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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341199/quantitative-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-weighted-imaging-evaluation-of-the-supratentorial-brain-regions-in-patients-diagnosed-with-brainstem-variant-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-preliminary-study
#1
Tai-Yuan Chen, Te-Chang Wu, Ching-Chung Ko, I-Jung Feng, Yu-Kun Tsui, Chien-Jen Lin, Jeon-Hor Chen, Ching-Po Lin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiologic entity with several causes, characterized by rapid onset of symptoms and typical neuroimaging features, which usually resolve if promptly recognized and treated. Brainstem variant of PRES presents with vasogenic edema in brainstem regions on magnetic resonance (MR) images and there is sparing of the supratentorial regions. Because PRES is usually caused by a hypertensive crisis, which would likely have a systemic effect and global manifestations on the brain tissue, we thus proposed that some microscopic abnormalities of the supratentorial regions could be detected with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) analysis in brainstem variant of PRES and hypothesized that "normal-looking" supratentorial regions will increase water diffusion...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340924/hippocampal-sparing-whole-brain-radiotherapy-for-lung-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Ren Zhao, Wei Kong, Jun Shang, Hong Zhe, Yan-Yang Wang
Brain metastases occur in 20% to 40% of lung cancer patients. Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has long been considered the treatment of choice for many patients with lung cancer, because of its wide availability, ease of delivery, and effectiveness in prolonging survival. However, WBRT is also associated with several side effects, such as decline in memory and other cognitive functions. There exists significant preclinical and clinical evidence that radiation-induced injury to the hippocampus correlates with neurocognitive decline of patients who receive WBRT...
March 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339108/very-high-energy-electron-vhee-beams-in-radiation-therapy-treatment-plan-comparison-between-vhee-vmat-and-ppbs
#3
Emil Schüler, Kjell Eriksson, Elin Hynning, Steven L Hancock, Susan M Hiniker, Magdalena Bazalova-Carter, Tony Wong, Quynh-Thu Le, Billy W Loo, Peter G Maxim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of very high energy electron beams (VHEE) beams in comparison to clinically derived treatment plans generated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and proton pencil beam scanning (PPBS) technology. We developed a custom optimization script that could be applied automatically across modalities to eliminate operator bias during IMRT optimization. METHODS: Four clinical cases were selected (prostate cancer, lung cancer, pediatric brain tumor, and head and neck cancer (HNC))...
March 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335684/bone-marrow-derived-endothelial-progenitor-cell-treatment-in-a-model-of-lateral-fluid-percussion-injury-in-rats-evaluation-of-acute-and-subacute-outcome-measures
#4
Eugene Park, Katya J Park, Elaine Liu, Rongcai Jiang, Jian-Ning Zhang, Andrew J Baker
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) continues to be a serious healthcare issue while therapies to treat TBI remain elusive. Promising results from the use of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in numerous disease states highlight the pleiotropic capacity of this cell type. We have previously demonstrated that EPC conditioned media reduces axonal degeneration following in vitro OGD insult and concurrently improves white matter and microvascular outcome in vivo following midline fluid percussion injury. In the current study we evaluated the effectiveness of allogeneic endothelial cells derived from rat bone marrow on microvascular recovery and neuronal sparing following lateral fluid percussion injury...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335024/impaired-dual-tasking-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-reduced-focusing-of-cortico-striatal-activity
#5
Freek Nieuwhof, Bastiaan R Bloem, Miriam F Reelick, Esther Aarts, Inbal Maidan, Anat Mirelman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Ivan Toni, Rick C Helmich
Impaired dual tasking, namely the inability to concurrently perform a cognitive and a motor task (e.g. 'stops walking while talking'), is a largely unexplained and frequent symptom of Parkinson's disease. Here we consider two circuit-level accounts of how striatal dopamine depletion might lead to impaired dual tasking in patients with Parkinson's disease. First, the loss of segregation between striatal territories induced by dopamine depletion may lead to dysfunctional overlaps between the motor and cognitive processes usually implemented in parallel cortico-striatal circuits...
