Read by QxMD icon Read

gene editing

Joke Terryn, Tine Tricot, Madhavsai Gajjar, Catherine Verfaillie
Pluripotent stem cells have the property of long-term self-renewal and the potential to give rise to descendants of the three germ layers and hence all mature cells in the human body. Therefore, they hold the promise of offering insight not only into human development but also for human disease modeling and regenerative medicine. However, the generation of mature differentiated cells that closely resemble their in vivo counterparts remains challenging. Recent advances in single-cell transcriptomics and computational modeling of gene regulatory networks are revealing a better understanding of lineage commitment and are driving modern genome editing approaches...
2018: F1000Research
Madiha Kanwal, Xiao-Jie Ding, Xin Song, Guang-Biao Zhou, Yi Cao
Air pollution is one of the leading causes of lung cancer. Air pollution-related lung cancer is a deteriorating public health problem, particularly in developing countries. The MUC16 gene is one of the most frequently mutated genes in air pollution-related lung cancer. In the present study, MUC16 mRNA expression was increased in ∼50% of air pollution-related lung cancer samples obtained from patients residing in air-polluted regions (Xuanwei and Fuyuan, Yunnan, China), and MUC16 mRNA levels were correlated with the degree of air pollution...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Andrew S Fister, Lena Landherr, Siela N Maximova, Mark J Guiltinan
Theobroma cacao , the source of cocoa, suffers significant losses to a variety of pathogens resulting in reduced incomes for millions of farmers in developing countries. Development of disease resistant cacao varieties is an essential strategy to combat this threat, but is limited by sources of genetic resistance and the slow generation time of this tropical tree crop. In this study, we present the first application of genome editing technology in cacao, using Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation to introduce CRISPR/Cas9 components into cacao leaves and cotyledon cells...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sarene Koh, Janine Kah, Christine Y L Tham, Ninghan Yang, Erica Ceccarello, Adeline Chia, Margaret Chen, Atefeh Khakpoor, Andrea Pavesi, Anthony T Tan, Maura Dandri, Antonio Bertoletti
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Strategies to develop virus-specific T cells against hepatic viral infections have been hindered by safety concerns. We engineered non-lytic human T cells to suppress replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) without overt hepatotoxicity, and investigated their antiviral activity. METHODS: We electroporated resting T cells or T cells activated by anti-CD3 with mRNAs encoding HBV or HCV-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) to create 2 populations of TCR-reprogrammed T cells...
March 14, 2018: Gastroenterology
Il Hwan Byun, Jong Won Hong, Mohammed Ahmed Hussein, Yong Oock Kim
PURPOSE: Craniosynostosis (CRS) is a congenital condition resulting premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures. CRS is classified according to the involved sutures into sagittal, metopic, unicoronal, unilambdoid, bicoronal, and multiple-suture CRS, with sagittal suture fusion known to be the most common type. Although multiple studies have presented demographic characteristics of CRS patients, to date, there is no study representing an Asian population. We sought to compare the demographic characteristics of Asian patients to those of Western patients, considering previous reports...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Yamin Li, Tao Yang, Yingjie Yu, Nicola Shi, Liu Yang, Zachary Glass, Justin Bolinger, Isaac James Finkel, Wenhan Li, Qiaobing Xu
Protein based therapeutics with high specificities and low off-target effects are used for transient and accurate manipulation of cell functions. However, developing safe and efficient carriers for intracellular delivery of active therapeutic proteins is a long-standing challenge. Here we report a combinatorial library of chalcogen (O, S, Se) containing lipidoid nanoparticles (LNPs) as efficient nanocarriers for intracellular delivery of negatively supercharged Cre recombinase ((-30)GFP-Cre) and anionic Cas9:single-guide RNA (Cas9:sgRNA) ribonucleoprotein (RNP) for genome editing...
March 8, 2018: Biomaterials
Richard Sarro, Acadia A Kocher, Deena Emera, Severin Uebbing, Emily V Dutrow, Scott D Weatherbee, Timothy Nottoli, James P Noonan
Developmental gene expression patterns are orchestrated by thousands of distant-acting transcriptional enhancers. However, identifying enhancers essential for the expression of their target genes has proven challenging. Maps of long-range regulatory interactions may provide the means to identify enhancers critical for developmental gene expression. To investigate this hypothesis, we used circular chromosome conformation capture coupled with interaction maps in the mouse limb to characterize the regulatory topology of Pitx1 , which is essential for hindlimb development...
