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Niacin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919356/lipoprotein-a-cholesterol-levels-estimated-by-vertical-auto-profile-correlate-poorly-with-lp-a-mass-in-hyperlipidemic-subjects-implications-for-clinical-practice-interpretation-of-lp-a-mediated-risk
#1
Calvin Yeang, Paul C Clopton, Sotirios Tsimikas
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is generally measured as total mass of the entire particle or as apolipoprotein(a) particle number. OBJECTIVE: The cholesterol content of Lp(a) [Lp(a)-C)] can be estimated by the vertical auto profile (VAP) method. We assessed whether this is an accurate surrogate measurement of Lp(a) mass. METHODS: VAP-Lp(a)-C and VAP-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) estimated by the VAP technique, Lp(a) mass, oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL-apoB) that primarily reflect OxPL on Lp(a), and HDL-C measured by enzymatic methods were measured in 552 hypercholesterolemic patients at baseline and 24 weeks after therapy with niacin monotherapy (N = 118), ezetimibe/simvastatin monotherapy (n = 155), or ezetimibe/simvastatin (10/20 mg) + niacin (to 2 g) (N = 279) in a randomized, double-blind trial...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917743/context-specific-complementary-feeding-recommendations-developed-using-optifood-could-improve-the-diets-of-breast-fed-infants-and-young-children-from-diverse-livelihood-groups-in-northern-kenya
#2
Marieke Vossenaar, Frances A Knight, Alison Tumilowicz, Christine Hotz, Peter Chege, Elaine L Ferguson
OBJECTIVE: To formulate age- and context-specific complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for infants and young children (IYC) and to compare the potential of filling population-level nutrient gaps using common sets of CFR across age groups. DESIGN: Linear programming was used to develop CFR using locally available and acceptable foods based on livelihood- and age-group-specific dietary patterns observed through 24 h dietary recalls. Within each livelihood group, the nutrient potential of age-group-specific v...
December 5, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909164/rapid-and-sustained-symptom-reduction-following-psilocybin-treatment-for-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-with-life-threatening-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Stephen Ross, Anthony Bossis, Jeffrey Guss, Gabrielle Agin-Liebes, Tara Malone, Barry Cohen, Sarah E Mennenga, Alexander Belser, Krystallia Kalliontzi, James Babb, Zhe Su, Patricia Corby, Brian L Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Clinically significant anxiety and depression are common in patients with cancer, and are associated with poor psychiatric and medical outcomes. Historical and recent research suggests a role for psilocybin to treat cancer-related anxiety and depression. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 29 patients with cancer-related anxiety and depression were randomly assigned and received treatment with single-dose psilocybin (0...
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891663/extended-release-niacin-increases-anti-apoa-i-antibodies-that-block-the-anti-oxidant-effect-of-hdl-c-the-explore-clinical-trial
#4
J R Batuca, M C Amaral, C Favas, F S Paula, P R J Ames, A L Papoila, J Delgado Alves
AIMS: Extended Release-Niacin (ERN) is the most effective agent for increasing high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Having previously identified anti-HDL antibodies, we investigated whether ERN affected the antioxidant capacity of HDL and whether ERN was associated with the production of antibodies against HDL (aHDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (aApoA-I). METHODS: Twenty-one patients older than 18 years, with HDL-C ≤ 40 mg/dL (men) or ≤ 50 mg/dL (women) were randomly assigned to receive daily ERN (n = 10) or placebo (n = 11) for two sequential 12-week periods, with 4 weeks of wash-out before cross-over...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888906/-lipid-lowering-drugs-and-pcsk9
#5
Jesús Millán Núñez-Cortés, José M Mostaza Prieto
PCSK9 is a protease, synthesized mainly in the liver, which promotes the hepatic degradation of the LDL receptor and consequently decreases LDL receptor density and clearance of LDL particles. Statins inhibit HMG-CoA-reductase activity, an enzyme that catalyses an important step in hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis. The decrease of the hepatic intracellular cholesterol pool produced by these drugs upregulates the activity of the SREBP2 transcription factor, which subsequently stimulates the expression of the LDL receptor gene, an effect that is followed by an increase in the serum concentration of PCSK9...
May 2016: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864787/glycaemic-effects-of-non-statin-lipid-lowering-therapies
#6
REVIEW
Patrick D Collins, Naveed Sattar
Since the publication of the JUPITER trial, attention has been focused on the adverse glycemic effects of statin therapy. Although the modest increase in the risk of new diabetes mellitus is outweighed by the reduction in cardiovascular events for statins, emerging biochemical and genetic links between lipid metabolism and glycemic control raise the prospect of a broader diabetogenic effect of lipid-lowering therapies. For the novel and powerful PCSK9-inhibitor class available evidence does not support a major glycaemic effect with the results of large scale trials awaited although preliminary genetic data does suggest a link...
