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Niacin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331158/dietary-sources-of-energy-and-nutrients-in-the-contemporary-diet-of-inuit-adults-results-from-the-2007-08-inuit-health-survey
#1
Tiff-Annie Kenny, Xue Feng Hu, Harriet V Kuhnlein, Sonia D Wesche, Hing Man Chan
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the major components of the contemporary Inuit diet and identify the primary sources of energy and essential nutrients. DESIGN: Dietary data were derived from the 24 h recall collected by the Inuit Health Survey (IHS) from 2007 to 2008. The population proportion method was used to determine the percentage contribution of each group. Unique food items/preparations (ninety-three country foods and 1591 market foods) were classified into eight country food groups and forty-one market food groups...
January 14, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304861/high-density-lipoprotein-3-cholesterol-is-a-predictive-factor-for-arterial-stiffness-a-community-based-4-8-year-prospective-study
#2
Fan Wang, Xiaona Wang, Ping Ye, Ruihua Cao, Yun Zhang, Yue Qi, Dong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Although drug trials with niacin and cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors that substantially increase high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) failed to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, HDL protection of the cardiovascular system cannot be easily denied. Hence, it may be HDL subfractions that are responsible for the long-held and consistent cardioprotective association of HDL. Arterial stiffness has been increasingly recognized as a strong predictor of subclinical vascular disease, atherosclerotic disease, and cardiovascular mortality...
January 5, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282002/dietary-supplement-use-among-cancer-survivors-and-the-general-population-a-nation-wide-cross-sectional-study
#3
Sihan Song, Jiyoung Youn, Yun Jung Lee, Minji Kang, Taisun Hyun, YoonJu Song, Jung Eun Lee
BACKGROUND: Use of dietary supplements among cancer survivors is common and controversial, but information on the amount of nutrients from supplements among cancer survivors is limited. We examined the amount of nutrients and their contribution to total nutrient intake from supplements and compared these data between cancer survivors and cancer-free individuals. We also identified factors associated with supplement use among cancer survivors. METHODS: We identified 400 cancer survivors and 10,387 cancer-free individuals, aged ≥ 19 years, from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-1, 2 (2010, 2011)...
December 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249825/reliability-and-comparative-validity-of-a-diet-quality-index-for-assessing-dietary-patterns-of-preschool-aged-children-in-sydney-australia
#4
Kanita Kunaratnam, Mark Halaki, Li Ming Wen, Louise A Baur, Victoria M Flood
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To report on the reliability and validity of a Diet Quality Index (DQI) to assess preschoolers dietary patterns using a short food frequency questionnaire (sFFQ) and 3-day food records (3d-FR). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventy-seven preschool carers/parents completed a telephone interview on preschoolers (2-5-year olds) dietary habits in metropolitan Sydney. Agreement in scores was assessed using intraclass correlation (ICC) and paired t-tests for repeated sFFQ-DQI scores and Bland-Altman methods and paired t-tests for sFFQ-DQI and 3d-FR-DQI scores...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245288/elevated-serum-lipoprotein-a-as-a-risk-factor-for-combined-intracranial-and-extracranial-artery-stenosis-in-a-child-with-arterial-ischemic-stroke-a-case-report
#5
Ji Yoon Han, Hyun Jeong Kim, Soyoung Shin, Joonhong Park, In Goo Lee
RATIONALE: Stroke is an uncommon disease in childhood with an estimated incidence of 1 to 6 per 100,000 and stenoocclusive arteriopathy is the main risk factor of recurrent pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Dyslipidemia may influence strongly before puberty and in late adolescence when plasma levels are naturally highest. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 11-year-old male presented with acute onset seizure, a drowsy mentality, and right hemiplegia. DIAGNOSES: Magnetic resonance (MR) angiogram demonstrated occlusion of distal basilar artery and left vertebral arteries...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217180/structure-based-mimicking-of-phthalic-acid-esters-paes-and-inhibition-of-hacmsd-an-important-enzyme-of-the-tryptophan-kynurenine-metabolism-pathway
#6
Neha Singh, Vikram Dalal, Pravindra Kumar
Human α-amino-β-carboxymuconate-ε-semialdehyde decarboxylase (hACMSD) is a zinc containing amidohydrolase which is a vital enzyme of the kynurenine pathway in tryptophan metabolism. It prevents the accumulation of quinolinic acid (QA) and helps in the maintenance of basal trp-niacin ratio. To assess the structure based inhibitory action of PAEs such as DMP, DEP, DBP, DIBP, DEHP and their metabolites, these were docked into the active site cavity of hACMSD. Docking results show that the binding affinities of PAEs lie in the comparable range (-4...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212824/targeted-microbiome-intervention-by-microencapsulated-delayed-release-niacin-beneficially-affects-insulin-sensitivity-in-humans
#7
Daniela Fangmann, Eva-Maria Theismann, Kathrin Türk, Dominik M Schulte, Isabelle Relling, Katharina Hartmann, Julia K Keppler, Jörg-Rainer Knipp, Ateequr Rehman, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Andre Franke, Lennart Lenk, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Esther Appel, Stanislav Gorb, Charles Brenner, Dirk Seegert, Georg H Waetzig, Philip Rosenstiel, Stefan Schreiber, Karin Schwarz, Matthias Laudes
OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota represent a potential novel target for future prediabetes and type 2 diabetes therapies. In that respect, niacin has been shown to beneficially affect the host-microbiome interaction in rodent models. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We characterized more than 500 human subjects with different metabolic phenotypes regarding their niacin (nicotinic acid [NA] and nicotinamide [NAM]) status and their gut microbiome. In addition, NA and NAM delayed-release microcapsules were engineered and examined in vitro and in vivo in two human intervention studies (bioavailability study and proof-of-concept/safety study)...
