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Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Arpit Parmar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Emily Deans
A revolution in the understanding of the pathophysiology of mental illness combined with new knowledge about host/microbiome interactions and psychoneuroimmunology has opened an entirely new field of study, the "psychobiotics". The modern microbiome is quite changed compared to our ancestral one due to diet, antibiotic exposure, and other environmental factors, and these differences may well impact our brain health. The sheer complexity and scope of how diet, probiotics, prebiotics, and intertwined environmental variables could influence mental health are profound obstacles to an organized and useful study of the microbiome and psychiatric disease...
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Josipa Vlainić, Jelena Šuran, Toni Vlainić, Antonella Letizia Vukorep
Major depressive disorder is a common, debilitating psychiatric disorder, which originates from the interaction of susceptibility genes and noxious environmental events, in particular stressful events. It has been shown that dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, imbalance between anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines, depletion of neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine and/or dopamine) in the central nervous system, altered glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission have an important role in the pathogenesis of depression...
May 26, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Eoin Sherwin, Kieran Rea, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is an increasing realization that the microorganisms which reside within our gut form part of a complex multidirectional communication network with the brain known as the microbiome-gut-brain axis. In this review, we focus on recent findings which support a role for this axis in modulating neurodevelopment and behavior. RECENT FINDINGS: A growing body of research is uncovering that under homeostatic conditions and in response to internal and external stressors, the bacterial commensals of our gut can signal to the brain through a variety of mechanisms to influence processes such neurotransmission, neurogenesis, microglia activation, and modulate behavior...
March 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Yen-Wenn Liu, Wei-Hsien Liu, Chien-Chen Wu, Yi-Chen Juan, Yu-Chen Wu, Huei-Ping Tsai, Sabrina Wang, Ying-Chieh Tsai
Ingestion of specific probiotics, namely "psychobiotics", produces psychotropic effects on behavior and affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurochemicals in the brain. We examined the psychotropic effects of a potential psychobiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus plantarum strain PS128 (PS128), on mice subjected to early life stress (ELS) and on naïve adult mice. Behavioral tests revealed that chronic ingestion of PS128 increased the locomotor activities in both ELS and naïve adult mice in the open field test...
January 15, 2016: Brain Research
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The gut microbiota has become a focus of research for those interested in the brain and behaviour. Here, we profile the gut microbiota in a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple routes of communication between the gut and brain have been established and these include the vagus nerve, immune system, short chain fatty acids and tryptophan. Developmentally, those born by caesarean section have a distinctly different microbiota in early life to those born per vaginum...
November 2015: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Amy R Romijn, Julia J Rucklidge
CONTEXT: The theory that supplemented probiotic bacteria could affect psychological outcomes has recently been outlined in narrative reviews; to date, however, this area of research has not been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to compare the effects of probiotics with those of placebo on psychological outcomes and symptoms of psychiatric disorders. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES databases were searched electronically for studies published up to July 17, 2014...
October 2015: Nutrition Reviews
Anastasia I Petra, Smaro Panagiotidou, Erifili Hatziagelaki, Julia M Stewart, Pio Conti, Theoharis C Theoharides
PURPOSE: Gut microbiota regulate intestinal function and health. However, mounting evidence indicates that they can also influence the immune and nervous systems and vice versa. This article reviews the bidirectional relationship between the gut microbiota and the brain, termed the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis, and discusses how it contributes to the pathogenesis of certain disorders that may involve brain inflammation. METHODS: Articles were identified with a search of Medline (starting in 1980) by using the key words anxiety, attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder (ADHD), autism, cytokines, depression, gut, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, inflammation, immune system, microbiota, nervous system, neurologic, neurotransmitters, neuroimmune conditions, psychiatric, and stress...
May 1, 2015: Clinical Therapeutics
Alan C Logan
Advances in research concerning the mental health implications of dietary patterns and select nutrients have been remarkable. At the same time, there have been rapid increases in the understanding of the ways in which non-pathogenic microbes can potentially influence many aspects of human health, including those in the mental realm. Discussions of nutrition and microbiota are often overlapping. A separate, yet equally connected, avenue of research is that related to natural (for example, green space) and built environments, and in particular, how they are connected to human cognition and behaviors...
2015: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Aurelijus Burokas, Rachel D Moloney, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease has emerged over the past decade. The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract. Regulation of the microbiota-brain-gut axis is essential for maintaining homeostasis, including that of the CNS. The routes of this communication are not fully elucidated but include neural, humoral, immune, and metabolic pathways. A number of approaches have been used to interrogate this axis including the use of germ-free animals, probiotic agents, antibiotics, or animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections...
2015: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Linghong Zhou, Jane A Foster
The human intestine houses an astounding number and species of microorganisms, estimated at more than 10(14) gut microbiota and composed of over a thousand species. An individual's profile of microbiota is continually influenced by a variety of factors including but not limited to genetics, age, sex, diet, and lifestyle. Although each person's microbial profile is distinct, the relative abundance and distribution of bacterial species is similar among healthy individuals, aiding in the maintenance of one's overall health...
2015: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Andrzej Wasilewski, Marta Zielińska, Martin Storr, Jakub Fichna
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of diseases characterized by inflammation of the small and large intestine and primarily includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Although the etiology of IBD is not fully understood, it is believed to result from the interaction of genetic, immunological, and environmental factors, including gut microbiota. Recent studies have shown a correlation between changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota and IBD. Moreover, it has been suggested that probiotics and prebiotics influence the balance of beneficial and detrimental bacterial species, and thereby determine homeostasis versus inflammatory conditions...
July 2015: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Sundar Gnanavel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
H M Savignac, B Kiely, T G Dinan, J F Cryan
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that commensal bacteria consumption has the potential to have a positive impact on stress-related psychiatric disorders. However, the specific bacteria influencing behaviors related to anxiety and depression remain unclear. To this end, we compared the effects of two different Bifidobacteria on anxiety and depression-like behavior; an antidepressant was also used as a comparator. METHODS: Innately anxious BALB/c mice received daily Bifidobacterium longum (B...
November 2014: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Fengyi Tang, Bhaskara L Reddy, Milton H Saier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
Stephanie Maxine Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Holistic Nursing Practice
Rebecca Wall, John F Cryan, R Paul Ross, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Timothy G Dinan, Catherine Stanton
We recently coined the phrase 'psychobiotics' to describe an emerging class of probiotics of relevance to psychiatry [Dinan et al., Biol Psychiatry 2013;74(10):720-726]. Such "mind-altering" probiotics may act via their ability to produce various biologically active compounds, such as peptides and mediators normally associated with mammalian neurotransmission. Several molecules with neuroactive functions such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, catecholamines and acetylcholine have been reported to be microbially-derived, many of which have been isolated from bacteria within the human gut...
2014: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Philip W J Burnet, Philip J Cowen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2013: Biological Psychiatry
T G Dinan, J F Cryan
There is a growing awareness of the potential for microbiota to influence gut-brain communication in health and disease. A variety of strategies have been used to study the impact of the microbiota on brain function and these include antibiotic use, probiotic treatments, fecal microbiota transplantation, gastrointestinal infection studies, and germ-free studies. All of these approaches provide evidence to support the view that the microbiota can influence brain chemistry and consequently behavior. Efforts are now turning to investigate the role of microbiota in animal models of psychopathology...
September 2013: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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