March 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325815/neuropathic-pain-promotes-adaptive-changes-in-gene-expression-in-brain-networks-involved-in-stress-and-depression
#6
Giannina Descalzi, Vasiliki Mitsi, Immanuel Purushothaman, Sevasti Gaspari, Kleopatra Avrampou, Yong-Hwee Eddie Loh, Li Shen, Venetia Zachariou
Neuropathic pain is a complex chronic condition characterized by various sensory, cognitive, and affective symptoms. A large percentage of patients with neuropathic pain are also afflicted with depression and anxiety disorders, a pattern that is also seen in animal models. Furthermore, clinical and preclinical studies indicate that chronic pain corresponds with adaptations in several brain networks involved in mood, motivation, and reward. Chronic stress is also a major risk factor for depression. We investigated whether chronic pain and stress affect similar molecular mechanisms and whether chronic pain can affect gene expression patterns that are involved in depression...
March 21, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325236/improving-quality-and-access-to-radiation-therapy-an-iaea-perspective
#7
REVIEW
May Abdel-Wahab, Eduardo Zubizarreta, Alfredo Polo, Ahmed Meghzifene
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved in radiation therapy since soon after its creation in 1957. In response to the demands of Member States, the IAEA׳s activities relating to radiation therapy have focused on supporting low- and middle-income countries to set up radiation therapy facilities, expand the scope of treatments, or gradually transition to new technologies. In addition, the IAEA has been very active in providing internationally harmonized guidelines on clinical, dosimetry, medical physics, and safety aspects of radiation therapy...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315624/extrapontine-myelinolysis-manifested-selectively-by-acute-severe-parkinsonian-syndrome-case-report
#8
IIvana Stetkarova, Zuzana Svobodova, Jozef Soltez, Jinda Svatova
OBJECTIVES: Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODMS) is a rare and serious neurologic disorder with acute myelin disintegration, usually in the pontine area (central pontine myelinolysis) and to a lesser extent, even in other areas of the central nervous system (extrapontine myelinolysis). The main underlying mechanism is the change of serum osmolality with quick correction of low mineral levels, mainly hyponatraemia. Clinical manifestation is various and depends on the localization. DESIGN: We describe an acute isolated extrapontine myelinolysis causing acute onset of parkinsonism in a 61-year-old man who developed quickly progressing parkinsonian syndrome after the rapid correction of hyponatraemia...
November 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297350/impact-of-small-mu-segment-and-dose-rate-on-delivery-accuracy-of-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-vmat
#9
Long Huang, Tingliang Zhuang, Anthony Mastroianni, Toufik Djemil, Taoran Cui, Ping Xia
Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans may require more control points (or segments) than some of fixed-beam IMRT plans that are created with a limited number of segments. Increasing number of control points in a VMAT plan for a given prescription dose could create a large portion of the total number of segments with small number monitor units (MUs) per segment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the small number MU/segment on the delivery accuracy of VMAT delivered with various dose rates...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293472/learning-and-memory-disabilities-in-iugr-babies-functional-and-molecular-analysis-in-a-rat-model
#10
Marta Camprubí Camprubí, Rafel Balada Caballé, Juan A Ortega Cano, Maria de Los Angeles Ortega de la Torre, Cristina Duran Fernández-Feijoo, Montserrat Girabent-Farrés, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Xavier Krauel, Soledad Alcántara
INTRODUCTION: 1Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is the failure of the fetus to achieve its inherent growth potential, and it has frequently been associated with neurodevelopmental problems in childhood. Neurological disorders are mostly associated with IUGR babies with an abnormally high cephalization index (CI) and a brain sparing effect. However, a similar correlation has never been demonstrated in an animal model. The aim of this study was to determine the correlations between CI, functional deficits in learning and memory and alterations in synaptic proteins in a rat model of IUGR...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290135/spinal-cord-injury-impairs-neurogenesis-and-induces-glial-reactivity-in-the-hippocampus
#11
Ignacio Jure, Luciana Pietranera, Alejandro F De Nicola, Florencia Labombarda
The incorporation of newborn neurons with increased synaptic remodeling and activity-dependent plasticity in the dentate gyrus enhances hippocampal-dependent learning performances. Astrocytes and microglial cells are components of the neurogenic niche and regulate neurogenesis under normal and neurophatological conditions leading to functional consequences for learning and memory. Although cognitive impairments were reported in patients after spinal cord injury (SCI), only few studies have considered remote changes in brain structures which are not related with sensory and motor cortex...
