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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934250/changes-in-striatal-activity-and-functional-connectivity-in-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#1
Magali Cabanas, Fares Bassil, Nicole Mons, Maurice Garret, Yoon H Cho
Hereditary Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with progressive motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. A primary consequence of the HD mutation is the preferential loss of medium spiny projection cells with relative sparing of local interneurons in the striatum. In addition, among GABAergic striatal projection cells, indirect pathway cells expressing D2 dopamine receptors are lost earlier than direct pathway cells expressing D1 receptors. To test in vivo the functional integrity of direct and indirect pathways as well as interneurons in the striatum of male R6/1 transgenic mice, we assessed their c-Fos expression levels induced by a striatal-dependent cognitive task and compared them with age-matched wild-type littermates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933216/dexamethasone-attenuates-the-enhanced-rewarding-effects-of-cocaine-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Steven F Merkel, Allison M Andrews, Evan M Lutton, Roshanak Razmpour, Lee Anne Cannella, Servio H Ramirez
Clinical studies have identified traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a risk factor for the development of cocaine dependence. This claim is supported by our recent preclinical studies showing enhancement of the rewarding effects of cocaine in mice sustaining moderate controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury during adolescence. Here we test the efficacy of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, to attenuate augmentation of the behavioral response to cocaine observed in CCI-TBI animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) assay...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927746/-proposal-of-screening-for-diffuse-low-grade-gliomas-in-the-population-from-20-to-40years
#3
Emmanuel Mandonnet, Luc Taillandier, Hugues Duffau
Diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) are cerebral tumors occurring in young adults, with an inescapable progression to higher grade of malignancy, resulting in functional impairment and death. DLGG evolve in several phases: an asymptomatic period despite a slow radiological growth; a period in which inaugural symptoms occur, usually epilepsy with possible mild cognitive disorders; then a phase with malignant transformation generating disabling neurological deficits; and ultimately the terminal stage. Early maximal surgical resection significantly increases overall survival while preserving quality of life...
September 15, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917592/prefrontal-versus-motor-cortex-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-effects-on-post-surgical-opioid-use
#4
Jeffrey J Borckardt, Scott T Reeves, Cole Milliken, Brittan Carter, Thomas I Epperson, Ryan J Gunselman, Alok Madan, H Del Schutte, Harry A Demos, Mark S George
BACKGROUND: Pain is often a complaint that precedes total knee arthroplasty (TKA), however the procedure itself is associated with considerable post-operative pain lasting days to weeks which can predict longer-term surgical outcomes. Previously, we reported significant opioid-sparing effects of motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation from a single-blind trial. In the present study, we used double-blind methodology to compare motor cortex tDCS and prefrontal cortex tDCS to both sham and active-control (active electrodes over non-pain modulating brain areas) tDCS...
September 6, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873072/amplitude-integrated-eeg-and-brain-sparing-in-preterm-small-for-gestational-age-infants
#5
Isabel Benavente-Fernández, Simón P Lubián-López, Pamela Zafra-Rodríguez, Almudena Alonso-Ojembarrena, Antonio Segado-Arenas, Alfonso M Lechuga-Sancho
PURPOSE: Preterm small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants are at risk for a high mortality rate and impaired cognitive development. Only a few studies have focused on amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) in preterm SGA infants. They have been shown to have a slower rate of brain maturation, but these findings have not consistently been related to neurodevelopmental outcomes. The aim of our study was to evaluate early aEEG monitoring in SGA compared with adequate-for-gestational-age preterms...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870791/performance-of-knowledge-based-radiation-therapy-planning-for-the-glioblastoma-disease-site
#6
Avishek Chatterjee, Monica Serban, Bassam Abdulkarim, Valerie Panet-Raymond, Luis Souhami, George Shenouda, Siham Sabri, Bertrand Jean-Claude, Jan Seuntjens
PURPOSE: The presence of multiple serial organs at risk (OARs) in close proximity to the tumor makes treatment planning for glioblastoma (GBM) complex and time consuming. The present study aimed to create a knowledge-based (KB) radiation therapy model for GBM patients using RapidPlan. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An initial model was trained using 82 glioblastoma patients treated with 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Plans were created using either volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859023/isolated-third-cranial-nerve-palsy-leading-to-the-diagnosis-of-disseminated-burkitt-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Arens Taga, Marco Russo, Irene Florindo, Giovanni Pavesi
INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction of the third cranial nerve can result from lesions anywhere along its course between the midbrain and the orbit. Lymphoma is a rare cause of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy (OMP), with only 19 cases reported in the literature. We describe a case of an isolated OMP leading to the diagnosis of disseminated Burkitt lymphoma (BL). CASE REPORT: A 37-year-old man presented with acute onset diplopia and right ptosis and was found to have a right pupillary sparing OMP...