December 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864237/effect-of-selected-clinical-trial-publication-on-adjunctive-nonstatin-medication-prescribing-in-the-veterans-health-administration-system
#7
Krystal S Titus-Rains, Matthew A Cantrell, Jason A Egge, Bruce Alexander, Robert F Shaw, Tami R Argo
PURPOSE: The question of whether publication of selected clinical trials is temporally followed by changes in prescribing of adjunctive lipid-lowering medications was evaluated. METHODS: In this retrospective preanalysis and postanalysis, Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients 18 years or older who received a new or renewed order for any lipid-lowering medication between April 2, 2004, and September 2, 2014, were included. This period was chosen based on the publication dates of three trials investigating the efficacy of nonstatin medications: Simvastatin with or without Ezetimibe in Familial Hypercholesterolemia (ENHANCE, April 3, 2008), Effects of Combination Lipid Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (ACCORD Lipid, March 14, 2010), and Niacin in Patients with Low HDL Cholesterol Levels Receiving Intensive Statin Therapy (AIM-HIGH, December 15, 2011)...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837349/comparison-of-body-composition-and-nutrients-deficiencies-between-portuguese-rink-hockey-players
#8
Maria-Raquel G Silva, Hugo-Henrique Silva
: We evaluated dietary intake and body composition of child and adolescent rink-hockey players and controls. Seventy-two male rink-hockey players (38 children and 34 adolescents) and 79 male controls (43 children and 36 adolescents) were evaluated in order to collect training data, detailed dietary intake and body composition. Rink-hockey players presented significantly lower body fat (BF) and higher fat-free mass (FFM) than controls. Mean intakes of carbohydrate and protein were considered to be adequate, but mean intakes of fat were above the recommended levels in athletes...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825941/consumption-of-ultra-processed-foods-predicts-diet-quality-in-canada
#9
Jean-Claude Moubarac, M Batal, M L Louzada, E Martinez Steele, C A Monteiro
This study describes food consumption patterns in Canada according to the types of food processing using the Nova classification and investigates the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and the nutrient profile of the diet. Dietary intakes of 33,694 individuals from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey aged 2 years and above were analyzed. Food and drinks were classified using Nova into unprocessed or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients, processed foods and ultra-processed foods...
November 4, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822023/inappropriate-nutrients-intake-is-associated-with-lower-functional-status-and-inferior-quality-of-life-in-older-adults-with-depression
#10
Agnieszka Guligowska, Małgorzata Pigłowska, Elizaveta Fife, Joanna Kostka, Bartłomiej K Sołtysik, Łukasz Kroc, Tomasz Kostka
OBJECTIVES: The study is a case-control analysis of whether depression impairs physical and cognitive functioning and quality of life, and whether there is a relationship between nutrient deficiencies and these adverse changes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 130 older subjects participated in the study: 65 with diagnosed depression (16 men and 49 women) and 65 age- and sex-matched controls without depression. All patients underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819772/triglycerides-atherosclerosis-and-cardiovascular-outcome-studies-focus-on-omega-3-fatty-acids
#11
Yehuda Handelsman, Michael D Shapiro
Despite improved atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes with statin therapy, residual risk remains. Recent genetic insights provide further compelling evidence that triglycerides are in the causal pathway for the development of atherosclerosis, thereby renewing interest in targeting triglycerides to improve ASCVD outcomes. Fibrates, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs) are 3 classes of triglyceride-lowering drugs. Outcome studies with triglyceride-lowering agents have been inconsistent...
November 7, 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812289/concentrations-of-water-soluble-vitamins-in-blood-and-urinary-excretion-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Hiromi Iwakawa, Yasuyuki Nakamura, Tomiho Fukui, Tsutomu Fukuwatari, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa, Yukio Doi, Katsumi Shibata
We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM) and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799291/niacin-mediated-tace-activation-ameliorates-cmt-neuropathies-with-focal-hypermyelination
#13
Alessandra Bolino, Françoise Piguet, Valeria Alberizzi, Marta Pellegatta, Cristina Rivellini, Marta Guerrero-Valero, Roberta Noseda, Chiara Brombin, Alessandro Nonis, Patrizia D'Adamo, Carla Taveggia, Stefano Carlo Previtali
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathies are highly heterogeneous disorders caused by mutations in more than 70 genes, with no available treatment. Thus, it is difficult to envisage a single suitable treatment for all pathogenetic mechanisms. Axonal Neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) type III drives Schwann cell myelination and determines myelin thickness by ErbB2/B3-PI3K-Akt signaling pathway activation. Nrg1 type III is inhibited by the α-secretase Tace, which negatively regulates PNS myelination. We hypothesized that modulation of Nrg1 levels and/or secretase activity may constitute a unifying treatment strategy for CMT neuropathies with focal hypermyelination as it could restore normal levels of myelination...
