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Niacin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771289/performance-of-plasma-trigonelline-as-a-marker-of-coffee-consumption-in-an-epidemiologic-setting
#1
Øivind Midttun, Arve Ulvik, Ottar Nygård, Per M Ueland
Background: Coffee is a widely consumed beverage, and studies suggest that drinking coffee has beneficial health effects. The phytohormone trigonelline is present in large amounts in coffee beans, and circulating concentrations of trigonelline have been shown to be positively related to dietary intake of coffee and to increase significantly after the consumption of a bolus dose of coffee. Objective: We cross-sectionally investigated the utility of plasma trigonelline as a marker of coffee consumption in an epidemiologic setting...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767159/niacin-alters-the-ruminal-microbial-composition-of-cattle-under-high-concentrate-condition
#2
Dan Luo, Yufei Gao, Youyou Lu, Mingren Qu, Xiaowen Xiong, Lanjiao Xu, Xianghui Zhao, Ke Pan, Kehui Ouyang
To understand the effects of niacin on the ruminal microbial ecology of cattle under high-concentrate diet condition, Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology was used. Three cattle with rumen cannula were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design trial. Three diets were fed to these cattle during 3 periods for 3 days, respectively: high-forage diet (HF; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 80:20), high-concentrate diet (HC; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 20:80), and HC supplemented with 800 mg/kg niacin (HCN). Ruminal pH was measured before feeding and every 2 h after initiating feeding...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759143/niacin-modulates-macrophage-polarization-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Chandramohan Wakade, Banabihari Giri, Aneeq Malik, Hesam Khodadadi, John C Morgan, Raymond K Chong, Babak Baban
Neuroinflammation remains a central piece in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology. However, mechanisms by which PD links to the neuroinflammation remain elusive. Here, for the first time, we report that lower dose of niacin in PD patients may affect macrophage polarization from M1 (pro-inflammatory) to M2 (counter-inflammatory) profile through the niacin receptor GPR109A. Skew in the peripheral macrophages were accompanied by improved quality of life assessments in patients. Low dose niacin supplementation may be beneficial in PD, boosting anti-inflammatory processes and suppressing inflammation...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753732/niacin-action-in-the-atherogenic-mixed-dyslipidemia-of-metabolic-syndrome-insights-from-metabolic-biomarker-profiling-and-network-analysis
#4
Martin Adiels, M John Chapman, Paul Robillard, Michel Krempf, Martine Laville, Jan Borén
BACKGROUND: Niacin as an adjunct to statin treatment to reduce cardiovascular risk is questioned. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate interrelationships between the effects of niacin on mixed dyslipidemia and a spectrum of metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. METHODS: Obese, nondiabetic, hypertriglyceridemic males (n = 19) with low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels received extended-release nicotinic acid for 8 weeks. Multiple biomarkers were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, enzymatic/absorptiometric, or multiplex biochip assays...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748511/implementation-of-dietary-reference-intake-standards-in-preschool-menus-in-poland
#5
Joanna Myszkowska-Ryciak, Anna Harton
Although the nutritional value of preschool menus largely determines the proper nutrition of attending children, their nutrient composition often does not meet the standards. The purpose of the study was to assess the nutritional value of menus served in preschools throughout Poland. We analyzed a sample of 10 daily menus and inventory reports reflecting foods and beverages served in 270 full-board government-sponsored preschools. Nutrient content was calculated per child per day, and compared with 70% of dietary reference intake (DRI) for children aged 1⁻3 and 4⁻6...
May 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742581/niacin-and-selenium-attenuate-brain-injury-after-cardiac-arrest-in-rats-by-up-regulating-dj-1-akt-signaling
#6
Woon Yong Kwon, Gil Joon Suh, Kyung Su Kim, Yoon Sun Jung, Sung Hee Kim, A Rum Lee, Kyoung Min You, Min Ji Park
OBJECTIVES: To determine neuroprotective effects and mechanism of the combination therapy of niacin and selenium in cardiac arrest rats. DESIGN: Prospective laboratory study. SETTING: University laboratory. SUBJECTS: Rat cortex neurons and male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 68). INTERVENTIONS: In rat cortex neurons underwent 90 minutes of oxygen-glucose deprivation and 22.5 hours of reoxygenation, effects of the combination therapy of niacin (0...
