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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150855/thalamic-volume-reduction-in-drug-naive-patients-with-new-onset-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#1
Suejen Perani, Tim M Tierney, Maria Centeno, Elhum A Shamshiri, Siti N Yaakub, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, David W Carmichael, Mark P Richardson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) have subtle morphologic abnormalities of the brain revealed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly in the thalamus. However, it is unclear whether morphologic abnormalities of the brain in GGE are a consequence of repeated seizures over the duration of the disease, or are a consequence of treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), or are independent of these factors. Therefore, we measured brain morphometry in a cohort of AED-naive patients with GGE at disease onset...
November 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145292/recurrent-spinal-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-with-brain-and-bone-metastases-a-case-report
#2
Frank Chen, Shyh-Shin Chiou, Sheng-Fung Lin, Ann-Shung Lieu, Yi-Ting Chen, Chih-Jen Huang
RATIONALE: Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is relatively rare in all age groups, and the prognosis in most cases of spinal PNETs appears to be poor, with a median patient survival of 1 to 2 years. We present a case with recurrent spinal PNET with brain and bone metastases that was successfully treated by multimodality treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 14-year-old teenage girl had suffered from progressive left upper back pain with bilateral lower legs weakness and numbness for 1 year...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141789/a-case-of-seropositive-neuromyelitis-optica-in-a-paediatric-patient-with-co-existing-acute-nephrotic-syndrome
#3
Thomas Volkman, Cheryl Hemingway
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare relapsing autoimmune disease of the central nervous system constituting less than 1% of demyelinating diseases (Jeffery and Buncic, 1996). It preferentially affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, with the brain parenchyma generally spared. Demyelinating lesions are characterised by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) and often longitudinally extensive optic neuritis. Following the discovery of a novel pathogenic antibody, Aquaporin 4 in 2004 (Lennon et al...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137891/human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-and-gulf-war-illness-gwi-hla-drb1-13-02-spares-subcortical-atrophy-in-gulf-war-veterans
#4
Lisa M James, Peka Christova, Brian E Engdahl, Scott M Lewis, Adam F Carpenter, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multisystem disorder that has affected a substantial number of veterans who served in the 1990-91 Gulf War. The brain is prominently affected, as manifested by the presence of neurological, cognitive and mood symptoms. We reported previously on the protective role of six Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles in GWI (Georgopoulos et al., 2016) and their association with regional brain function (James et al., 2016). More recently, we reported on the presence of subcortical brain atrophy in GWI (Christova et al...
November 9, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132975/a-novel-temporal-pattern-of-childhood-cerebral-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy
#5
Emanuela C Turco, Francesca Ormitti, Anna Andreolli, Marina Barsacchi, Carlotta Facini, Francesco Pisani
We report a 9-year-old boy, with childhood cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (CCALD), presenting with an episode of loss of consciousness, fixed gaze, hypotonia and vomit with spontaneous resolution and post-ictal sleep. Behavioural impairment has been observed since the previous five months. Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) revealed isolated bilateral, symmetric, confluent temporal white matter lesions involving also corticospinal tracts, with sparing of the parieto-occipital and frontal white matter. This report outlines an atypical neuroradiological localization of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and neuropsychological findings not specifically related to the brain involvement seen at the MRI...
November 10, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127654/the-endoscope-assisted-contralateral-paramedian-approach-to-large-falcine-meningiomas
#6
Florian Roser, Luigi Rigante
BACKGROUND: Resection of large falcine meningiomas can be challenging as overlaying cortical brain is endangered during the surgical approach. METHOD: We describe the endoscope-assisted contralateral paramedian approach to large left-falcine meningiomas to avoid retraction of the ipsilateral thin layer of eloquent brain cortex. CONCLUSIONS: The contralateral paramedian approach enables complete tumor resection with endoscopic-assisted removal of tumor remnants in the superior aspect of the resection cavity, sparing any manipulation of ipsilateral brain tissue...