March 16, 2018: Development
Graeme Milligan, Asuka Inoue
Rapid developments in genome editing, based largely on CRISPR/Cas9 technologies, are offering unprecedented opportunities to eliminate the expression of single or multiple gene products in intact organisms and in model cell systems. Elimination of individual G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), both single and multiple G protein subunits, and arrestin adaptor proteins is providing new and sometimes unanticipated insights into molecular details of the regulation of cell signalling pathways and the behaviour of receptor ligands...
March 13, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Min Huang, Li Zhu, Jacqueline S Garcia, Michael X Li, Andrew J Gentles, Beverly S Mitchell
We have recently reported that activation of Brd4 is associated with the presence of autophagy in NPMc+ and MLL AML cells. In order to determine the mechanisms underlying this relationship, we have examined the role of Brd4 in regulating the expression of several genes that are central to the process of autophagy. We found that Brd4 binds to the promoters of ATG 3, 7 and CEBPβ, and expression of these genes is markedly reduced by inhibitors of Brd4, as well as by Brd4-shRNA and depletion of CEBPβ. Inhibitors of Brd4 also dramatically suppress the transcription of Keap1, thereby increasing the expression of anti-oxidant genes through the Nrf2 pathway and reducing the cytotoxicity induced by Brd4 inhibitors...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Masato Uchiyama, Akiko Nagai, Kaori Muto
Genome editing of human embryos could become a fundamental treatment approach for genetic diseases; however, a few technical and ethical issues need to be resolved before its application in clinical settings. Presently, the Japanese government has issued a statement prohibiting human germline editing and emphasizing the need for discussions that include a wide range of perspectives. However, current discussions tend to exclude the general public. Therefore, we conducted a survey of 10,881 general adults and 1044 patients in Japan who indicated that their disease conditions are related to their genetic makeup, and clarified their attitude toward this technology...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Alina Fedoseienko, Melinde Wijers, Justina C Wolters, Daphne Dekker, Marieke Smit, Nicolette Huijkman, Niels Kloosterhuis, Helene Klug, Aloys Schepers, Ko Willems van Dijk, Johannes H Levels, Daniel D Billadeau, Marten H Hofker, Jan van Deursen, Marit Westerterp, Ezra Burstein, Jan Albert Kuivenhoven, Bart van de Sluis
<u>Rationale:</u> <u>CO</u> pper<u>M</u>etabolism<u>M</u>URR1 Domain-containing (COMMD) proteins are a part of the COMMD-CCDC22-CCDC93 (CCC) complexes facilitating endosomal trafficking of cell surface receptors. Hepatic COMMD1 inactivation decreases CCDC22 and CCDC93 protein levels, impairs the recycling of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and increases plasma LDL cholesterol levels in mice. However, whether any of the other COMMD members function similarly as COMMD1, and whether perturbation in the CCC complex promotes atherogenesis remain unclear...
March 15, 2018: Circulation Research
Ximena Corso-Díaz, Catherine Jaeger, Vijender Chaitankar, Anand Swaroop
Complex biological processes, such as organogenesis and homeostasis, are stringently regulated by genetic programs that are fine-tuned by epigenetic factors to establish cell fates and/or to respond to the microenvironment. Gene regulatory networks that guide cell differentiation and function are modulated and stabilized by modifications to DNA, RNA and proteins. In this review, we focus on two key epigenetic changes - DNA methylation and histone modifications - and discuss their contribution to retinal development, aging and disease, especially in the context of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Hamid Reza Mirzaei, Hossein Pourghadamyari, Majid Rahmati, Abbas Mohammadi, Javid Sadri Nahand, Abbas Rezaei, Hamed Mirzaei, Jamshid Hadjati
Recently clinical trials utilizing genetically engineered T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that is half monoclonal antibody and half T-cell receptor have demonstrated remarkable response in patients with advanced cancers like relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoma. Moreover, emerging chimeric genome editing tools such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZNFs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas composed of sequence-specific DNA binding module(s) linked to a non-specific DNA cleavage domain have made possible to dramatically expand the ability to manipulate cells aim to treat and/or study a wide range of diseases including cancer...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Letters
Jennifer M Maurer, Charles G Sagerström
BACKGROUND: Signaling cascades, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, play vital roles in early vertebrate development. Signals through these pathways are initiated by a growth factor or hormone, are transduced through a kinase cascade, and result in the expression of specific downstream genes that promote cellular proliferation, growth, or differentiation. Tight regulation of these signals is provided by positive or negative modulators at varying levels in the pathway, and is required for proper development and function...