May 8, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735610/reduction-in-secretion-of-very-low-density-lipoprotein-triacylglycerol-by-a-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitor-in-a-rat-model-of-diet-induced-hypertriglyceridemia
#7
Yoichi Kawashima, Yoshihiro Eguchi, Tohru Yamazaki, Minako Karahashi, Hiroshi Kawai, Naomi Kudo
Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) reduced serum triacylglycerol (TAG) levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and Zucker fa/fa rats in our previous study. However, the mechanisms underlying TAG reduction by MMPIs remain unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which F81-1144b, a MMPI, lowers serum TAG levels in an animal model of high sucrose diet (HSD)-induced hypertriglyceridemia. F81-1144b was repeatedly administered to rats fed HSD, and its effects were evaluated on TAG levels in serum and the liver, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis in the liver, and the expression of genes regulating the metabolism of FA, TAG, and VLDL in the liver and serum...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726857/clinical-inquiries-does-niacin-decrease-cardiovascular-morbidity-and-mortality-in-cvd-patients
#8
Peter Lazzopina, Anne Mounsey, Lara Handler
No. Niacin doesn't reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity or mortality in patients with established disease (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A, meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and subsequent large RCTs). Niacin may be considered as monotherapy for patients intolerant of statins (SOR: B, one well-done RCT).
May 2018: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721678/what-is-the-relationship-between-physical-fitness-level-and-macro-and-micronutrient-intake-in-spanish-older-adults
#9
R Aparicio-Ugarriza, R Luzardo-Socorro, G Palacios, M M Bibiloni, E Argelich, J A Tur, Marcela González-Gross
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between physical fitness (PF) and energy and nutrient intake in Spanish older adults. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-four participants (59.9% females, aged over 55 years) performed a battery of four validated PF tests and participants were divided into three: low, medium, and high PF. Dietary intake was assessed by two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intake was calculated using the ALIMENTA software...
May 2, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710469/hydroxytyrosol-nicotinate-a-new-multifunctional-hypolipidemic-and-hypoglycemic-agent
#10
Yun-Dong Xie, Zi-Zhang Chen, Na Li, Wen-Fang Lu, Yan-Hong Xu, Yuan-Yuan Lin, Li-Hua Shao, Qiu-Tang Wang, Li-Ying Guo, Yu-Qiong Gao, Guang-De Yang, Yi-Ping Li, Xiao-Li Bian
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a natural polyphenol antioxidant that exists in olive oil. In the study of multifunctional hypolipidemic of nicotinic derivatives, we found that hydroxytyrosol nicotinate (HT-N) incorporation of niacin with HT displayed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities in vitro, such as yeast ?-glucosidase (IC50 ?=?117.72??M) and rat intestinal ?-glucosidases maltase (IC50 ?=?31.86??M) and sucrase (IC50 ?=?22.99??M), and had a good control of postprandial blood glucose (PBG). HT-N shown significantly hypoglycemic action by 16...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710037/organ-co-relationship-in-tryptophan-metabolism-and-factors-that-govern-the-biosynthesis-of-nicotinamide-from-tryptophan
#11
Katsumi Shibata
The pathway of tryptophan (Trp)-nicotinamide is very important nutritionally because a vitamin nicotinamide is biosynthesized from an amino acid Trp. Until we started studying the factors that affect the Trp-nicotinamide conversion rate, little data existed. Data obtained from TDO (Trp 2,3-dioxygenase)-KO (knock-out) mice have revealed that mice can biosynthesize a necessary amount of nicotinamide from Trp by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) even when TDO is lacking. It has also been shown that 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid is a key intermediate...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709786/discovery-of-coumarin-dihydroquinazolinone-analogs-as-niacin-receptor-1-agonist-with-in-vivo-anti-obesity-efficacy
#12
L Ravithej Singh, Ajeet Kumar, Akanksha Upadhyay, Sampa Gupta, Gopala Reddy Palanati, Kamakshi Sikka, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi, Prem N Yadav, Koneni V Sashidhara
In this study, we presented rational designing and synthesis of coumarin-dihydroquinazolinone conjugates to evaluate their agonist activity at GPR109a receptor. Among the synthesized small molecule library, compound 10c displayed robust agonist action at GPR109a with EC50  < 11 nM. Homology model of human GPR109a protein was generated to realize the binding interaction of the active molecule with the active site of GPR109a. Further, the efficacy of active compound 10c was supported by in-vivo experiments which showed reduced body weight in diet induced obese mice model...
April 21, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695704/human-adipose-tissue-protein-analyses-using-capillary-western-blot-technology
#13
Jin Lu, Carolyn C Allred, Michael D Jensen
A capillary western blot (Wes®) technology has recently been validated for analyses of cell culture lysate proteins, but whether it is reliable for human tissue proteins is unknown. We compared traditional western blotting to the Wes® capillary western method to quantitate the relative amount of human adipose tissue CD36, the ratio of phosphorylated Erk1/2 (pErk1/2) to total Erk1/2 during insulin clamp or after niacin treatment and the fold increase in pAktS473 (Akt phosphorylation on Ser473) in response to feeding...