March 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283192/supine-craniospinal-irradiation-in-pediatric-patients-by-proton-pencil-beam-scanning
#12
Paolo Farace, Nicola Bizzocchi, Roberto Righetto, Francesco Fellin, Francesco Fracchiolla, Stefano Lorentini, Lamberto Widesott, Carlo Algranati, Barbara Rombi, Sabina Vennarini, Maurizio Amichetti, Marco Schwarz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Proton therapy is the emerging treatment modality for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in pediatric patients. Herein, special methods adopted for CSI at proton Therapy Center of Trento by pencil beam scanning (PBS) are comprehensively described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve pediatric patients were treated by proton PBS using two/three isocenters. Special methods refer to: (i) patient positioning in supine position on immobilization devices crossed by the beams; (ii) planning field-junctions via the ancillary-beam technique; (iii) achieving lens-sparing by three-beams whole-brain-irradiation; (iv) applying a movable-snout and beam-splitting technique to reduce the lateral penumbra...
March 7, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277907/the-effect-of-maternal-hyperoxygenation-on-fetal-circulatory-system-in-normal-growth-and-iugr-fetuses-what-we-can-learn-from-this-impact
#13
Nizar Khatib, Israel Thaler, Ron Beloosesky, Hanin Dabaja, Nadir Ganem, Philippe Abecassis, Yuval Ginsberg, Zeev Weiner
PURPOSE: The study aims were to assess and compare the effects of maternal hyperoxygenation on fetal circulation, in fetuses with intra-uterine growth retardation and normal fetal growth. METHODS: Twelve singleton pregnant women with normal fetal growth and twelve singleton pregnant women with intrauterine growth restriction were recruited. Mean gestational age of 35.2±3.5 and 34.7±3.9 weeks respectively. Doppler blood flow velocity waveforms were obtained from the middle cerebral artery, umbilical, main and proximal right pulmonary arteries...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265902/oncolytic-virotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-malignant-glioma
#14
REVIEW
Paul M Foreman, Gregory K Friedman, Kevin A Cassady, James M Markert
Malignant glioma is the most common primary brain tumor and carries a grim prognosis, with a median survival of just over 14 months. Given the poor outcomes with standard-of-care treatments, novel treatment strategies are needed. The concept of virotherapy for the treatment of malignant tumors dates back more than a century and can be divided into replication-competent oncolytic viruses and replication-deficient viral vectors. Oncolytic viruses are designed to selectively target, infect, and replicate in tumor cells, while sparing surrounding normal brain...
March 6, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263047/mapping-the-connectome-in-awake-surgery-for-gliomas-an-update
#15
Hugues Duffau
The traditional principle underlying oncological neurosurgery is to remove a tumor mass displacing the brain in order to increase survival. Recently, advances in connectomics enabled an improved understanding of cerebral processing, and led to a paradigmatic shift in tumor surgery based upon interactions between neurooncology and cognitive neurosciences. First, glioma is not a focal tumor invaginated within the parenchyma but a diffuse neoplastic disease migrating in the brain. This concept resulted in a new surgical ideology, i...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256398/influence-of-exposure-and-geometric-parameters-on-absorbed-doses-associated-with-common-neuro-interventional-procedures
#16
Mohammad Javad Safari, Jeannie Hsiu Ding Wong, Wei Loong Jong, Nathan Thorpe, Dean Cutajar, Anatoly Rosenfeld, Kwan Hoong Ng
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of routine exposure parameters on patient's dose during neuro-interventional radiology procedures. METHODS: We scrutinized the routine radiological exposure parameters during 58 clinical neuro-interventional procedures such as, exposure direction, magnification, frame rate, and distance between image receptor to patient's body and evaluate their effects on patient's dose using an anthropomorphic phantom...