September 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852014/anesthetic-alterations-of-collective-terahertz-oscillations-in-tubulin-correlate-with-clinical-potency-implications-for-anesthetic-action-and-post-operative-cognitive-dysfunction
#8
Travis J A Craddock, Philip Kurian, Jordane Preto, Kamlesh Sahu, Stuart R Hameroff, Mariusz Klobukowski, Jack A Tuszynski
Anesthesia blocks consciousness and memory while sparing non-conscious brain activities. While the exact mechanisms of anesthetic action are unknown, the Meyer-Overton correlation provides a link between anesthetic potency and solubility in a lipid-like, non-polar medium. Anesthetic action is also related to an anesthetic's hydrophobicity, permanent dipole, and polarizability, and is accepted to occur in lipid-like, non-polar regions within brain proteins. Generally the protein target for anesthetics is assumed to be neuronal membrane receptors and ion channels, however new evidence points to critical effects on intra-neuronal microtubules, a target of interest due to their potential role in post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD)...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846669/creatine-supplementation-to-total-parenteral-nutrition-improves-creatine-status-and-supports-greater-liver-and-kidney-protein-synthesis-in-neonatal-piglets
#9
O Chandani Dinesh, Robert F Bertolo, Janet A Brunton
BACKGROUND: Creatine is not included in commercial pediatric parenteral products; the entire creatine requirement must be met by de novo synthesis from arginine during parenteral nutrition (PN). Poor arginine status is common during PN in neonates which may compromise creatine accretion. We hypothesized that creatine supplementation will improve creatine status and spare arginine in PN-fed piglets. METHODS: Piglets (3-5 d old) were provided PN with or without creatine for 14 d...
August 28, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844645/direct-electrical-stimulation-in-the-human-brain-disrupts-melody-processing
#10
Frank E Garcea, Benjamin L Chernoff, Bram Diamond, Wesley Lewis, Maxwell H Sims, Samuel B Tomlinson, Alexander Teghipco, Raouf Belkhir, Sarah B Gannon, Steve Erickson, Susan O Smith, Jonathan Stone, Lynn Liu, Trenton Tollefson, John Langfitt, Elizabeth Marvin, Webster H Pilcher, Bradford Z Mahon
Prior research using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [1-4] and behavioral studies of patients with acquired or congenital amusia [5-8] suggest that the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the human brain is specialized for aspects of music processing (for review, see [9-12]). Intracranial electrical brain stimulation in awake neurosurgery patients is a powerful means to determine the computations supported by specific brain regions and networks [13-21] because it provides reversible causal evidence with high spatial resolution (for review, see [22, 23])...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842830/beneficial-effects-of-delayed-p7c3-a20-treatment-after-transient-mcao-in-rats
#11
Zachary B Loris, Justin R Hynton, Andrew A Pieper, W Dalton Dietrich
Despite ischemic stroke being the fifth leading cause of death in the USA, there are few therapeutic options available. We recently showed that the neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 reduced brain atrophy, increased neurogenesis, and improved functional recovery when treatment was initiated immediately post-reperfusion after a 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In the present study, we investigated a more clinically relevant therapeutic window for P7C3-A20 treatment after ischemic stroke. MCAO rats were administered P7C3-A20 for 1 week, beginning immediately or at a delayed point, 6 h post-reperfusion...
August 25, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841797/an-update-on-radiation-therapy-for-brain-metastases
#12
Tai-Chung Lam, Arjun Sahgal, Simon S Lo, Eric L Chang
Radiation therapy (RT) is an important treatment modality for brain metastases. Recent clinical trials have established the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the improvement of local control of brain metastases. Prospective trial data confirmed the feasibility and efficacy of using SRS alone to treat 5 or more brain metastatic tumors. Besides tumor control, there is increased emphasis on quality of life and neurocognitive function preservation. The new approach of hippocampi-sparing whole brain RT has been tested in an attempt to minimize the neurocognitive toxicity of whole brain RT...
August 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840475/histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-entinostat-ms-275-restores-anesthesia-induced-alteration-of-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission-in-the-developing-rat-hippocampus
#13
Srdjan M Joksimovic, Hari Prasad Osuru, Azra Oklopcic, Mark P Beenhakker, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Slobodan M Todorovic
Recent evidence strongly supports the idea that common general anesthetics (GAs) such as isoflurane (Iso) and nitrous oxide (N2O; laughing gas), as well as sedative drugs such as midazolam are neurotoxic for the developing mammalian brain having deleterious effects on neural circuits involved in cognition, learning and memory. However, to date, very little is known about epigenetic mechanisms involved in GA-induced plasticity of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, the main memory-processing region in the brain...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837234/a-precision-3d-conformal-treatment-technique-in-rats-application-to-whole-brain-radiotherapy-with-hippocampal-avoidance
#14
Suk W Yoon, Christina K Cramer, Devin A Miles, Michael H Reinsvold, Kyeung M Joo, David G Kirsch, Mark Oldham
PURPOSE: To develop and validate 3D conformal hippocampal sparing whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) for Wistar rats utilizing precision 3D printed immobilization and micro-blocks. This technique paves the way for future pre-clinical studies investigating brain treatments that reduce neurotoxicity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A novel pre-clinical treatment planning and delivery process was developed to enable precision 3D conformal treatment and hippocampal avoidance capability for the Xrad 225cx small animal irradiator...
