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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911398/evaluation-of-bioenergetic-function-in-cerebral-vascular-endothelial-cells
#1
Stephanie L Rellick, Heng Hu, James W Simpkins, Xuefang Ren
The integrity of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is critical to prevent brain injury. Cerebral vascular endothelial (CVE) cells are one of the cell types that comprise the BBB; these cells have a very high-energy demand, which requires optimal mitochondrial function. In the case of disease or injury, the mitochondrial function in these cells can be altered, resulting in disease or the opening of the BBB. In this manuscript, we introduce a method to measure mitochondrial function in CVE cells by using whole, intact cells and a bioanalyzer...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906503/neurodevelopmental-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Hana D'Souza, Annette Karmiloff-Smith
Recent technological advances allow us to measure how the infant brain functions in ways that were not possible just a decade ago. Although methodological advances are exciting, we must also consider how theories guide research: what we look for and how we explain what we find. Indeed, the ways in which research findings are interpreted affects the design of policies, educational practices, and interventions. Thus, the theoretical approaches adopted by scientists have a real impact on the lives of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and their families, as well as on the wider community...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903198/dosimetric-characterization-of-hypofractionated-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-of-large-or-complex-brain-tumors-versus-linear-accelerator-based-treatments
#3
Peng Dong, Angélica Pérez-Andújar, Dilini Pinnaduwage, Steve Braunstein, Philip Theodosopoulos, Michael McDermott, Penny Sneed, Lijun Ma
OBJECTIVE Noninvasive Gamma Knife (GK) platforms, such as the relocatable frame and on-board imaging, have enabled hypofractionated GK radiosurgery of large or complex brain lesions. This study aimed to characterize the dosimetric quality of such treatments against linear accelerator-based delivery systems that include the CyberKnife (CK) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). METHODS Ten patients treated with VMAT at the authors' institution for large brain tumors (> 3 cm in maximum diameter) were selected for the study...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890603/a-novel-inhibitor-of-endocannabinoid-catabolic-enzymes-sheds-light-on-behind-the-scene-interplay-between-chronic-pain-analgesic-tolerance-and-heroin-dependence
#4
Josée Guindon
From the Aristotelian ancient Greece, pain has been associated with appetites or emotions and is opposite to pleasure. Reward and addiction is also linked to pleasure and compulsive drug seeking reinstates pleasure. Alleviation of chronic pain can induce a euphoric phase similar to what is found in addiction. Both chronic pain and addiction are recognized as a disease of the central nervous system. They share many characteristics and brain regions/mechanisms. Evidence points to the usefulness of cannabinoids as a new class of agents to add to the pharmaceutical toolbox in the management of chronic pain...
November 25, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890602/the-endocannabinoid-hydrolysis-inhibitor-sa-57-intrinsic-antinociceptive-effects-augmented-morphine-induced-antinociception-and-attenuated-heroin-seeking-behavior-in-mice
#5
Jenny L Wilkerson, Sudeshna Ghosh, Mohammed Mustafa, Rehab A Abdullah, Micah J Niphakis, Roberto Cabrera, Rafael L Maldonado, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
Although opioids are highly efficacious analgesics, their abuse potential and other untoward side effects diminish their therapeutic utility. The addition of non-opioid analgesics offers a promising strategy to reduce required antinociceptive opioid doses that concomitantly reduce opioid-related side effects. Inhibitors of the primary endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) show opioid-sparing effects in preclinical models of pain. As simultaneous inhibition of these enzymes elicits enhanced antinociceptive effects compared with single enzyme inhibition, the present study tested whether the dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57 [4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester] produces morphine-sparing antinociceptive effects, without major side effects associated with either drug class...
November 24, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888137/the-role-of-rhoa-in-retrograde-neuronal-death-and-axon-regeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Jianli Hu, Guixin Zhang, William Rodemer, Li-Qing Jin, Michael Shifman, Michael E Selzer
Paralysis following spinal cord injury (SCI) is due to interruption of axons and their failure to regenerate. It has been suggested that the small GTPase RhoA may be an intracellular signaling convergence point for several types of growth-inhibiting extracellular molecules. Even if this is true in vitro, it is not clear from studies in mammalian SCI, whether the effects of RhoA manipulations on axon growth in vivo are due to a RhoA-mediated inhibition of true regeneration or only of collateral sprouting from spared axons, since work on SCI generally is performed with partial injury models...
