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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226406/what-do-we-know-about-older-former-carers-key-issues-and-themes
#1
Mary Larkin, Alisoun Milne
Despite a significant growth in the number older former family carers, they remain largely invisible in carer-related research and literature. To begin to address this deficit, a four-stage literature review was conducted to identify existing knowledge about older former carers. Narrative synthesis of the findings yielded five themes - the concept of 'older former carer', the legacies of caring, influences on the legacies of caring, conceptualising post-caring and support services for older former carers. Critical analysis of these findings suggests that existing evidence has a number of strengths...
February 22, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214991/efficiency-analysis-of-an-interoperable-healthcare-operations-platform
#2
Thomas F Osborne, Reese H Clark, Jason Blackowiak, Patrick J Williamson, Shannon M Werb, Benjamin W Strong
(1) Develop an enterprise platform to unify isolated information, software applications and team members. (2) Assess the efficiency of one benefit of the platform through comparative testing of employee document retrieval times. (3) Evaluate the level of satisfaction among our target audience. We developed an infrastructure to integrate information throughout our practice and make it available on a unified, secure, and remotely accessible platform. We solicited our practice for volunteers to test the new system...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214960/axonal-disruption-in-white-matter-underlying-cortical-sulcus-tau-pathology-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#3
Laurena Holleran, Joong Hee Kim, Mihika Gangolli, Thor Stein, Victor Alvarez, Ann McKee, David L Brody
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disorder associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury. One of the primary defining neuropathological lesions in CTE, based on the first consensus conference, is the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in gray matter sulcal depths. Post-mortem CTE studies have also reported myelin loss, axonal injury and white matter degeneration. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE is restricted to post-mortem neuropathological analysis. We hypothesized that high spatial resolution advanced diffusion MRI might be useful for detecting white matter microstructural changes directly adjacent to gray matter tau pathology...
February 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205088/-%C3%A2-what-is-the-best-theory-of-generation-%C3%A2-arguments-and-debates-among-students-from-the-royal-medical-society-in-eighteenth-century-edinburgh
#4
Sophie Vasset
This article proposes a different approach to the long generation controversy that divided naturalists in eighteenth-century Europe between those in favour of preformationism, on the one hand, and supporters of the theory of epigenesis on the other. This controversy has mostly been studied through the publications of the intellectual elite, that was constituted of medical doctors, natural historians, philosophers, and theologians. Rather than reviewing the ideas and antagonisms of the direct agents of the controversy, I will attempt to approach it from the margins...
December 2016: Revue de Synthèse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194814/the-legacy-of-columbus-in-american-horse-populations-assessed-by-microsatellite-markers
#5
O Cortés, S Dunner, L T Gama, A M Martínez, J V Delgado, C Ginja, L M Jiménez, J Jordana, C Luis, M M Oom, D P Sponenberg, P Zaragoza, J L Vega-Pla
Criollo horse populations descend from horses brought from the Iberian Peninsula over the period of colonization (15th to 17th century). They are spread throughout the Americas and have potentially undergone genetic hybridization with other breeds in the recent past. In this study, 25 autosomal microsatellites were genotyped in 50 horse breeds representing Criollo populations from 12 American countries (27 breeds), breeds from the Iberian Peninsula (19), one breed each from France and Morocco and two cosmopolitan horse breeds (Thoroughbred and Arabian)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190611/legacy-and-alternative-flame-retardants-in-norwegian-and-uk-indoor-environment-implications-of-human-exposure-via-dust-ingestion
#6
Katerina Kademoglou, Fuchao Xu, Juan Antonio Padilla-Sanchez, Line Småstuen Haug, Adrian Covaci, Chris D Collins
Indoor dust has been acknowledged as a major source of flame retardants (FRs) and dust ingestion is considered a major route of exposure for humans. In the present study, we investigated the presence of PBDEs and alternative FRs such as emerging halogenated FRs (EHFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in indoor dust samples from British and Norwegian houses as well as British stores and offices. BDE209 was the most abundant PBDE congener with median concentrations of 4700ngg(-1) and 3400ngg(-1) in UK occupational and house dust, respectively, 30 and 20 fold higher than in Norwegian house dust...
