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Jane A Foster, Linda Rinaman, John F Cryan
The importance of the gut-brain axis in regulating stress-related responses has long been appreciated. More recently, the microbiota has emerged as a key player in the control of this axis, especially during conditions of stress provoked by real or perceived homeostatic challenge. Diet is one of the most important modifying factors of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are slowly being unravelled, and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signaling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism, and microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
Aisling Bambury, Kiran Sandhu, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis is increasingly viewed as a novel paradigm in neuroscience with the capacity to generate innovative therapies for patients with psychiatric illnesses. Psychobiotics, defined as live bacteria which when ingested in adequate amounts confer mental health benefits, are increasingly of interest, as pre-clinical trials continue to show promising results. Particularly in stress related, anxiety and depressive disorders, there is potential for psychobiotics to deliver new therapies. The question of which microbes may prove to be the most promising psychobiotic in delivering such therapies at clinical level is of great importance...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
Snigdha Misra, Debapriya Mohanty
Gut microbiomes may have a significant impact on mood and cognition, which is leading experts towards a new frontier in neuroscience. Studies have shown that increase in the amount of good bacteria in the gut can curb inflammation and cortisol level, reduces symptoms of depression and anxiety, lowers stress reactivity, improves memory and even lessens neuroticism and social anxiety. This shows that, probably the beneficial gut bacteria or probiotics function mechanistically as delivery vehicles for neuroactive compounds...
November 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Carmela Colica, Ennio Avolio, Patrizio Bollero, Renata Costa de Miranda, Simona Ferraro, Paola Sinibaldi Salimei, Antonino De Lorenzo, Laura Di Renzo
Background: Gut microbiota is implied in obesity, because of its ability to harvest energy from diet, and in the regulation of behavior. Given the link between gut microbiota, body composition, obesity, and anxiety, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a new psychobiotic formulation. Methods: Eligible patients were randomly divided into three groups: psychobiotics oral suspension group (POSG); dietary treatment group (DTG); combined treatment group (CTG)...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
K Nishida, D Sawada, T Kawai, Y Kuwano, S Fujiwara, K Rokutan
AIMS: To confirm the stress-relieving effects of heat-inactivated, enteric-colonizing Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (paraprobiotic CP2305) in medical students taking a cadaver dissection course. METHODS AND RESULTS: Healthy students (21 males and 11 females) took paraprobiotic CP2305 daily for 5 weeks during a cadaver dissection course. The General Health Questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were employed to assess stress-related somatic symptoms and sleep quality respectively...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
OBJECTIVE: The brain-gut-microbiota axis has been put forward as a new paradigm in neuroscience, which may be of relevance to mental illness. The mechanisms of signal transmission in the brain-gut-microbiota axis are complex and involve bidirectional communications that enable gut microbes to communicate with the brain and the brain to communicate with the microbes. This review assesses the potential usefulness and limitations of the paradigm. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate the current knowledge in clinical and preclinical brain-gut-microbiota interactions as related to psychiatric disorders...
October 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
Eoin Sherwin, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing appreciation of the role of the gut microbiota in all aspects of health and disease, including brain health. Indeed, roles for the bacterial commensals in various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression, autism, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease, are emerging. Microbiota dysregulation has been documented in all of these conditions or in animal models thereof. Moreover, depletion or modulation of the gut microbiota can affect the severity of the central pathology or behavioral deficits observed in a variety of brain disorders...
August 2, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Stephanie Maxine Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Holistic Nursing Practice
Antonino De Lorenzo, Micaela Costacurta, Giuseppe Merra, Paola Gualtieri, Giorgia Cioccoloni, Massimiliano Marchetti, Dimitrios Varvaras, Raffaella Docimo, Laura Di Renzo
BACKGROUND: Evidence of probiotics effects on gut function, brain activity and emotional behaviour were provided. Probiotics can have dramatic effects on behaviour through the microbiome-gut-brain axis, through vagus nerve. We investigated whether chronic probiotic intake could modulate psychological state, eating behaviour and body composition of normal weight obese (NWO) and preobese-obese (PreOB/OB) compared to normal weight lean women (NWL). METHODS: 60 women were enrolled...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
Adiel C Rios, Pawan Kumar Maurya, Mariana Pedrini, Maiara Zeni-Graiff, Elson Asevedo, Rodrigo B Mansur, Andrea Wieck, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Roger S McIntyre, Mirian A F Hayashi, Elisa Brietzke
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are among the leading causes of burden and disability worldwide. Despite intensified research efforts to improve the treatment options and remission rates in mood disorders, no disease modifying treatment exists for these disorders. Accumulating evidence implicates the involvement of the gut microbiota in processes relevant to etiopathology of central nervous system-based disorders. The objective of this article was to critically evaluate the evidence supporting the link between gastrointestinal microbiota and mood disorders and to discuss the potential benefits of using probiotics in the treatment of MDD and BD...