December 6, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208626/the-effect-of-extended-release-niacin-on-markers-of-mineral-metabolism-in-ckd
#8
Rakesh Malhotra, Ronit Katz, Andrew Hoofnagle, Andrew Bostom, Dena E Rifkin, Ruth Mcbride, Jeffrey Probstfield, Geoffrey Block, Joachim H Ix
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Niacin downregulates intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2b expression and reduces intestinal phosphate transport. Short-term studies have suggested that niacin lowers serum phosphate concentrations in patients with CKD and ESRD. However, the long-term effects of niacin on serum phosphate and other mineral markers are unknown. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides: Impact on Global Health Trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing extended release niacin in persons with prevalent cardiovascular disease...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208625/lowering-expectations-with-niacin-treatment-for-ckd-mbd
#9
EDITORIAL
Tilman B Drüeke, Ziad A Massy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183962/intestinal-lymphatic-hdl-mir-223-and-apoa-i-are-reduced-during-insulin-resistance-and-restored-with-niacin
#10
Rabban Mangat, Faye Borthwick, Tina Haase, Miriam Jacome, Randy Nelson, Anatol Kontush, Donna F Vine, Spencer D Proctor
The intestine is involved in whole-body lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and secretes lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein (Apo)B48 and discrete ApoA-I into the mesenteric lymph. The lymphatic system has been proposed to have a significant role in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway associated with HDL-ApoA-I. In conditions of insulin resistance (IR), there is intestinal overproduction of chylomicrons containing ApoB48; however, there is limited data on the intestinal synthesis and secretion of HDL-ApoA-I...
November 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176866/quercetin-metabolism-by-fecal-microbiota-from-healthy-elderly-human-subjects
#11
Motoi Tamura, Chigusa Hoshi, Masuko Kobori, Shunsuke Takahashi, Junko Tomita, Mie Nishimura, Jun Nishihira
Quercetin is a polyphenol found in food that has numerous health benefits. This study investigated the relationship between quercetin metabolism, gut microbiota composition, and dietary intake in elderly Japanese subjects. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake during the week prior to stool sample collection. Fecal suspensions from 56 subjects were anaerobically incubated with quercetin and fecal microbiota composition was analyzed by next-generation sequencing. Inter-individual variations in quercetin concentration and fecal microbiota composition at family level suggested differences in microbial quercetin metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155776/differential-effects-of-lipid-lowering-drugs-in-modulating-morphology-of-cholesterol-particles
#12
Shanmugavel Madasamy, David Liu, Jason Lundry, Benjamin Alderete, Raymond Kong, J Paul Robinson, Alan H B Wu, Edward P Amento
Treatment of dyslipidemia patients with lipid-lowering drugs leads to a significant reduction in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) level and a low to moderate level of increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in plasma. However, a possible role of these drugs in altering morphology and distribution of cholesterol particles is poorly understood. Here, we describe the in vitro evaluation of lipid-lowering drug effects in modulating morphological features of cholesterol particles using the plaque array method in combination with imaging flow cytometry...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155076/genotoxicity-and-28-day-oral-toxicity-studies-of-a-functional-food-mixture-containing-maltodextrin-white-kidney-bean-extract-mulberry-leaf-extract-and-niacin-bound-chromium-complex
#13
Cheng-Tien Wu, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Chun-Fa Huang, Fu-Chuo Peng, Shing-Hwa Liu
Steady-fiber granule (SFG) is a functional food mixture that is composed of four major ingredients, resistant maltodextrin, white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) extract, mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) extract, and niacin-bound chromium complex. This study focused on determining the safety of SFG. Genotoxicity and 28-day oral toxicity were evaluated. SFG did not induce mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation assay using five Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535, and TA1537) in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (S9 system)...
November 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148559/exploring-the-geometric-magnetic-and-electronic-properties-of-hofmann-mofs-for-drug-delivery
#14
Bikash Mandal, Jin Suk Chung, Sung Gu Kang
The geometric, magnetic, and electronic properties and the drug capturing abilities of Hofmann-type metal organic frameworks (MOFs) were examined using theoretical calculations. The detailed theoretical calculations predicted that the Hofmann sheet can have two different conformations, planar and twisted. The Ni-Co sheet was the most stable among the systems studied, whereas the Ni-Fe sheet was the least stable. All of the sheets were magnetic spin semiconductors, having Dirac-like and dispersionless bands, which give rise to a major spatial separation between the charge carriers upon excitation...