August 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834867/cortical-blindness-and-not-optic-neuritis-as-a-cause-of-vision-loss-in-a-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-ss-patient-with-the-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-challenges-of-ascribing-demyelinating-syndromes-to-ss-a-case-report
#15
Aliya Lalji, Izlem Izbudak, Julius Birnbaum
RATIONALE: The conception that multiple sclerosis may be challenging to distinguish from demyelinating manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) was introduced more than 30 years ago. However, it is now recognized that the neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) may occur more frequently in SS as opposed to multiple sclerosis. Characteristic NMOSD features can include severe attacks of optic neuritis, myelitis which is frequently longitudinally-extensive (spanning at least three vertebral segments on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), and an association with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834021/multi-isocentric-4%C3%AF-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-approach-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#16
Vallinayagam Shanmuga Subramanian, Vellaiyan Subramani, Srinivas Chilukuri, Murugesan Kathirvel, Gandhi Arun, Shanmugam Thirumalai Swamy, Kala Subramanian, Antonella Fogliata, Luca Cozzi
OBJECTIVES: To explore the feasibility of multi-isocentric 4π volumetric-modulated arc therapy (MI4π-VMAT) for the complex targets of head and neck cancers. METHODS: Twenty-five previously treated patients of HNC underwent re-planning to improve the dose distributions with either coplanar VMAT technique (CP-VMAT) or noncoplanar MI4π-VMAT plans. The latter, involving 3-6 noncoplanar arcs and 2-3 isocenters were re-optimized using the same priorities and objectives...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822604/volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-vmat-for-whole-brain-radiotherapy-not-only-for-hippocampal-sparing-but-also-for-reduction-of-dose-to-organs-at-risk
#17
Sumit Sood, Damodar Pokhrel, Christopher McClinton, Christopher Lominska, Rajeev Badkul, Hongyu Jiang, Fen Wang
A prospective clinical trial, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933, has demonstrated that whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) using conformal radiation delivery technique with hippocampal avoidance is associated with less memory complications. Further sparing of other organs at risk (OARs) including the scalp, ear canals, cochleae, and parotid glands could be associated with reductions in additional toxicities for patients treated with WBRT. We investigated the feasibility of WBRT using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to spare the hippocampi and the aforementioned OARs...
August 16, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811520/chronic-post-stroke-aphasia-severity-is-determined-by-fragmentation-of-residual-white-matter-networks
#18
Barbara K Marebwa, Julius Fridriksson, Grigori Yourganov, Lynda Feenaughty, Chris Rorden, Leonardo Bonilha
Many stroke survivors with aphasia in the acute period experience spontaneous recovery within the first six months after the stroke. However, approximately 30-40% sustain permanent aphasia and the factors determining incomplete recovery are unclear. Suboptimal recovery may be influenced by disruption of areas seemingly spared by the stroke due to loss of white matter connectivity and network integrity. We reconstructed individual anatomical whole-brain connectomes from 90 left hemisphere stroke survivors using diffusion MR images...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800740/neurocognitive-sparing-of-desktop-microbeam-irradiation
#19
Soha Bazyar, Christina R Inscoe, Thad Benefield, Lei Zhang, Jianping Lu, Otto Zhou, Yueh Z Lee
BACKGROUND: Normal tissue toxicity is the dose-limiting side effect of radiotherapy. Spatial fractionation irradiation techniques, like microbeam radiotherapy (MRT), have shown promising results in sparing the normal brain tissue. Most MRT studies have been conducted at synchrotron facilities. With the aim to make this promising treatment more available, we have built the first desktop image-guided MRT device based on carbon nanotube x-ray technology. In the current study, our purpose was to evaluate the effects of MRT on the rodent normal brain tissue using our device and compare it with the effect of the integrated equivalent homogenous dose...
August 11, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760560/hippocampal-dose-from-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-4-to-10-brain-metastases-risk-factors-feasibility-of-dose-reduction-via-re-optimization-and-patient-outcomes
#20
Samuel R Birer, Adam C Olson, Justus Adamson, Rodney Hood, Matthew Susen, Grace Kim, Joseph K Salama, John P Kirkpatrick
This study aimed to report hippocampal dose from single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for 4 to 10 brain metastases and determine feasibility of hippocampal-sparing SRS. Patients with 4 to 10 brain metastases receiving single-isocenter, multi-target single-fraction SRS were identified. Hippocampi were contoured using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933 atlas. RTOG 0933 dose constraints were converted to a biologically effective dose using an alpha/beta of 2 (D100 421 cGy, Dmax 665 cGy)...
July 28, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
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