November 10, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125239/hippocampal-sparing-approach-in-fractionated-stereotactic-brain-vmat-radio-therapy-a-retrospective-feasibility-analysis
#7
Maria Daniela Falco, Stefano Giancaterino, Marco D'Andrea, Ramon Gimenez De Lorenzo, Marianna Trignani, Luciana Caravatta, Clelia Di Carlo, Saide Di Biase, Albina Allajbej, Domenico Genovesi
Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) techniques for fractioned stereotactic brain radiotherapy (FSBRT) can achieve highly conformal dose distribution to intracranial lesions. However, they can potentially increase the dose to hippocampus (H) causing neurocognitive toxicity during the first four months after irradiation. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of hippocampal-sparing (HS) treatment plans in 22 patients with brain metastasis treated with VMAT technique. Firstly, we retrospectively analyzed hippocampal doses in all 22 VMAT original (not hippocampal-sparing, NHS) plans...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122592/new-perspectives-on-the-brain-lesion-approach-implications-for-theoretical-models-of-human-memory
#8
Muireann Irish, Marlieke T R van Kesteren
Human lesion studies represent the cornerstone of modern day neuropsychology and provide an important adjunct to functional neuroimaging methods. The study of human lesion groups with damage to distinct regions of the brain permits the identification of underlying mechanisms and structures not only associated with, but essential for, complex cognitive processes. Here, we consider a recent review by McCormick et al. in which the power of the lesion model approach is elegantly presented with respect to a host of sophisticated cognitive endeavors, including autobiographical memory, future thinking, spatial navigation, and decision-making...
November 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121186/are-moral-and-socio-conventional-knowledge-impaired-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Matteo G F Vascello, Mauro Marchetti, Michele Scaltritti, Gianmarco Altoè, Maria S Spada, Guido Molinero, Andrea Manfrinati
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate explicit moral and socio-conventional knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients. Method: A group of 28 TBI patients was tested on a new set of moral and socio-conventional items. Responses of TBI patients were compared with those of 28 matched controls. Participants had to report how hard would be to perform specific moral or socio-conventional transgressions, using a 10-point Likert scale. We analyzed our data through mixed-effects models, to jointly assess by-participants and by-items variance...
October 27, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117865/correction-to-improved-plan-quality-with-automated-radiotherapy-planning-for-whole-brain-with-hippocampus-sparing-a-comparison-to-the-rtog-0933-trial
#10
J Krayenbuehl, M Di Martino, M Guckenberger, N Andratschke
In the original publication [1] figure legends 2 and 4 have been swapped. The original article was updated to rectify this error.
November 8, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117012/scheduled-intravenous-acetaminophen-improves-patient-satisfaction-with-postcraniotomy-pain-management-a-prospective-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-study
#11
Carlos A Artime, Hassan Aijazi, Haijun Zhang, Tariq Syed, Chunyan Cai, Sam D Gumbert, Lara Ferrario, Katherine C Normand, George W Williams, Carin A Hagberg
BACKGROUND: Postcraniotomy pain can be difficult to manage with opioids due to opioid-related side effects, including drowsiness, nausea/vomiting, confusion, and pupillary changes, potentially masking the signs of postoperative neurological deterioration. Intravenous (IV) acetaminophen, a nonopioid analgesic, has been reported to have opioid-sparing effects after abdominal and orthopedic surgeries. This study investigates whether IV acetaminophen has similar effects after craniotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial, 100 adult patients scheduled to undergo supratentorial craniotomy for excision of a brain mass were randomized to receive either IV acetaminophen or placebo preincision and then every 6 hours for a total of 24 hours after surgery...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116145/cingulate-island-sign-temporally-changes-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#12
Tomomichi Iizuka, Rui Iizuka, Masashi Kameyama
The cingulate island sign (CIS) that reflects sparing of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) relative to the precuneus plus cuneus on FDG-PET and brain perfusion SPECT, has been proposed as a feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). As the CIS is influenced by concomitant Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology, we postulated that the CIS gradually disappears as DLB progresses. To determine temporal changes in the CIS, 24 patients with mild DLB and 7 with prodromal DLB underwent (123)I-IMP-SPECT and MMSE twice at an interval of two years...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110689/multicriteria-plan-optimization-in-the-hands-of-physicians-a-pilot-study-in-prostate-cancer-and-brain-tumors
#13
Birgit S Müller, Helen A Shih, Jason A Efstathiou, Thomas Bortfeld, David Craft
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of physician driven planning in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a multicriteria optimization (MCO) treatment planning system and template based plan optimization. Exploiting the full planning potential of MCO navigation, this alternative planning approach intends to improve planning efficiency and individual plan quality. METHODS: Planning was retrospectively performed on 12 brain tumor and 10 post-prostatectomy prostate patients previously treated with MCO-IMRT...