November 22, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879267/pifithrin-%C3%A2%C2%B5-prevents-cisplatin-induced-chemobrain-by-preserving-neuronal-mitochondrial-function
#7
Gabriel S Chiu, Magdalena A Maj, Sahar Rizvi, Robert Dantzer, Elisabeth G Vichaya, Geoffroy Laumet, Annemieke Kavelaars, Cobi J Heijnen
Cognitive impairment termed chemobrain is a common neurotoxicity associated with chemotherapy treatment, affecting an estimated 78% of patients. Prompted by the hypothesis that neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction underlies chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI), we explored the efficacy of administering the small molecule pifithrin (PFT)-µ, an inhibitor of mitochondrial p53 accumulation, in preventing CICI. Male C57BL/6J mice injected with cisplatin +/- PFT-µ for two 5-day cycles were assessed for cognitive function using novel object/place recognition and alternation in a Y-maze...
November 22, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876444/the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-verbal-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-18-f-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-fdg-pet-correlates-of-recency-and-recognition-memory
#8
Adam M Staffaroni, Rebecca J Melrose, Lorraine P Leskin, Hannah Riskin-Jones, Dylan Harwood, Mark Mandelkern, David L Sultzer
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to distinguish the functional neuroanatomy of verbal learning and recognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word Learning task. METHOD: In 81 Veterans diagnosed with dementia due to AD, we conducted a cluster-based correlation analysis to assess the relationships between recency and recognition memory scores from the CERAD Word Learning Task and cortical metabolic activity measured using [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865557/hypoperfusion-of-the-thalamus-is-associated-with-disability-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Emilie Doche, Angèle Lecocq, Adil Maarouf, Guillaume Duhamel, Elisabeth Soulier, Sylviane Confort-Gouny, Audrey Rico, Maxime Guye, Bertrand Audoin, Jean Pelletier, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva, Wafaa Zaaraoui
BACKGROUND: While gray matter (GM) perfusion abnormalities have been evidenced in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, the relationships with disability still remain unclear. Considering that atrophy is known to impact on perfusion, we aimed to assess perfusion abnormalities in GM of MS patients, outside atrophic regions and investigate relationships with disability. METHODS: Brain perfusion of 23 relapsing remitting MS patients and 16 matched healthy subjects were assessed at 3T using the pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging technique...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856335/examining-the-impact-of-grape-consumption-on-brain-metabolism-and-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-mild-decline-in-cognition-adouble-blinded-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#10
Jooyeon Lee, Nare Torosyan, Daniel H Silverman
BACKGROUND: Natural compounds in grapes such as resveratrol are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some studies have shown a potential role for grapes or wine in slowing cognitive decline and other effects of aging. However, well-controlled experimental data obtained in human subjects are still in need of further development. Here we aimed to systemically assess effects of grapes on regional cerebral metabolism. METHODS: Ten subjects with mild decline in cognition (mean, 72...
November 14, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845656/personalized-radiotherapy-planning-based-on-a-computational-tumor-growth-model
#11
Matthieu Le, Herve Delingette, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Elizabeth R Gerstner, Tracy Batchelor, Jan Unkelbach, Nicholas Ayache
In this article, we propose a proof of concept for the automatic planning of personalized radiotherapy for brain tumors. A computational model of glioblastoma growth is combined with an exponential cell survival model to describe the effect of radiotherapy. The model is personalized to the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of a given patient. It takes into account the uncertainty in the model parameters, together with the uncertainty in the MRI segmentations. The computed probability distribution over tumor cell densities, together with the cell survival model, is used to define the prescription dose distribution, which is the basis for subsequent Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) planning...
November 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843694/grey-matter-abnormalities-in-methcathinone-abusers-with-a-parkinsonian-syndrome
#12
Julius Juurmaa, Ricarda A L Menke, Pierre Vila, Andreas Müürsepp, Tiiu Tomberg, Pilvi Ilves, Mait Nigul, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Michael Donaghy, Charlotte J Stagg, Ainārs Stepens, Pille Taba
BACKGROUND: A permanent Parkinsonian syndrome occurs in intravenous abusers of the designer psychostimulant methcathinone (ephedrone). It is attributed to deposition of contaminant manganese, as reflected by characteristic globus pallidus hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI. METHODS: We have investigated brain structure and function in methcathinone abusers (n = 12) compared to matched control subjects (n = 12) using T1-weighted structural and resting-state functional MRI...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837553/biobanking-an-important-resource-for-precision-medicine-in-glioblastoma
#13
Si Yan Melanie Tan, Edwin Sandanaraj, Carol Tang, Beng Ti Christopher Ang
The Cancer Genome Atlas effort has generated significant interest in a new paradigm shift in tumor tissue analysis, patient diagnosis and subsequent treatment decision. Findings have highlighted the limitation of sole reliance on histology, which can be confounded by inter-observer variability. Such studies demonstrate that histologically similar grade IV brain tumors can be divided into four molecular subtypes based on gene expression, with each subtype demonstrating unique genomic aberrations and clinical outcome...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833527/intrinsic-axonal-growth-and-the-drive-for-regeneration