February 9, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165504/implementation-of-a-method-to-visualize-noise-induced-hearing-loss-in-mass-stranded-cetaceans
#7
Maria Morell, Andrew Brownlow, Barry McGovern, Stephen A Raverty, Robert E Shadwick, Michel André
Assessment of the impact of noise over-exposure in stranded cetaceans is challenging, as the lesions that lead to hearing loss occur at the cellular level and inner ear cells are very sensitive to autolysis. Distinguishing ante-mortem pathology from post-mortem change has been a major constraint in diagnosing potential impact. Here, we outline a methodology applicable to the detection of noise-induced hearing loss in stranded cetaceans. Inner ears from two mass strandings of long-finned pilot whales in Scotland were processed for scanning electron microscopy observation...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160090/spatial-heterogeneity-of-plant-soil-feedbacks-increases-per-capita-reproductive-biomass-of-species-at-an-establishment-disadvantage
#8
Jean H Burns, Angela J Brandt, Jennifer E Murphy, Angela M Kaczowka, David J Burke
Plant-soil feedbacks have been widely implicated as a driver of plant community diversity, and the coexistence prediction generated by a negative plant-soil feedback can be tested using the mutual invasibility criterion: if two populations are able to invade one another, this result is consistent with stable coexistence. We previously showed that two co-occurring Rumex species exhibit negative pairwise plant-soil feedbacks, predicting that plant-soil feedbacks could lead to their coexistence. However, whether plants are able to reproduce when at an establishment disadvantage ("invasibility"), or what drivers in the soil might correlate with this pattern, are unknown...
February 3, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139267/when-is-a-terrace-not-a-terrace-the-importance-of-understanding-landscape-evolution-in-studies-of-terraced-agriculture
#9
C Ferro-Vázquez, C Lang, J Kaal, D Stump
Before the invention of modern, large-scale engineering projects, terrace systems were rarely built in single phases of construction, but instead developed gradually, and could even be said to have evolved. Understanding this process of landscape change is therefore important in order to fully appreciate how terrace systems were built and functioned, and is also pivotal to understanding how the communities that farmed these systems responded to changes; whether these are changes to the landscape brought about by the farming practices themselves, or changes to social, economic or climatic conditions...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123101/application-of-gene-set-enrichment-analysis-for-identification-of-chemically-induced-biologically-relevant-transcriptomic-networks-and-potential-utilization-in-human-health-risk-assessment
#10
Jeffry L Dean, Q Jay Zhao, Jason C Lambert, Belinda S Hawkins, Russell S Thomas, Scott C Wesselkamper
The rate of new chemical development in commerce combined with a paucity of toxicity data for legacy chemicals presents a unique challenge for human health risk assessment. There is a clear need to develop new technologies and incorporate novel data streams to more efficiently inform derivation of toxicity values. One avenue of exploitation lies in the field of transcriptomics and the application of gene expression analysis to characterize biological responses to chemical exposures. In this context, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was employed to evaluate tissue-specific, dose-response gene expression data generated following exposure to multiple chemicals for various durations...
January 25, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113570/on-solving-the-problem-of-identifying-unreliable-sensors-without-a-knowledge-of-the-ground-truth-the-case-of-stochastic-environments
#11
Anis Yazidi, B John Oommen, Morten Goodwin
The purpose of this paper is to propose a solution to an extremely pertinent problem, namely, that of identifying unreliable sensors (in a domain of reliable and unreliable ones) without any knowledge of the ground truth. This fascinating paradox can be formulated in simple terms as trying to identify stochastic liars without any additional information about the truth. Though apparently impossible, we will show that it is feasible to solve the problem, a claim that is counter-intuitive in and of itself. One aspect of our contribution is to show how redundancy can be introduced, and how it can be effectively utilized in resolving this paradox...
April 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097426/functional-diversity-increases-ecological-stability-in-a-grazed-grassland
#12
Lauren M Hallett, Claudia Stein, Katharine N Suding
Understanding the factors governing ecological stability in variable environments is a central focus of ecology. Functional diversity can stabilize ecosystem function over time if one group of species compensates for an environmentally driven decline in another. Although intuitively appealing, evidence for this pattern is mixed. We hypothesized that diverse functional responses to rainfall will increase the stability of vegetation cover and biomass across rainfall conditions, but that this effect depends on land-use legacies that maintain functional diversity...
January 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064314/-gene-pool-of-siberian-tatars-five-ways-of-origin-for-five-subethnic-groups
#13
A T Agdzhoyan, E V Balanovska, A D Padyukova, D O Dolinina, M A Kuznetsova, V V Zaporozhchenko, R A Skhalyakho, S M Koshel, M K Zhabagin, Y M Yusupov, Kh Kh Mustafin, M V Ulyanova, Z A Tychinskih, M B Lavryashina, O P Balanovsky
Siberian Tatars form the largest Turkic-speaking ethnic group in Western Siberia. The group has a complex hierarchical system of ethnographically diverse populations. Five subethnic groups of Tobol-Irtysh Siberian Tatars (N = 388 samples) have been analyzed for 50 informative Y-chromosomal SNPs. The subethnic groups have been found to be extremely genetically diverse (FST = 21%), so the Siberian Tatars form one of the strongly differentiated ethnic gene pools in Siberia and Central Asia. Every method employed in our studies indicates that different subethnic groups formed in different ways...
