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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079752/changes-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-gene-expression-in-response-to-spinal-cord-stimulation
#1
Dana M Tilley, David L Cedeño, Courtney A Kelley, Margaret DeMaegd, Ramsin Benyamin, Ricardo Vallejo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to influence pain-related genes in the spinal cord directly under the stimulating electrodes. There is limited information regarding changes occurring at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This study evaluates gene expression in the DRG in response to SCS therapy. METHODS: Rats were randomized into experimental or control groups (n = 6 per group). Experimental animals underwent spared-nerve injury, implantation of lead, and continuous SCS (72 hours)...
January 11, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068234/radiation-dose-dependent-hippocampal-atrophy-detected-with-longitudinal-volumetric-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
Tyler M Seibert, Roshan Karunamuni, Hauke Bartsch, Samar Kaifi, Anitha Priya Krishnan, Yoseph Dalia, Jeffrey Burkeen, Vyacheslav Murzin, Vitali Moiseenko, Joshua Kuperman, Nathan S White, James B Brewer, Nikdokht Farid, Carrie R McDonald, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth
PURPOSE: After radiation therapy (RT) to the brain, patients often experience memory impairment, which may be partially mediated by damage to the hippocampus. Hippocampal sparing in RT planning is the subject of recent and ongoing clinical trials. Calculating appropriate hippocampal dose constraints would be improved by efficient in vivo measurements of hippocampal damage. In this study we sought to determine whether brain RT was associated with dose-dependent hippocampal atrophy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Hippocampal volume was measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 52 patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT for primary brain tumors...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060307/lateral-chronic-cranial-window-preparation-enables-in-vivo-observation-following-distal-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-mice
#3
Simon H Bayerl, Melina Nieminen-Kelhä, Thomas Broggini, Peter Vajkoczy, Vincent Prinz
Focal cerebral ischemia (i.e., ischemic stroke) may cause major brain injury, leading to a severe loss of neuronal function and consequently to a host of motor and cognitive disabilities. Its high prevalence poses a serious health burden, as stroke is among the principal causes of long-term disability and death worldwide(1). Recovery of neuronal function is, in most cases, only partial. So far, treatment options are very limited, in particular due to the narrow time window for thrombolysis(2,3). Determining methods to accelerate recovery from stroke remains a prime medical goal; however, this has been hampered by insufficient mechanistic insights into the recovery process...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059800/twist-and-turn-into-chronic-disorders-of%C3%A2-consciousness-potential-role-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-auditory-stapedial-reflex
#4
Antonino Naro, Rocco Bruno, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Carlo Salviera, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC), including minimally conscious state (MCS) and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), typically show an awareness impairment paralleled by a significant reflex hyper-excitability, which depend on the cortical deafferentation following brain-damage-induced thalamocortical system deterioration. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown a residual preservation of cortico-subcortical pathways that may sustain residual fragments of awareness in some DOC patients...
January 3, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059560/dose-specification-for-hippocampal-sparing-whole-brain-radiotherapy-hs-wbrt-considerations-from-the-uk-hippo-trial-qa-programme
#5
Daniel Megias, Mark Phillips, Laura Clifton-Hadley, Elizabeth Harron, David J Eaton, Paul Sanghera, Gillian Whitfield
OBJECTIVES: The HIPPO trial is a UK randomised phase II trial of Hippocampal Sparing (HS) versus Conventional Whole Brain Radiotherapy after surgical resection or radiosurgery in favourable prognosis patients with 1-4 brain metastases. Each participating centre completed a planning benchmark case as part of the dedicated radiotherapy trials quality assurance programme (RTQA), promoting the safe and effective delivery of HS Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in a multi-centre trial setting...
