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Veterinary anesthesia

Natasha K Loy Son, Ameet Singh, Pierre Amsellem, Jessica Kilkenny, Brigitte A Brisson, Michelle L Oblak, Adam T Ogilvie
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the short- and long-term outcome (>12 months), complications, and owner satisfaction following prophylactic laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy (LAG) in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs (n = 49). METHODS: Dogs that underwent prophylactic LAG at 2 veterinary academic hospitals were studied. Surgical time, anesthesia time, concurrent intra- and extra-abdominal procedures, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded following review of medical records...
October 5, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Eunju Choi, Sara E Childs-Sanford, Noha Abou-Madi, Erin E King, Brian G Caserto, Heather Priest, Erica Behling-Kelly, Andrew D Miller
An 8-yr-old, captive, female golden lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) with a 6-yr history of hyperbilirubinemia was examined for inappetence and weight loss. Physical examination and blood pressure monitoring under anesthesia revealed hypothermia and hypotension, and blood work revealed hypoglycemia, markedly elevated liver enzymes, including serum alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, and confirmed the hyperbilirubinemia. A complete blood count suggested chronic lymphoid leukemia...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Ioannis Savvas, Dimitrios Raptopoulos, Timoleon Rallis
Emerging evidence from veterinary and medical clinical research shows that reducing preoperative fasting time may reduce the incidence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) intraoperatively. In order to evaluate the effect of two different preoperative fasting times on the incidence of GER during general anesthesia, 120 dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: administration of canned food 3 h before premedication (group C3, n = 60) and administration of canned food 10 h before premedication (group C10, n = 60)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Flavia Ruxanda, Adrian Florin Gal, Cristian Raţiu, Viorel Miclăuş, Vasile Rus, Liviu Ioan Oana
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inhalation anesthetics are used in human, as well as veterinary medical practice. In the present study we investigated the effect of isoflurane and sevoflurane on rat hepatocytes. METHODS: A total of 40 Wistar female rats were used in this study. Animals were divided in groups of 5 rats. Groups IM, SM served as control groups. Groups I1, I2, I3 were used to study isoflurane and S1, S2, S3 for sevoflurane study. They were anesthetized 3 times, for 2h long, at 2 days interval with a concentration of: 1...
September 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Friederike A Sandbaumhüter, Regula Theurillat, Rima N Bektas, Annette P N Kutter, Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Wolfgang Thormann
Ketamine is often used for anesthesia in veterinary medicine. One possible comedication is the sedative α2-agonist medetomidine. Advantages of that combination are the compensation of side effects of the two drugs and the anesthetic-sparing effect of medetomidine. In vitro studies showed that medetomidine has an inhibitive effect on the formation of norketamine. Norketamine is the first metabolite of ketamine and is also active. It is followed by others like 6-hydroxynorketamine and 5,6-dehydronorketamine (DHNK)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Flavia Ruxanda, Adrian Florin Gal, Cristian Raţiu, Viorel Miclăuş, Vasile Rus, Liviu Ioan Oana
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inhalation anesthetics are used in human, as well as veterinary medical practice. In the present study we investigated the effect of isoflurane and sevoflurane on rat hepatocytes. METHODS: A total of 40 Wistar female rats were used in this study. Animals were divided in groups of 5 rats. Groups IM, SM served as control groups. Groups I1, I2, I3 were used to study isoflurane and S1, S2, S3 for sevoflurane study. They were anesthetized 3 times, for 2h long, at 2 days interval with a concentration of: 1...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Amy M Carlson, Richard Kelly Iii, David P Fetterer, Pedro J Rico, Emily J Bailey
Fentanyl is a μ-opioid agonist that often is used as the analgesic component for balanced anesthesia in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing, and the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl are unknown in NHP. The pharmacokinetic properties of 2 transdermal fentanyl delivery methods, a solution (2.6 and 1.95 mg/kg) and a patch (25 μg/h), were determined when applied topically to the dorsal scapular area of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Serum fentanyl concentrations were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Kelly Mann, Juliette Hart, Felix Duerr
INTRODUCTION: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) is widely known for its use in the diagnosis and tracking of primary and metastatic tumors via uptake and retention of the radiopharmaceutical by hypermetabolic cells. 18F-FDG is also used to study the normal physiology of glucose uptake, metabolism, and muscle activity during and after exercise. BACKGROUND: A pilot study adding PET imaging to the diagnostic evaluation of canine patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) for mild or intermittent thoracic and pelvic limb lameness is ongoing...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
J DeLay
Autopsy of animals that die in the perianesthetic period allows identification of anesthetic and surgical complications as well as preexisting disease conditions that may have contributed to mortality. In most studies to date investigating perianesthetic mortality in animals, inclusion of autopsy data is very limited. This retrospective study evaluated autopsy findings in 221 cases of perianesthetic death submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory from primary care and referral hospitals. Canine (n = 105; 48%) and feline (n = 90; 41%) cases predominated in the study, involving elective (71%) and emergency (19%) procedures...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Nicole M Scherrer, Mary Lassaline, Dean W Richardson, Darko Stefanovski
OBJECTIVE To determine interval (1-year) prevalence of and factors associated with colic in horses hospitalized for ocular or orthopedic disease. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 105 horses with ocular disease and 197 horses with orthopedic disease admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2012. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to determine whether colic (abnormal behavior prompting abdominal palpation per rectum or nasogastric intubation) was observed during hospitalization...
