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brain sparing

Stefano Lasaponara, Marianna D'Onofrio, Mario Pinto, Alessio Dragone, Dario Menicagli, Domenica Bueti, Marzia De Lucia, Francesco Tomaiuolo, Fabrizio Doricchi
Studies with Event Related Potentials (ERPs) have highlighted deficits in the early phases of orienting to left visual targets in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect (N+). However, brain responses associated with preparatory orienting of attention, with target novelty and with the detection of a match/mismatch between expected and actual targets (contextual updating), have not been explored in N+. Here in a study in healthy humans and brain damaged patients of both sexes we demonstrate that frontal activity that reflects supra-modal mechanisms of attentional orienting (ADAN) is entirely spared in N+...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Krzysztof Slosarek, Barbara Bekman, Jacek Wendykier, Aleksandra Grządziel, Antonella Fogliata, Luca Cozzi
BACKGROUND: To appraise the dosimetric features and the quality of the treatment plan for radiosurgery of multiple brain metastases optimized with a novel automated engine and to compare with plans optimized for robotic-based delivery. METHODS: A set of 15 patients with multiple brain metastases was selected for this in silico study. The technique under investigation is the recently introduced HyperArc. For all patients, three treatment plans were computed and compared: i: a HyperArc; ii: a standard VMAT; iii) a CyberKnife...
March 15, 2018: Radiation Oncology
J S Zhang, L Qu, Q Wang, Q P Gui, Y Z Hou, G C Sun, F Y Li, Z Z Zhang, X L Chen, J Zhang, Z H Sun, X G Yu, B N Xu
Objective: To investigate the clinical value of multimodal navigation-based virtual reality (MNVR) in the needle biopsy of intracranial eloquent lesions. Methods: From January 2016 to January 2017, 20 patients with intracranial deep-seated lesions involving eloquent brain areas underwent MNVR-aided needle biopsy at Department of Neurosurgery, People's Liberation Army General Hospital. Preoperatively, MNVR was used to propose and revise the biopsy planning. Intraoperatively, navigation helped trajectory avoid the eloquent structures...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Bilge Öztoprak, İbrahim Öztoprak, Aynur Engin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the central nervous system involvement in Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with clinical and laboratory findings. METHODS: Between July 2015 and August 2016, 36 patients with CCHF were undergone brain MRI including SWI. Two MRIs, one at the time of admission and the second in the convalescent period, were performed for each patient in order to see if there is any sign of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, especially in terms of intracranial haemorrhage or viral encephalitis...
March 12, 2018: European Radiology
Avi Ben-Haroush, Irit Ben-Aharon, Yechezkel Lande, Benjamin Fisch
BACKGROUND: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) followed by oocyte retrieval is a leading option for fertility preservation before chemotherapy, yet this procedure causes excessive serum levels of estradiol (E2), which are often detrimental for cancer patients. Aromatase inhibitors are often used in breast cancer patients during COH to prevent elevated levels of E2. OBJECTIVES: To describe our experience with COH for oocyte cryopreservation in non-breast cancer patients using aromatase inhibitors...
March 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Aaron P Schultz, Keith A Johnson, Trey Hedden, Sehily Jaimes, Tammie L S Benzinger, Clifford Jack, Beau M Ances, John M Ringman, Daniel S Marcus, Bernardino Ghetti, Martin R Farlow, Adrian Danek, Johannes Levin, Igor Yakushev, Christoph Laske, Robert A Koeppe, Douglas R Galasko, Chengjie Xiong, Colin L Masters, Peter R Schofield, Kirsi M Kinnunen, Stephen Salloway, Ralph N Martins, Eric McDade, Nigel J Cairns, Virginia D Buckles, John C Morris, Randall Bateman, Reisa A Sperling
Converging evidence from structural, metabolic and functional connectivity MRI suggests that neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, target specific neural networks. However, age-related network changes commonly co-occur with neuropathological cascades, limiting efforts to disentangle disease-specific alterations in network function from those associated with normal ageing. Here we elucidate the differential effects of ageing and Alzheimer's disease pathology through simultaneous analyses of two functional connectivity MRI datasets: (i) young participants harbouring highly-penetrant mutations leading to autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN), an Alzheimer's disease cohort in which age-related comorbidities are minimal and likelihood of progression along an Alzheimer's disease trajectory is extremely high; and (ii) young and elderly participants from the Harvard Aging Brain Study, a cohort in which imaging biomarkers of amyloid burden and neurodegeneration can be used to disambiguate ageing alone from preclinical Alzheimer's disease...