October 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Felice N Jacka
The nascent field of 'Nutritional Psychiatry' offers much promise for addressing the large disease burden associated with mental disorders. A consistent evidence base from the observational literature confirms that the quality of individuals' diets is related to their risk for common mental disorders, such as depression. This is the case across countries and age groups. Moreover, new intervention studies implementing dietary changes suggest promise for the prevention and treatment of depression. Concurrently, data point to the utility of selected nutraceuticals as adjunctive treatments for mental disorders and as monotherapies for conditions such as ADHD...
March 2017: EBioMedicine
Alexander V Oleskin, Boris A Shenderov, Vladimir S Rogovsky
This work is concerned with the role of evolutionary conserved substances, neurotransmitters, and neurohormones, within the complex framework of the microbial consortium-immune system-nervous system axis in the human or animal organism. Although the operation of each of these systems per se is relatively well understood, their combined effects on the host organism still await further research. Drawing on recent research on host-produced and microbial low-molecular-weight neurochemicals such as biogenic amines, amino acids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), we suggest that these mediators form a part of a universal neurochemical "language...
September 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. Evidence is accumulating to support the view that gut microbes influence central neurochemistry and behavior. Irritable bowel syndrome is regarded as the prototypic disorder of the brain-gut-microbiota axis that can be responsive to probiotic therapy. Translational studies indicate that certain bacteria may have an impact on stress responses and cognitive functioning. Manipulating the gut microbiota with psychobiotics, prebiotics, or even antibiotics offers a novel approach to altering brain function and treating gut-brain axis disorders, such as depression and autism...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
John R Kelly, Andrew P Allen, Andriy Temko, William Hutch, Paul J Kennedy, Niloufar Farid, Eileen Murphy, Geraldine Boylan, John Bienenstock, John F Cryan, Gerard Clarke, Timothy G Dinan
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have identified certain probiotics as psychobiotics - live microorganisms with a potential mental health benefit. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) has been shown to reduce stress-related behaviour, corticosterone release and alter central expression of GABA receptors in an anxious mouse strain. However, it is unclear if this single putative psychobiotic strain has psychotropic activity in humans. Consequently, we aimed to examine if these promising preclinical findings could be translated to healthy human volunteers...
March 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Susan L Prescott, Alan C Logan
The influential scientist Rene J. Dubos (1901-1982) conducted groundbreaking studies concerning early-life environmental exposures (e.g., diet, social interactions, commensal microbiota, housing conditions) and adult disease. However, Dubos looked beyond the scientific focus on disease, arguing that "mere survival is not enough". He defined mental health as fulfilling human potential, and expressed concerns about urbanization occurring in tandem with disappearing access to natural environments (and elements found within them); thus modernity could interfere with health via "missing exposures"...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
A P Allen, W Hutch, Y E Borre, P J Kennedy, A Temko, G Boylan, E Murphy, J F Cryan, T G Dinan, G Clarke
The emerging concept of psychobiotics-live microorganisms with a potential mental health benefit-represents a novel approach for the management of stress-related conditions. The majority of studies have focused on animal models. Recent preclinical studies have identified the B. longum 1714 strain as a putative psychobiotic with an impact on stress-related behaviors, physiology and cognitive performance. Whether such preclinical effects could be translated to healthy human volunteers remains unknown. We tested whether psychobiotic consumption could affect the stress response, cognition and brain activity patterns...
November 1, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
R A Yunes, E U Poluektova, M S Dyachkova, K M Klimina, A S Kovtun, O V Averina, V S Orlova, V N Danilenko
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an active biogenic substance synthesized in plants, fungi, vertebrate animals and bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are considered the main producers of GABA among bacteria. GABA-producing lactobacilli are isolated from food products such as cheese, yogurt, sourdough, etc. and are the source of bioactive properties assigned to those foods. The ability of human-derived lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to synthesize GABA remains poorly characterized. In this paper, we screened our collection of 135 human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains for their ability to produce GABA from its precursor monosodium glutamate...
December 2016: Anaerobe
Amar Sarkar, Soili M Lehto, Siobhán Harty, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Philip W J Burnet
Psychobiotics were previously defined as live bacteria (probiotics) which, when ingested, confer mental health benefits through interactions with commensal gut bacteria. We expand this definition to encompass prebiotics, which enhance the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. We review probiotic and prebiotic effects on emotional, cognitive, systemic, and neural variables relevant to health and disease. We discuss gut-brain signalling mechanisms enabling psychobiotic effects, such as metabolite production. Overall, knowledge of how the microbiome responds to exogenous influence remains limited...
November 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
A Manook, A Hiergeist, R Rupprecht, T C Baghai
Microbiological ecology and its ambition to describe the complete genome of complex living communities as a whole, have given us powerful tools to characterize the human gut microbiome on a genetic and, hence, taxonomic and abundance level; for a decade now, they have become sufficiently inexpensive, fast and feasible. Thus, opportunities arose to have a fresh and closer look at the microbiota-gut-brain-axis and its impact on human health; this axis comprises a complex multisystemic network of multidirectional interactions between brain and gut including influences beyond one generation...
November 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Suravi Patra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
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