February 27, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253711/patterns-of-failure-after-brain-metastases-radiotherapy-reflections-on-the-importance-for-treatment-and-clinical-trials-reporting
#17
R Lakomy, L Hynkova, P Pospisil, P Burkon, M Slavik, P Slampa, R Jancalek, T Kazda
In many ongoing clinical trials, new strategies for radiotherapy of brain metastases are currently being investigated. A post surgical focal cavity stereotactic radiosurgery and the developing role of a hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiotherapy are of the highest importance. The evaluation of spatial patterns of metastases failure after radiotherapy is a powerful tool for assessing the potential benefit of new different radiotherapy approaches, andwhich enables to identify possible directions leading to better radiotherapy techniques and to modify general management for newly diagnosed brain metastases...
March 3, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251686/e6020-a-synthetic-tlr4-agonist-accelerates-myelin-debris-clearance-schwann-cell-infiltration-and-remyelination-in-the-rat-spinal-cord
#18
Jamie S Church, Lindsay M Milich, Jessica K Lerch, Phillip G Popovich, Dana M McTigue
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are present throughout the adult brain and spinal cord and can replace oligodendrocytes lost to injury, aging, or disease. Their differentiation, however, is inhibited by myelin debris, making clearance of this debris an important step for cellular repair following demyelination. In models of peripheral nerve injury, TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promotes macrophage phagocytosis of debris. Here we tested whether the novel synthetic TLR4 agonist E6020, a Lipid A mimetic, promotes myelin debris clearance and remyelination in spinal cord white matter following lysolecithin-induced demyelination...
March 2, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246141/vasopressor-use-following-traumatic-injury-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#19
Mathieu Hylands, Augustin Toma, Nicolas Beaudoin, Anne-Julie Frenette, Frederick D'Aragon, Emilie Belley-Côté, Morten Hylander, François Lauzier, Reed Alexander Siemieniuk, Emmanuel Charbonney, Joey Kwong, Jon Henrik Laake, Gordon Guyatt, Per Olav Vandvik, Bram Rochwerg, Robert Green, Ian Ball, Damon Scales, Srinivas Murthy, Sandro Rizoli, Pierre Asfar, François Lamontagne
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, traumatic casualties are projected to exceed 8 million by year 2020. Haemorrhagic shock and brain injury are the leading causes of death following trauma. While intravenous fluids have traditionally been used to support organ perfusion in the setting of haemorrhage, recent investigations have suggested that restricting fluid therapy by tolerating more severe hypotension may improve survival. However, the safety of permissive hypotension remains uncertain, particularly among patients who have suffered a traumatic brain injury...
February 28, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237294/automatic-planning-on-hippocampal-avoidance-whole-brain-radiotherapy
#20
Shuo Wang, Dandan Zheng, Chi Zhang, Rongtao Ma, Nathan R Bennion, Yu Lei, Xiaofeng Zhu, Charles A Enke, Sumin Zhou
Mounting evidence suggests that radiation-induced damage to the hippocampus plays a role in neurocognitive decline for patients receiving whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) has been proposed to reduce the putative neurocognitive deficits by limiting the dose to the hippocampus. However, urgency of palliation for patients as well as the complexities of the treatment planning may be barriers to protocol enrollment to accumulate further clinical evidence. This warrants expedited quality planning of HA-WBRT...
April 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
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