#14
REVIEW
Kevin J O'Donovan
Following damage to the adult nervous system in conditions like stroke, spinal cord injury, or traumatic brain injury, many neurons die and most of the remaining spared neurons fail to regenerate. Injured neurons fail to regrow both because of the inhibitory milieu in which they reside as well as a loss of the intrinsic growth capacity of the neurons. If we are to develop effective therapeutic interventions that promote functional recovery for the devastating injuries described above, we must not only better understand the molecular mechanisms of developmental axonal growth in hopes of re-activating these pathways in the adult, but at the same time be aware that re-activation of adult axonal growth may proceed via distinct mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832605/bdnf-effects-on-functional-recovery-across-motor-behaviors-after-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Vivian Hernandez-Torres, Heather M Gransee, Carlos B Mantilla, Yao Wang, Wen-Zhi Zhan, Gary C Sieck
Unilateral C2 cervical spinal cord hemisection (SH) disrupts descending excitatory drive to phrenic motor neurons, thereby paralyzing the ipsilateral diaphragm muscle (DIAm) during ventilatory behaviors. Recovery of rhythmic DIAm activity ipsilateral to injury occurs over time, consistent with neuroplasticity and strengthening of spared synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons. Localized intrathecal delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to phrenic motor neurons after SH enhances recovery of eupneic DIAm activity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823985/dosimetric-superiority-of-flattening-filter-free-beams-for-single-fraction-stereotactic-radiosurgery-in-single-brain-metastasis
#16
Youqun Lai, Shanyu Chen, Changdong Xu, Liwan Shi, Lirong Fu, Huiming Ha, Qin Lin, Zhen Zhang
For single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using linac in brain metastases, more accurate treatment delivery with higher tumor absorbed doses and lower absorbed doses to normal tissues remains an enormous challenge. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric superiority in flattening filter free beams (FFF) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in single brain metastasis. 68 patients with single brain metastasis were included in this study. Every patient was subjected to VMAT treatment plans using 6 MV standard flattened (FF) beams (VMAT_FF) and 6 MV FFF beams (VMAT_FFF) with single fraction doses of 20 Gy...
November 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818270/consolidation-of-spatial-memory-in-the-rat-findings-using-zeta-inhibitory-peptide
#17
Jena B Hales, Amber C Ocampo, Nicola J Broadbent, Robert E Clark
Whether or not spatial memories reorganize in the rodent brain is an unanswered question that carries the importance of whether the rodent provides a suitable animal model of human retrograde amnesia. The finding of equally impaired recent and remote spatial memory could reflect the continued importance of the hippocampus for spatial memory or a performance deficit (for example, hippocampal lesions may impair the rat's ability to use distal spatial cues to navigate to a specific point in space). In the current study, we tested recent and remote spatial memory in rats following hippocampal ZIP (zeta-pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptide) infusion to inhibit PKMzeta...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818188/complete-spinal-cord-injury-sci-transforms-how-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-affects-nociceptive-sensitization
#18
Yung-Jen Huang, Kuan H Lee, James W Grau
Noxious stimulation can induce a lasting increase in neural excitability within the spinal cord (central sensitization) that can promote pain and disrupt adaptive function (maladaptive plasticity). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to regulate the development of plasticity and has been shown to impact the development of spinally-mediated central sensitization. The latter effect has been linked to an alteration in GABA-dependent inhibition. Prior studies have shown that, in spinally transected rats, exposure to regular (fixed spaced) stimulation can counter the development of maladaptive plasticity and have linked this effect to an up-regulation of BDNF...
November 3, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804015/combined-brain-and-anterior-visual-pathways-mris-assist-in-early-identification-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-at-onset-of-optic-neuritis
#19
D Buch, J Savatovsky, O Gout, C Vignal, R Deschamps
Acute optic neuritis (ON) is the initial presentation in half of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO-SD) cases. Our objective was to evaluate accuracy of combined MRIs of the anterior visual pathways and of the brain to correctly identify NMO-SD among patients with acute ON. We performed a retrospective study on patients with acute ON in NMO-SD (16 episodes) and first-event non-NMO-SD (32 episodes). All MRIs included exams of the brain and anterior visual pathways using T2-weighted and post-gadolinium T1-weighted coronal thin slices...
November 1, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803665/identify-the-atrophy-of-alzheimer-s-disease-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-normal-aging-using-morphometric-mri-analysis
#20
Xiangyu Ma, Zhaoxia Li, Bin Jing, Han Liu, Dan Li, Haiyun Li
Quantitatively assessing the medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures atrophy is vital for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and accurately tracking of the disease progression. Morphometry characteristics such as gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness have been proved to be valuable measurements of brain atrophy. In this study, we proposed a morphometric MRI analysis based method to explore the cross-sectional differences and longitudinal changes of GMV and cortical thickness in patients with AD, MCI (mild cognitive impairment) and the normal elderly...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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