March 7, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
François-Xavier Ferracci, Hugues Duffau
Radical glioma resection improves overall survival, both in low-grade and high-grade glial tumors. However, preservation of the quality of life is also crucial. Areas covered: Due to the diffuse feature of gliomas, which invade the central nervous system, and due to considerable variations of brain organization among patients, an individual cerebral mapping is mandatory to solve the classical dilemma between the oncological and functional issues. Because functional neuroimaging is not reliable enough, intraoperative electrical stimulation, especially in awake patients benefiting from a real-time cognitive monitoring, is the best way to increase the extent of resection while sparing eloquent neural networks...
March 9, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Vyacheslav L Murzin, Kaley Woods, Vitali Moiseenko, Roshan Karunamuni, Kathryn R Tringale, Tyler M Seibert, Michael J Connor, Daniel R Simpson, Ke Sheng, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Incidental irradiation of normal brain tissue during radiotherapy is linked to cognitive decline, and may be mediated by damage to healthy cortex. Non-coplanar techniques may be used for cortical sparing. We compared normal brain sparing and probability of cortical atrophy using 4π radiation therapy planning vs. standard fixed gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plans from previously irradiated brain tumor patients ("original IMRT", n = 13) were re-planned to spare cortex using both 4π optimization ("4π") and IMRT optimization ("optimized IMRT")...
March 5, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Naohiro Uezono, Yicheng Zhu, Yusuke Fujimoto, Tetsuro Yasui, Taito Matsuda, Masahide Nakajo, Masahiko Abematsu, Takao Setoguchi, Shuji Mori, Hideo K Takahashi, Setsuro Komiya, Masahiro Nishibori, Kinichi Nakashima
Together with residual host neurons, transplanted neural stem cell (NSC)-derived neurons play a critical role in reconstructing disrupted neural circuits after spinal cord injury (SCI). Since a large number of tracts are disrupted and the majority of host neurons die around the lesion site as the damage spreads, minimizing this spreading and preserving the lesion site are important for attaining further improvements in reconstruction. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern protein that triggers sterile inflammation after tissue injury...
March 8, 2018: Stem Cells
Sang-Woo Lee, Seung-Jae Lee
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a disorder of reversible vasogenic brain edema which mainly involves the parieto-occipital lobes in various clinical settings. The main mechanism is known to be cerebral autoregulation failure and endothelial dysfunction leading to the disruption of the blood-brain barrier. We report the case of a 47-year-old woman with PRES which involved the brain stem and thalami, sparing the cerebral hemispheres. She was admitted to the emergency room because of acute-onset confusion...
January 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
Anthony Pham, Becky Lee, Eric L Chang
Brain metastases are the most common intracranial tumors in the adult population and have been historically treated with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). However, as medical advances improve life expectancy, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has replaced WBRT as the standard of care for limited (one to three) brain metastases due to the relative sparing of neurocognitive function (NCF) and therefore quality of life (QoL). The use of SRS has been less documented in the case of multiple (four or more) brain metastases, with literature limited to non-randomized studies showing comparable survival and local control...
December 28, 2017: Curēus
Pamela Jarrett, Alexander Easton, Kenneth Rockwood, Sarah Dyack, Alexander McCollum, Victoria Siu, Seyed M Mirsattari, Andreu Massot-Tarrús, M Jill Beis, Nolan D'Souza, Sultan Darvesh
OBJECTIVE: Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders in which abnormal lipopigments form lysosomal inclusion bodies in neurons. Kufs disease is rare, and clinical symptoms include seizures, progressive cognitive impairment, and myoclonus. Most cases of Kufs disease are autosomal recessive; however, there have been a few case reports of an autosomal dominant form linked to mutations within the DNAJC5 gene. METHODS: We describe a family with Kufs disease in which the proband and three of her four children presented with cognitive impairment, seizures, and myoclonus...
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Ruggero Ruggieri, Stefania Naccarato, Rosario Mazzola, Francesco Ricchetti, Stefanie Corradini, Alba Fiorentino, Filippo Alongi
BACKGROUND: Linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRS/FSRT) of multiple brain lesions using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is typically performed by a multiple-isocenter approach, i.e. one isocenter per lesion, which is time-demanding for the need of independent setup verifications of each isocenter. Here, we present our initial experience with a new dedicated mono-isocenter technique with multiple non-coplanar arcs (HyperArc™, Varian Inc...