January 6, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048912/th-ef-brb-07-novel-hardware-and-software-platform-for-intermediate-energy-4%C3%AF-radiotherapy
#6
K Woods, M Harrison, S Boucher, J McNevin, S Kutsaev, L Faillace, K Sheng
PURPOSE: To develop a robust and efficient platform for the optimization and robotic delivery of highly noncoplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy, which enables significant reduction of normal tissue toxicity and escalation of tumor dose. METHODS: An innovative high-output compact 3 MV linac was designed for mounting onto a commercial robotic system in order to access the entire 4π beam solution space without moving the patient couch. The use of intermediate energy X-rays for radiotherapy was evaluated in comparison to clinical plans delivered using 6 MV X-rays and a state-of-the-art delivery system...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048900/su-f-t-43-prediction-of-dose-increments-by-brain-metastases-resection-cavity-shrinkage-model-with-i-125-and-cs-131-ldr-seed-implantations
#7
D Han, S Braunstein, P Sneed, M McDermott, L Ma
PURPOSE: This work aims to determine dose variability via a brain metastases resection cavity shrinkage model (RC-SM) with I-125 or Cs-131 LDR seed implantations. METHODS: The RC-SM was developed to represent sequential volume changes of 95 consecutive brain metastases patients. All patients underwent serial surveillance MR and change in cavity volume was recorded for each patient. For the initial resection cavity, a prolate-ellipsoid cavity model was suggested and applied volume shrinkage rates to correspond to 1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048629/tu-h-campus-jep2-04-deriving-delivered-doses-to-assess-the-viability-of-2-5-mm-margins-in-head-and-neck-sbrt
#8
S Lin, Q Shang, S Pirozzi, A Godley
PURPOSE: To calculate the delivered dose for head and neck SBRT patients using pre-treatment images. This delivered dose was then used to determine the viability of 2.5 mm margins. METHODS: Daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) were collected for 20 patients along with a planning CT, planned dose, and planning structures. The day 1 CBCT was aligned to the planning CT using the treatment shifts (six degrees of freedom) and then the dose and contours were transferred to the CBCT...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048626/su-f-t-212-a-comparison-of-treatment-strategies-for-intracranial-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#9
T Lamberton, J Slater, A Wroe
PURPOSE: Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective and noninvasive treatment for intracranial lesions that uses highly focused radiation beams in a single treatment fraction. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dosimetric differences between the treatment brain metastasis with a proton beam vs. intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS: Ten separate brain metastasis targets where chosen and treatment plans were created for each, using three different strategies: custom proton beam shaping devices, standardized proton beam shaping devices, and IMRT...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048393/su-f-t-529-dosimetric-investigation-of-a-rotating-gamma-ray-system-for-imagedguided-modulated-arc-radiotherapy
#10
C Ma, O Chibani, A Eldib, J Li, L Chen
PURPOSE: Because of their effectiveness and efficiency, rotational arc radiotherapy (MAT) techniques have been developed on both specialty machines such as Tomotherapy and conventional linear accelerators. This work investigates a new rotating Gamma therapy system for image guided MAT and SBRT of intra/extracranial tumors. METHODS: The CyberMAT system (Cyber Medical Corp., China) consists of a ring gantry with a gamma source (effective source size 1cm and 1.7cm respectively), a 120-leaf MLC, a kV CBCT and an EPID...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048352/th-ef-brb-01-best-in-physics-therapy-dosimetric-comparison-of-4%C3%AF-and-clinical-imrt-for-cortex-sparing-high-grade-glioma-treatment
#11
K Woods, R Karunamuni, A Tran, V Yu, D Nguyen, J Hattangadi-Gluth, K Sheng
PURPOSE: Thinning of the cerebral cortex has been observed in patients treated with fractionated partial brain radiation therapy and may contribute to cognitive decline following treatment. The extent of this thinning is dose-dependent, and was shown comparable to that of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease at one year post-therapy. This study investigates whether 4π radiotherapy can enable better sparing of the cortex and other critical structures when compared to conventional clinical IMRT plans...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048024/su-f-t-116-predicting-iq-and-the-risk-of-hearing-loss-following-proton-versus-photon-radiotherapy-for-pediatric-brain-tumor-patients
#12
D Fortin, A Ng, D Tsang, M Sharpe, N Laperriere, D Hodgson
PURPOSE: The increased sparing of normal tissues in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) compared to photon intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in brain tumor treatments should translate into improved neurocognitive outcomes. Models were used to estimate the intelligence quotient (IQ) and the risk of hearing loss 5 years post radiotherapy and to compare outcomes of proton against photon in pediatric brain tumors. METHODS: Patients who had received radical IMRT were randomly selected from our retrospective database: 10 cases each of craniopharyngioma, ependymoma and medulloblastoma, and 20 cases of glioma...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047896/su-f-t-339-comparison-between-coplanar-and-non-coplanar-rapidarc-approach-of-hippocampal-sparing-whole-brain-radiotherapy
#13
B Liu, J Kim