November 6, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105852/frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-due-to-p301l-tau-mutation-showing-apathy-and-severe-frontal-atrophy-but-lacking-other-behavioral-changes-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Tomoko Miki, Osamu Yokota, Shintaro Takenoshita, Yoko Mori, Kiyohiro Yamazaki, Yuki Ozaki, Shu-Ichi Ueno, Takashi Haraguchi, Hideki Ishizu, Shigetoshi Kuroda, Seishi Terada, Norihito Yamada
The clinical features in cases that have mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau gene but lack prominent behavioral changes remain unclear. Here, we describe detailed clinical and pathological features of a case carrying the P301L tau mutation that showed only apathy until the middle stage of the course. The mother of this case was suspected to have mild cognitive decline at age 46. However, before she was fully examined, she had a subarachnoid hemorrhage at age 49 and died at age 53. An autopsy was not done...
November 6, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104614/proton-radiobiology-and-its-clinical-implications
#15
REVIEW
Bleddyn Jones
Denser ionisation clustering and complex DNA damage in proton Bragg peaks far exceeds that seen with conventional X-rays. This results in more efficient cell sterilisation, quantified by the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Currently, a 1.1 RBE is used to determine the clinical proton doses by dividing the usual X-rays dose by this amount. This number, derived from short-term experiments, has been criticised as being irrelevant to late normal tissue (NT) effects following radiotherapy and included many control irradiations using lower voltage X-rays (with elevated RBE values) than those used in the clinic...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103042/alzheimer-s-disease-can-be-spared-by-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#16
Patrick L McGeer, Jian Ping Guo, Moonhee Lee, Krista Kennedy, Edith G McGeer
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deposits of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) in brain which become foci of inflammation. Neurons are destroyed by this inflammatory process, leading to the cognitive deficits which define AD clinical onset. Epidemiological studies indicate that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can ameliorate this destructive process if they are started well before clinical signs develop. Biomarker studies indicate that the disease process starts at least a decade before cognitive deficits appear...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100949/plasticity-of-the-human-visual-brain-after-early-cortical-lesion
#17
K Mikellidou, R Arrighi, G Aghakhanyan, F Tinelli, F Frijia, S Crespi, F De Masi, D Montanaro, M C Morrone
In adults, partial damage to V1 or optic radiations abolishes perception in the corresponding part of the visual field, causing a scotoma. However, it is widely accepted that the developing cortex has superior capacities to reorganize following an early lesion to endorse adaptive plasticity. Here we report a single patient case (G.S.) with near normal central field vision despite a massive unilateral lesion to the optic radiations acquired early in life. The patient underwent surgical removal of a right hemisphere parieto-temporal-occipital atypical choroid plexus papilloma of the right lateral ventricle at four months of age, which presumably altered the visual pathways during in utero development...
October 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096926/using-temporal-bone-computed-tomography-to-predict-sensorineural-hearing-loss-in-otic-capsule-sparing-temporal-bone-fracture
#18
Seog Kyun Mun, Kyung Hyun Oh, Young Ho Hong, Hyun Jin Min, Kyung Soo Kim, Sei Young Lee, Hoon Shik Yang, Mun Young Chang
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of otic capsule-sparing (OCS) length for the prediction of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in patients with OCS temporal bone fracture. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with OCS temporal bone fracture were enrolled, and their temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT), audiogram, and medical records were reviewed. The TBCT measured the shortest length between the otic capsule and fracture line. This length was referred to as the OCS length and was used to predict SNHL...
October 31, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089535/language-and-music-phrase-boundary-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-erp-study
#19
John DePriest, Anastasia Glushko, Karsten Steinhauer, Stefan Koelsch
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently associated with communicative impairment, regardless of intelligence level or mental age. Impairment of prosodic processing in particular is a common feature of ASD. Despite extensive overlap in neural resources involved in prosody and music processing, music perception seems to be spared in this population. The present study is the first to investigate prosodic phrasing in ASD in both language and music, combining event-related brain potential (ERP) and behavioral methods...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089533/proton-minibeam-radiation-therapy-spares-normal-rat-brain-long-term-clinical-radiological-and-histopathological-analysis
#20
Yolanda Prezado, Gregory Jouvion, David Hardy, Annalisa Patriarca, Catherine Nauraye, Judith Bergs, Wilfredo González, Consuelo Guardiola, Marjorie Juchaux, Dalila Labiod, Remi Dendale, Laurène Jourdain, Catherine Sebrie, Frederic Pouzoulet
Proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) is a novel strategy for minimizing normal tissue damage resulting from radiotherapy treatments. This strategy partners the inherent advantages of protons for radiotherapy with the gain in normal tissue preservation observed upon irradiation with narrow, spatially fractionated beams. In this study, whole brains (excluding the olfactory bulb) of Fischer 344 rats (n = 16) were irradiated at the Orsay Proton Therapy Center. Half of the animals received standard proton irradiation, while the other half were irradiated with pMBRT at the same average dose (25 Gy in one fraction)...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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