November 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051295/long-term-immobilization-of-technetium-via-bioremediation-with-slow-release-substrates
#14
Laura Newsome, Adrian Cleary, Katherine Morris, Jonathan R Lloyd
Radionuclides are present in groundwater at contaminated nuclear facilities with technetium-99, one of the most mobile radionuclides encountered. In situ bioremediation via the generation of microbially reducing conditions has the potential to remove aqueous and mobile Tc(VII) from groundwater as insoluble Tc(IV). However, questions remain regarding the optimal methods of biostimulation and the stability of reduced Tc(IV) phases under oxic conditions. Here, we selected a range of slow-release electron donor/chemical reduction based substrates available for contaminated land treatment, and assessed their potential to stimulate the formation of recalcitrant Tc(IV) biominerals under conditions relevant to radioactively contaminated land...
January 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049631/post-hurricane-successional-dynamics-in-abundance-and-diversity-of-canopy-arthropods-in-a-tropical-rainforest
#15
T D Schowalter, M R Willig, S J Presley
We quantified long-term successional trajectories of canopy arthropods on six tree species in a tropical rainforest ecosystem in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico that experienced repeated hurricane-induced disturbances during the 19-yr study (1991-2009). We expected: 1) differential performances of arthropod species to result in taxon- or guild-specific responses; 2) differences in initial conditions to result in distinct successional responses to each hurricane; and 3) the legacy of hurricane-created gaps to persist despite subsequent disturbances...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038873/current-use-pesticide-and-legacy-organochlorine-pesticide-dynamics-at-the-ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere-interface-in-resolute-passage-canadian-arctic-during-winter-summer-transition
#16
Monika Pućko, Gary A Stern, Alexis E Burt, Liisa M Jantunen, Terry F Bidleman, Robie W Macdonald, David G Barber, Nicolas-X Geilfus, Søren Rysgaard
Here, we present the first detailed analysis of processes by which various current use pesticides (CUPs) and legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are concentrated in melt ponds that form on Arctic sea ice in the summer, when surface snow is melting and ice eventually breaks up. Four current use pesticides (dacthal, chlorpyrifos, trifluralin, and pentachloronitrobenzene) and one legacy organochlorine pesticide (α-hexachlorocyclohexane) were detected in ponds in Resolute Passage, Canadian Arctic, in 2012...
December 27, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038350/norm-contaminated-area-identification-using-radionuclides-activity-concentration-pattern-in-a-soil-profile
#17
Bogusław Michalik
According to the requirements set by European BSS the exposure of humans and biota to ionizing radiation originating from natural radionuclides but under anthropogenically changed conditions should be managed within the same regulatory framework as other practices. Such situation creates the strong needs to have a reliable method to distinguish whether the particular case of natural radioactivity occurrence has resulted from human activity or it is pure natural phenomenon. In case of current activity of particular NORM industry there are no doubts however, in case of a legacy site, such question becomes crucial...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035843/within-the-triangle-of-healthcare-legacies-comparing-the-performance-of-south-eastern-european-health-systems
#18
Mihajlo Michael Jakovljevic, Jelena Arsenijevic, Milena Pavlova, Nick Verhaeghe, Ulrich Laaser, Wim Groot
OBJECTIVE: Inter-regional comparison of health-reform outcomes in south-eastern Europe (SEE). METHODS: Macro-indicators were obtained from the WHO Health for All Database. Inter-regional comparison among post-Semashko, former Yugoslavia and prior-1989-free-market SEE economies was conducted. RESULTS: United Nations Development Program Human Development Index growth was strongest among prior-free-market SEE followed by former Yugoslavia and post-Semashko...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034506/development-and-comparison-of-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-techniques-for-analysis-of-flame-retardants
#19
Jakob Gustavsson, Lutz Ahrens, Minh A Nguyen, Sarah Josefsson, Karin Wiberg
The restrictions on the use of legacy flame retardants (FRs) have increased the need of alternative FRs to comply with fire safety legislations. In this study, the feasibility of three different gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were investigated for the analysis of 102 legacy and alternative FRs including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, n=27), halogenated FRs (HFRs, containing bromine and/or chlorine, n=46), and organophosphorous FRs (OPFRs, n=29). The tested techniques included GC-single MS with (i) electon impact (EI) ionization and (ii) negative chemical ionization (NCI), and (iii) GC-tandem MS (MS/MS) with EI ionization...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032302/the-1925-diphtheria-antitoxin-run-to-nome-alaska-a-public-health-illustration-of-human-animal-collaboration
#20
Basil H Aboul-Enein, William C Puddy, Jacquelyn E Bowser
Diphtheria is an acute toxin-mediated superficial infection of the respiratory tract or skin caused by the aerobic gram-positive bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The epidemiology of infection and clinical manifestations of the disease vary in different parts of the world. Historical accounts of diphtheria epidemics have been described in many parts of the world since antiquity. Developed in the late 19th century, the diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) played a pivotal role in the history of public health and vaccinology prior to the advent of the diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Humanities
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