April 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693633/grains-contribute-shortfall-nutrients-and-nutrient-density-to-older-us-adults-data-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2011%C3%A2-2014
#14
Yanni Papanikolaou, Victor L Fulgoni
Previous data demonstrate grain foods contribute shortfall nutrients to the diet of U.S. adults. The 2015⁻2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans have identified several shortfall nutrients in the U.S. population, including fiber, folate, and iron (women only). Intake of some shortfall nutrients can be even lower in older adults. The present analyses determined the contribution of grain foods for energy and nutrients in older U.S. adults and ranked to all other food sources in the American diet. Analyses of grain food sources were conducted using a 24-hour recall in adults (&ge;51 years old; n = 4522) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011⁻2014...
April 25, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686792/beating-the-urine-drug-test-a-case-report-on-niacin-toxicity
#15
Beenish Fayyaz, Hafiz J Rehman, Sunita Upreti
Niacin is a form of vitamin B3 which is used for the medical treatment of hyperlipidemia and niacin deficiency. However, within the last few years, it is being advertised on the Internet as a quick way to detoxify the human body in an attempt to evade urine drug tests. This claim is without any medical or scientific evidence and as a result, many cases have been reported where young adults have ended up with niacin toxicity. In this case report, we discuss a rare presentation of niacin toxicity and the effects Internet has had on the healthcare being practised by both the physicians and the patients themselves...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671561/use-of-niacin-for-primary-or-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-or-cerebrovascular-events
#16
Joseph R Yancey, Jeanmarie B Rey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671538/stable-coronary-artery-disease-treatment
#17
Michael M Braun, William A Stevens, Craig H Barstow
Stable coronary artery disease refers to a reversible supply/demand mismatch related to ischemia, a history of myocardial infarction, or the presence of plaque documented by catheterization or computed tomography angiography. Patients are considered stable if they are asymptomatic or their symptoms are controlled by medications or revascularization. Treatment involves risk factor management, antiplatelet therapy, and antianginal medications. Tobacco cessation, exercise, and weight loss are the most important lifestyle modifications...
March 15, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666578/individual-experiences-in-four-cancer-patients-following-psilocybin-assisted-psychotherapy
#18
Tara C Malone, Sarah E Mennenga, Jeffrey Guss, Samantha K Podrebarac, Lindsey T Owens, Anthony P Bossis, Alexander B Belser, Gabrielle Agin-Liebes, Michael P Bogenschutz, Stephen Ross
A growing body of evidence shows that existential and spiritual well-being in cancer patients is associated with better medical outcomes, improved quality of life, and serves as a buffer against depression, hopelessness, and desire for hastened death. Historical and recent research suggests a role for psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy in treating cancer-related anxiety and depression. A double-blind controlled trial was performed, where 29 patients with cancer-related anxiety and depression were randomly assigned to treatment with single-dose psilocybin (0...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658877/simulation-of-the-elastin-and-fibrillin-in-non-irradiated-or-uva-radiated-fibroblasts-and-direct-inhibition-of-elastase-or-matrix-metalloptoteinases-activity-by-nicotinamide-or-its-derivatives
#19
Neena Philips, Jovinna Chalensouk-Khaosaat, Salvador Gonzalez
Skin aging/photoaging is associated with altered the structure of collagen and elastin fibers, and increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and elastase. Nicotinamide and its derivatives, 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide, 2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxynicotinamide, and 3-hydroxypicolinamide (collectively niacin derivatives) stimulate fibrillar collagen and heat shock proteins in dermal fibroblasts. The goal of this research was to extend the understanding of the anti-skin aging mechanism of these niacin derivatives through the stimulation of elastin (at the protein and promoter levels), fibrillin (1 and 2) in nonirradiated or ultraviolet (UVA) radiated dermal fibroblasts, and through the direct inhibition of MMP (1, 3, and 9) and elastase activities...
January 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656731/validity-of-an-ffq-to-measure-nutrient-and-food-intakes-in-tanzania
#20
Rachel M Zack, Kahema Irema, Patrick Kazonda, Germana H Leyna, Enju Liu, Susan Gilbert, Zohra Lukmanji, Donna Spiegelman, Wafaie Fawzi, Marina Njelekela, Japhet Killewo, Goodarz Danaei
OBJECTIVE: FFQ are often used to estimate food and nutrient intakes to rank individuals by their level of intake. We evaluated the relative validity of a semi-quantitative FFQ created for use in Tanzania by comparing it with two 24 h diet recalls. DESIGN: We measured relative validity of the FFQ with deattenuated energy-adjusted rank correlations for nutrients, deattenuated rank correlations for food groups, and performed a cross-classification analysis of energy-adjusted nutrient quartiles using percentage of agreement and Bland-Altman analysis...
April 16, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
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