December 1, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799042/hdl-targeting-therapeutics-past-present-and-future
#14
Emile Zakiev, Ma Feng, Vasily Sukhorukov, Anatol Kontush
Large-scale epidemiological studies firmly established the association between low plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. This relationship is thought to reflect the key biological function of HDL, which involves reverse cholesterol transport from the arterial wall to the liver for further excretion from the body. Other aspects of the cardioprotective HDL functionality include antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic, vasodilatory, anti-infectious and anti-diabetic activities...
October 27, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797643/modern-management-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#15
P Barton Duell, Ishwarlal Jialal
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disorder that can manifest clinically as both the severe homozygous (HoFH) form that often presents in childhood and the commoner heterozygous (HeFH) form that is typically identified in adults. The majority of genetic causes are due to defects in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor synthesis and action. Until recently, it was exceedingly difficult to achieve the goal of a 50% reduction in LDL-cholesterol or LDL-C < 70-100 in these patients. Established therapies include statins, niacin, bile-acid sequestrants, and ezetimibe in various combinations...
December 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793642/role-of-niacin-in-current-clinical-practice-a-systematic-review
#16
Aakash Garg, Abhishek Sharma, Parasuram Krishnamoorthy, Jalaj Garg, Deepti Virmani, Toishi Sharma, Giulio Stefanini, John B Kostis, Debabrata Mukherjee, Ekaterina Sikorskaya
BACKGROUND: Niacin, a potent high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-raising drug, seems an attractive approach to reduce cardiac events in patients with or at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, previous evidence for niacin has been challenged recently by negative outcomes in 2 large, randomized, controlled trials comparing niacin to placebo with background statin therapy. We studied the currently available evidence for the role of niacin treatment for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in current practice...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780240/expression-of-soluble-forms-of-yeast-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-2-that-integrate-a-broad-range-of-saturated-fatty-acids-in-triacylglycerols
#17
Nawel Haïli, Julien Louap, Michel Canonge, Franjo Jagic, Christelle Louis-Mondésir, Thierry Chardot, Pierre Briozzo
The membrane proteins acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are essential actors for triglycerides (TG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Microbial production of TG is of interest for producing biofuel and value-added novel oils. In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, Dga1p enzyme from the DGAT2 family plays a major role in TG biosynthesis. Producing recombinant DGAT enzymes pure and catalytically active is difficult, hampering their detailed functional characterization. In this report, we expressed in Escherichia coli and purified two soluble and active forms of Y...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771381/niacin-and-its-metabolites-as-master-regulators-of-macrophage-activation
#18
Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, M Carmen Naranjo, Sergio Lopez, Rocio Abia, Francisco J Garcia Muriana, Beatriz Bermudez
Niacin is a broad-spectrum lipid-regulating drug used for clinical therapy of chronic high-grade inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which either niacin or the byproducts of its catabolism ameliorate these inflammatory diseases are not clear yet. Human circulating monocytes and mature macrophages were used to analyze the effects of niacin and its metabolites (NAM, NUA and 2-Pyr) on oxidative stress, plasticity and inflammatory response by using biochemical, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot technologies...
January 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749370/recent-explanatory-trials-of-the-mode-of-action-of-drug-therapies-on-lipoprotein-metabolism
#19
Dick C Chan, P Hugh R Barrett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism leads to increased plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins. We highlight the findings from recent studies of the effect of lipid-regulating therapies on apolipoprotein metabolism in humans employing endogenous labelling with stable isotopically labelled isotopomers. RECENT FINDINGS: Fish oil supplementation and niacin treatment both reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels by decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB-100 (apoB) and apoB-48-containing chylomicron particles in obese and/or type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749252/pleiotropic-effects-of-niacin-current-possibilities-for-its-clinical-use
#20
Miroslav Zeman, Marek Vecka, František Perlík, Barbora Staňková, Robert Hromádka, Eva Tvrzická, Jakub Širc, Jakub Hrib, Aleš Žák
Niacin was the first hypolipidemic drug to significantly reduce both major cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. Niacin favorably influences all lipoprotein classes, including lipoprotein[a],and belongs to the most potent hypolipidemic drugs for increasing HDL-C. Moreover, niacin causes favorable changes to the qualitative composition of lipoprotein HDL. In addition to its pronounced hypolipidemic action, niacin exerts many other, non-hypolipidemic effects (e.g., antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic), which favorably influence the development and progression of atherosclerosis...
December 1, 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica
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