November 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137352/maternal-high-calorie-diet-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-senescence-phenotype-in-subcutaneous-fat-of-newborn-mice
#15
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Fabiana D'Angelo, Francesca Sciarretta, Giuseppe Tatulli, Flavia Tortolici, Maria Rosa Ciriolo, Katia Aquilano
Mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and senescence-like features are observed in adipose depots in aging and obesity. Herein, we evaluated how maternal high calorie diet (HCD) may impact on subcutaneous adipose tissue (sAT) of the newborn mice. Adult C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided in three groups: normal calorie diet (NCD), HCD and HCD supplemented with niacin 8 weeks before mating. Mothers and pups were then sacrificed and metabolic and molecular analyses were carried out on sAT. HCD induced mitochondria dysfunction in mothers without inflammation and senescence, whereas in pups we also revealed the occurrence of senescent phenotype...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133979/dietary-nutrients-associated-with-preservation-of-lung-function-in-hispanic-and-non-hispanic-white-smokers-from-new-mexico
#16
Shuguang Leng, Maria A Picchi, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Guodong Wu, W James Gauderman, Fadi Xu, Frank D Gilliland, Steven A Belinsky
Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death in the United States. Cigarette smoking accelerates the age-related forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) decline, an important determinant for the genesis of COPD. Hispanic smokers have lower COPD prevalence and FEV1 decline than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). Patients and methods: A nutritional epidemiological study was conducted in the Lovelace Smokers cohort (LSC; n=1,829) and the Veterans Smokers cohort (n=508) to identify dietary nutrients (n=139) associated with average FEV1 and its decline and to assess whether nutrient intakes could explain ethnic disparity in FEV1 decline between Hispanics and NHW smokers...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118161/dietary-nutrient-intake-ethnicity-and-epigenetic-silencing-of-lung-cancer-genes-detected-in-sputum-in-new-mexican-smokers
#17
Shuguang Leng, Maria A Picchi, Huining Kang, Guodong Wu, Piotr T Filipczak, Daniel E Juri, Xiequn Zhang, W James Gauderman, Frank D Gilliland, Steven A Belinsky
Lung cancer (LC) gene methylation detected in sputum assesses field cancerization and predicts LC incidence. Hispanic smokers have higher LC susceptibility compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). We aimed to identify novel dietary nutrients affecting LC gene methylation and determine the degree of ethnic disparity in methylation explained by diet. Dietary intakes of 139 nutrients were assessed using a validated Harvard food frequency questionnaire in 327 Hispanics and 1502 NHWs from the Lovelace Smokers cohort (LSC)...
November 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113038/micronutrient-dietary-intake-in-latina-pregnant-adolescents-and-its-association-with-level-of-depression-stress-and-social-support
#18
Angelie Singh, Caroline Trumpff, Jeanine Genkinger, Alida Davis, Marisa Spann, Elizabeth Werner, Catherine Monk
Adolescent pregnant women are at greater risk for nutritional deficits, stress, and depression than their adult counterparts, and these risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes are likely interrelated. This study evaluated the prevalence of nutritional deficits in pregnant teenagers and assessed the associations among micronutrient dietary intake, stress, and depression. One hundred and eight pregnant Latina adolescents completed an Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24) in the 2nd trimester...
November 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109962/micronutrient-intake-in-a-cohort-of-italian-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-adherence-to-dietary-recommendations
#19
Marisa Giorgini, Marilena Vitale, Lutgarda Bozzetto, Ornella Ciano, Angela Giacco, Anna Rivieccio, Ilaria Calabrese, Gabriele Riccardi, Angela A Rivellese, Giovanni Annuzzi
Micronutrients are of fundamental importance in maintaining health status. However, data on their dietary intake are few particularly in persons with diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) attending a tertiary-level diabetes center in Southern Italy the intake of micronutrients (both vitamins and minerals) and the adherence to recommendations. Seven-day food records of 60 T1DM patients were analyzed. Micronutrient intake was evaluated based on the Italian food composition tables and expressed as amount per 1000 kcal of energy intake to adjust for possible underreporting...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108128/safety-assessment-of-niacin-in-the-us-food-and-drug-administration-s-mini-sentinel-system
#20
Joshua J Gagne, Monika Houstoun, Marsha E Reichman, Christian Hampp, James H Marshall, Sengwee Toh
PURPOSE: The Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events (HPS2-THRIVE) trial found higher incidence rates of adverse reactions, including bleeding, in patients receiving the combination of extended-release niacin and laropiprant versus placebo. It is not known whether these adverse events are attributable to laropiprant, not approved in the USA, or to extended-release niacin. We compared rates of major gastrointestinal bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage among initiators of extended-release niacin and initiators of fenofibrate...
November 6, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
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