual-harassment-have-we-made-any-progress
#16
James Campbell Quick, M Ann McFadyen
Sexual harassment (SH) is a continuing, chronic occupational health problem in organizations and work environments. First addressed in the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology through a 1998 Special Section on Sexual Harassment, we return to this consequential issue. If the goal is to reduce SH in organizations, and we believe that it should be, then a key question is whether we have made progress in 2 decades. The answer is mixed. Yes, there is a 28% decline in SH complaints. No, there is an increase in complaints by males...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708569/modeling-and-theories-of-pathophysiology-and-physiology-of-the-basal-ganglia-thalamic-cortical-system-critical-analysis
#17
Erwin B Montgomery
Theories impact the movement disorders clinic, not only affecting the development of new therapies but determining how current therapies are used. Models are theories that are procedural rather than declarative. Theories and models are important because, as argued by Kant, one cannot know the thing-in-itself (das Ding an sich) and only a model is knowable. Further, biological variability forces higher level abstraction relevant for all variants. It is that abstraction that is raison d'être of theories and models...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707787/the-identification-of-a-novel-mutant-allele-of-topoisomerase-ii-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-reveals-a-unique-role-in-chromosome-segregation-during-spermatogenesis
#18
Aimee Jaramillo-Lambert, Amy S Fabritius, Tyler J Hansen, Harold E Smith, Andy Golden
Topoisomerase II alleviates DNA entanglements that are generated during mitotic DNA replication, transcription, and sister chromatid separation. In contrast to mitosis, meiosis has two rounds of chromosome segregation following one round of DNA replication. In meiosis II, sister chromatids segregate from each other similar to mitosis. Meiosis I, on the other hand, segregates homologs, which requires pairing, synapsis, and recombination. The exact role that topoisomerase II plays during meiosis is unknown. In a screen re-examining Caenorhabditis elegant legacy mutants isolated thirty years ago, we identified a novel allele of the gene encoding topoisomerase II, top-2(it7) In this study, we demonstrate that top-2(it7) males produce dead embryos, even when fertilizing wild-type oocytes...
October 5, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700056/hygroscopic-properties-and-respiratory-system-deposition-behavior-of-particulate-matter-emitted-by-mining-and-smelting-operations
#19
Jong Sang Youn, Janae Csavina, Kyle P Rine, Taylor Shingler, Mark Patrick Taylor, A Eduardo Sáez, Eric A Betterton, Armin Sorooshian
This study examines size-resolved physicochemical data for particles sampled near mining and smelting operations and a background urban site in Arizona with a focus on how hygroscopic growth impacts particle deposition behavior. Particles with aerodynamic diameters between 0.056 - 18 µm were collected at three sites: (i) an active smelter operation in Hayden, AZ, (ii) a legacy mining site with extensive mine tailings in Iron King, AZ, and (iii) an urban site, inner-city Tucson, AZ. Mass size distributions of As and Pb exhibit bimodal profiles with a dominant peak between 0...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684072/tenure-track-policy-increases-representation-of-women-in-senior-academic-positions-but-is-insufficient-to-achieve-gender-balance
#20
Martha M Bakker, Maarten H Jacobs
Underrepresentation of women in senior positions is a persistent problem in universities worldwide, and a wide range of strategies to combat this situation is currently being contemplated. One such strategy is the introduction of a tenure track system, in which decisions to promote scientific staff to higher ranks are guided by a set of explicit and transparent criteria, as opposed to earlier situations in which decisions were based on presumably more subjective impressions by superiors. We examined the effect of the introduction of a tenure track system at Wageningen University (The Netherlands) on male and female promotion rates...
2016: PloS One
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