PURPOSE: To compare the dosimetry of coplanar and non-coplanar RapidArc whole brain plans for hippocampal sparing METHODS: We studied the RapidArc plans of patient with brain metastases, with the prescription of 3750 cGy in 15 fractions. The coplanar approach used a full clockwise (CW) arc and a full counterclockwise (CCW) arc, with the couch angle to be 0°. The non-coplanar approach used a full arc with a couch angle of 0°, and a partial arc with a couch angle of 90°. Treatment planning system is Eclipse Ver...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047819/su-f-t-335-piecewise-uniform-dose-prescription-and-optimization-based-on-pet-ct-images
#14
G Liu, J Liu
PURPOSE: In intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the tumor target volume is given a uniform dose prescription, which does not consider the heterogeneous characteristics of tumor such as hypoxia, clonogen density, radiosensitivity, tumor proliferation rate and so on. Our goal is to develop a nonuniform target dose prescription method which can spare organs at risk (OARs) better and does not decrease the tumor control probability (TCP). METHODS: We propose a piecewise uniform dose prescription (PUDP) based on PET/CT images of tumor...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047799/su-f-t-438-a-practical-technique-to-avoid-the-radioactive-otitis-media-in-whole-brain-radiotherapy
#15
J Duan
PURPOSE: Radioactive otitis media is a common complication in whole brain radiotherapy. In this study, we present a practical technique to avoid the injury for whole brain radiotherapy patients. METHODS: For this study, 10 whole brain radiotherapy patients with planning CT were selected. For the target, 40Gy/20fractions was prescribed. In the treatment planning, two opposing lateral fields were used, from the left and right side of the patient. The MLC (0.5cm width) was used to shape the fields around the brain with a 10 mm margin to allow for the beam penumbra...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047619/su-g-brc-04-collimator-angle-optimization-in-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy
#16
A Andersen, C Johnson, G Bartlett, I Das
PURPOSE: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has revolutionized radiation treatment by decreasing treatment time and monitor units, thus reducing scattered and whole body radiation dose. As the collimator angle changes the apparent leaf gap becomes larger which can impact plan quality, organ at risk (OAR) sparing as well as IMRT QA passing rate which is investigated. METHODS: Two sites (prostate and head and neck) that have maximum utilization of VMAT were investigated...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047609/su-f-t-668-irradiating-mouse-brain-with-a-clinical-linear-accelerator
#17
C Perez-Torres
PURPOSE: To design and construct a "mouse jig" device that would allow for irradiation of the mouse brain with a clinical Varian 6 MeV Linear Accelerator. This device must serve as a head immobilizer, gaseous anesthesia delivery, and radiation bolus concurrently. METHODS: The mouse jig was machined out of nylon given that it is inexpensive, easy to machine, and has similar electron density to water. A cylindrical opening with diameter of 16 mm and 40 mm depth was drilled into a nylon block sized 56×56×50 mm (width, length, depth)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047570/su-f-t-618-evaluation-of-a-mono-isocentric-treatment-planning-software-for-stereotactic-radiosurgery-of-multiple-brain-metastases
#18
E Sham, M Sattarivand, L Mulroy, M Yewondwossen
PURPOSE: To evaluate planning performance of an automated treatment planning software (BrainLAB; Elements) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of multiple brain metastases. METHODS: Brainlab's Multiple Metastases Elements (MME) uses single isocentric technique to treat up to 10 cranial planning target volumes (PTVs). The planning algorithm of the MME accounts for multiple PTVs overlapping with one another on the beam eyes view (BEV) and automatically selects a subset of all overlapping PTVs on each arc for sparing normal tissues in the brain...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047131/su-g-iep2-14-validation-of-plastimatch-mabs-a-tool-for-automatic-image-segmentation
#19
P Zaffino, P Raudaschl, K Fritscher, M Spadea, G Sharp
PURPOSE: In this work we present the validation of Plastimatch MABS, an open source software for multi atlas based segmentation of medical images. METHODS: The validation was performed on two different clinical datasets: 1) 25 CT image volumes of patients treated for H&N cancer; 2) 20 MRI series of patients having a neurological diagnosis. For the first set, 8 organs at risk to be spared during the therapy were segmented: mandible, brainstem and both left/right optic nerves, parotid and submandibular glands...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046654/mo-fg-campus-jep1-04-evaluating-dect-vs-sect-range-differences-in-proton-therapy-using-clinical-data
#20
N Hudobivnik, F Schwarz, T Johnson, G Dedes, T Tessonnier, F Verhaegen, C Thieke, C Belka, W Sommer, K Parodi, G Landry
PURPOSE: Range uncertainty from X-ray CT number conversion to stopping power ratio (SPR) is one of the key factors limiting the potential of proton therapy. The large margins required for deep seated tumors degrade the organ sparing achievable with the technology. Of interest is the application of dual energy CT (DECT) to SPR estimation. In this planning study proton range differences between SECT and DECT have been quantified for brain cases. METHODS: A last generation dual source DECT scanner was used to acquire SECT (150 kVp with Sn filtration) and DECT (additionally 90 kVp) scans of phantoms and 5 head trauma patients, acting as surrogate cancer patients...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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