March 15, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Suhyung Cho, Donghui Choe, Eunju Lee, Sun Chang Kim, Bernhard Ø Palsson, Byung-Kwan Cho
Along with functional advances in the use of CRISPR/Cas9 for genome editing, endonuclease-deficient Cas9 (dCas9) has provided a versatile molecular tool for exploring gene functions. In principle, differences in cell phenotypes that result from the RNA-guided modulation of transcription levels by dCas9 are critical for inferring with gene function; however, the effect of intracellular dCas9 expression on bacterial morphology has not been systematically elucidated. Here, we observed unexpected morphological changes in Escherichia coli mediated by dCas9, which were then characterized using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq)...
March 15, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Shashank Gandhi, Florian Razy-Krajka, Lionel Christiaen, Alberto Stolfi
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 has emerged as a revolutionary tool for fast and efficient targeted gene knockouts and genome editing in almost any organism. The laboratory model tunicate Ciona is no exception. Here, we describe our latest protocol for the design, implementation, and evaluation of successful CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockouts in somatic cells of electroporated Ciona embryos. Using commercially available reagents, publicly accessible plasmids, and free web-based software applications, any Ciona researcher can easily knock out any gene of interest in their favorite embryonic cell lineage...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Keita Yoshida, Nicholas Treen
Targeted mutagenesis of genes-of-interest is a powerful method of addressing the functions of genes. Genome editing techniques, such as transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 systems, have enabled this approach in various organisms because of their ease of use. In the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, recent studies show that TALEN-based knockout can be applied to establishing both mutant lines and tissue-specific knockout for addressing gene functions...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shuping Yang, Xin Li, Xinfeng Liu, Xiangbin Ding, Xiangbo Xin, Congfei Jin, Sheng Zhang, Guangpeng Li, Hong Guo
MSTN -encoded myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. Here, we utilized the gluteus tissues from MSTN gene editing and wild type Luxi beef cattle which are native breed of cattle in China, performed tandem mass tag (TMT) -based comparative proteomics and phosphoproteomics analyses to investigate the regulatory mechanism of MSTN related to cellular metabolism and signaling pathway in muscle development. Out of 1,315 proteins, 69 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were found in global proteomics analysis...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Neftali Vazquez, Lilia Sanchez, Rebecca Marks, Eduardo Martinez, Victor Fanniel, Alma Lopez, Andrea Salinas, Itzel Flores, Jesse Hirschmann, Robert Gilkerson, Erin Schuenzel, Robert Dearth, Reginald Halaby, Wendy Innis-Whitehouse, Megan Keniry
BACKGROUND: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) RNA-guided adaptive immune systems are found in prokaryotes to defend cells from foreign DNA. CRISPR Cas9 systems have been modified and employed as genome editing tools in wide ranging organisms. Here, we provide a detailed protocol to truncate genes in mammalian cells using CRISPR Cas9 editing. We describe custom donor vector construction using Gibson assembly with the commonly utilized pcDNA3 vector as the backbone...
March 14, 2018: BMC Molecular Biology
Tafadzwa Mlambo, Sandra Nitsch, Markus Hildenbeutel, Marianna Romito, Maximilian Müller, Claudia Bossen, Sven Diederichs, Tatjana I Cornu, Toni Cathomen, Claudio Mussolino
Targeted modulation of gene expression represents a valuable approach to understand the mechanisms governing gene regulation. In a therapeutic context, it can be exploited to selectively modify the aberrant expression of a disease-causing gene or to provide the target cells with a new function. Here, we have established a novel platform for achieving precision epigenome editing using designer epigenome modifiers (DEMs). DEMs combine in a single molecule a DNA binding domain based on highly specific transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and several effector domains capable of inducing DNA methylation and locally altering the chromatin structure to silence target gene expression...
March 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"