March 5, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Nisha M Badders, Ane Korff, Helen C Miranda, Pradeep K Vuppala, Rebecca B Smith, Brett J Winborn, Emmanuelle R Quemin, Bryce L Sopher, Jennifer Dearman, James Messing, Nam Chul Kim, Jennifer Moore, Brian D Freibaum, Anderson P Kanagaraj, Baochang Fan, Heather Tillman, Ping-Chung Chen, Yingzhe Wang, Burgess B Freeman, Yimei Li, Hong Joo Kim, Albert R La Spada, J Paul Taylor
Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by toxic gain of function of the androgen receptor (AR). Previously, we found that co-regulator binding through the activation function-2 (AF2) domain of AR is essential for pathogenesis, suggesting that AF2 may be a potential drug target for selective modulation of toxic AR activity. We screened previously identified AF2 modulators for their ability to rescue toxicity in a Drosophila model of SBMA. We identified two compounds, tolfenamic acid (TA) and 1-[2-(4-methylphenoxy)ethyl]-2-[(2-phenoxyethyl)sulfanyl]-1H-benzimidazole (MEPB), as top candidates for rescuing lethality, locomotor function and neuromuscular junction defects in SBMA flies...
March 5, 2018: Nature Medicine
Thomas A W Bolton, Delphine Jochaut, Anne-Lise Giraud, Dimitri Van De Ville
To refine our understanding of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), studies of the brain in dynamic, multimodal and ecological experimental settings are required. One way to achieve this is to compare the neural responses of ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals when viewing a naturalistic movie, but the temporal complexity of the stimulus hampers this task, and the presence of intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) may overshadow movie-driven fluctuations. Here, we detected inter-subject functional correlation (ISFC) transients to disentangle movie-induced functional changes from underlying resting-state activity while probing FC dynamically...
March 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Ivayla Apostolova, Catharina Lange, Per Suppa, Lothar Spies, Susanne Klutmann, Gerhard Adam, Michel J Grothe, Ralph Buchert
PURPOSE: Increased blood glucose level (BGL) has been reported to cause alterations of FDG uptake in the brain that mimic Alzheimer's disease (AD), even within the "acceptable" range ≤ 160 mg/dl. The aim of this study was (i) to confirm this in a large sample of well-characterized normal control (NC) subjects, and (ii) to analyze its impact on the prediction of AD dementia (ADD) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: The study included NCs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) that were cognitively stable for ≥36 months after PET (n = 87, 74...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Donghuan Lu, Karteek Popuri, Gavin Weiguang Ding, Rakesh Balachandar, Mirza Faisal Beg
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases with a commonly seen prodromal mild cognitive impairment (MCI) phase where memory loss is the main complaint progressively worsening with behavior issues and poor self-care. However, not all individuals clinically diagnosed with MCI progress to AD. A fraction of subjects with MCI either progress to non-AD dementia or remain stable at the MCI stage without progressing to dementia. Although a curative treatment of AD is currently unavailable, it is extremely important to correctly identify the individuals in the MCI phase that will go on to develop AD so that they may benefit from a curative treatment when one becomes available in the near future...
February 21, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
R Corona, M Meurisse, F Cornilleau, C Moussu, M Keller, F Lévy
Profound behavioral changes occur in the mother at parturition, a time when the maternal brain undergoes extensive remodeling of neural circuits, especially in olfactory structures. Adult neurogenesis, a form of brain plasticity, could constitute an adaptive response to motherhood. The present study hypothesized that chemical disruption of olfactory neurogenesis would impair the establishment of maternal behavior in sheep. In addition, because ewes are able to learn the olfactory signature of their offspring, we also examined whether disruption of olfactory neurogenesis altered recognition of the familiar lamb...
March 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Andrew H Zureick, Casey L Evans, Andrzej Niemierko, Julie A Grieco, Alexandra J Nichols, Barbara C Fullerton, Clayton B Hess, Claire P Goebel, Sara L Gallotto, Elizabeth A Weyman, Dillon E Gaudet, Jessica A Nartowicz, David H Ebb, Robin M Jones, Shannon M MacDonald, Nancy J Tarbell, Torunn I Yock, Margaret B Pulsifer
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) in the pediatric brain tumor population causes late neurocognitive effects. In the current study, the authors investigated associations between clinical and dosimetric risk factors and memory outcomes in a cohort of patients treated with proton radiotherapy (PRT). METHODS: A total of 70 patients (median age at PRT, 12.1 years [range, 5.0-22.5 years]) who were treated with PRT were identified with baseline and follow-up evaluations of visual and verbal memory (Children's Memory Scale and the third edition of the Wechsler Memory Scale)...
March 2, 2018: Cancer
Anthony L Ritaccio, Peter Brunner, Gerwin Schalk
The application of electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) of the brain for clinical use is approximating a century. Despite this long-standing history, the value of ESM for guiding surgical resections and sparing eloquent cortex is documented largely by small retrospective studies, and ESM protocols are largely inherited and lack standardization. Although models are imperfect and mechanisms are complex, the probabilistic causality of ESM has guaranteed its perpetuation into the 21st century. At present, electrical stimulation of cortical tissue is being revisited for network connectivity...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
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