July 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Jessica J Kilkenny, Victoria J Mrotz, Deep K Khosa, Carolyn L Kerr, John D Denstedt, Ameet Singh
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of distraction on the performance of a simulator-based laparoscopic task in veterinary students. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SAMPLE POPULATION: Years 1-4 veterinary students (n=41). METHODS: Participants repeated a simulated laparoscopic peg transfer task to eliminate any learning effects and were subsequently randomized to receive either a cognitive (double-digit addition questions, n=21) or sensory distraction (dogs barking and anesthesia monitor alerts, n=20)...
May 18, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Cinthia Marnell
Tarantulas and hermit crabs are commonly kept pets and are underappreciated in veterinary medicine. Safe handling, biology and husbandry, diagnostic techniques, anesthesia, fluid therapy, disorders, and euthanasia are covered in this article. Current research is applied to these topics to keep practitioners abreast with the best medicine for these creatures.
May 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Brian J Sutherland, Jonathan F McAnulty, Robert J Hardie
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical outcome of donor and recipient cats undergoing ureteral papilla harvest and implantation as a technique for neoureterocystostomy in clinical kidney transplant. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Donor (n=31) and recipient (n=30) cats that underwent kidney harvest and transplantation using ureteral papilla implantation technique for neoureterocystostomy. METHODS: Medical records for donor and recipient cats presented to the University of Wisconsin Veterinary Teaching Hospital from January 2003 to December 2014 were reviewed...
May 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Kristiane Barington, Henrik Elvang Jensen
In animal models developed in order to estimate the age of bruises, focus has been on the changes over time and not considering the force used to inflict the trauma. In the present study, gross and histological changes in 2, 4, 6 and 8 h old bruises which were inflicted with a low, moderate and high force were compared. Twelve experimental pigs were randomly assigned to three groups of force (low, moderate and high force). All pigs were anesthetized, and on each animal four blunt traumas were inflicted on the back with the low, moderate or high force according to the groups...
May 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Duana McBride, Giselle Hosgood, Anthea Raisis, Lisa Smart
OBJECTIVE: To measure platelet closure time (PCT) in dogs during controlled hemorrhagic shock and after fluid resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 or 0.9% sodium chloride. DESIGN: Experimental interventional study. SETTING: University veterinary teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Eleven healthy Greyhounds. INTERVENTIONS: Dogs were anesthetized and had 48 mL/kg of blood removed to induce hemorrhagic shock...
July 2016: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Alice M Bugman, Peter T Langer, Eva Hadzima, Anne E Rivas, Mark A Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of alfaxalone on heart rate (HR), opercular rate (OpR), results of blood gas analysis, and responses to noxious stimuli in oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus). ANIMALS: 6 healthy subadult oscar fish. PROCEDURES: Each fish was immersed in water containing 5 mg of alfaxalone/L. Water temperature was maintained at 25.1°C, and water quality was appropriate for this species. The HR, OpR, response to noxious stimuli, and positioning in the tank were evaluated, and blood samples for blood gas analysis were collected before (baseline), during, and after anesthesia...
March 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Atsushi Tsukamoto, Kaho Uchida, Shizuka Maesato, Reiichiro Sato, Eiichi Kanai, Tomo Inomata
Representative inhalant anesthetic agent, isoflurane is commonly used during surgery in rats. However, isoflurane mediates relatively strong respiratory depression. In human and veterinary medicine, sedatives and analgesics are co-administered to complement the anesthetic action of inhalant anesthesia. The present study aimed to establish the novel balanced anesthesia that combines midazolam and butorphanol with isoflurane (MBI) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups, and administered either isoflurane monoanesthesia or isoflurane with midazolam (2...
July 29, 2016: Experimental Animals
Nicole M Scherrer, Mary Lassaline, William W Miller
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of four horses with severe corneal edema caused by suspected endothelial disease treated with a superficial keratectomy and Gundersen inlay flap and to determine whether this procedure (i) reduces corneal edema, (ii) reduces ocular pain, (iii) eliminates recurrent corneal ulceration, and (iv) improves vision in these horses. ANIMALS STUDIED: Four horses met inclusion criterion of (i) diagnosis with endothelial disease by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist and (ii) surgical treatment with a superficial keratectomy and Gundersen inlay flap...
January 18, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Douglas L Miller, Chunyan Dou, Zhihong Dong, Krishnan Raghavendran
The use of xylazine, a veterinary sedative, with ketamine for rat anesthesia has been shown to enhance the pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) effect of diagnostic ultrasound. This study was undertaken to assess whether the sedative/analgesic dexmedetomidine, commonly used in the intensive care unit, can also enhance ultrasound-induced PCH. Female Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with various combinations of ketamine plus xylazine or dexmedetomidine. The dosage of dexmedetomidine was reduced for some groups to doses relevant to human clinical usage...
April 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Madhuri S Kurdi, Ashwini H Ramaswamy
From time immemorial, animals have served as models for humans. Like humans, animals too have to undergo several types of elective and emergency surgeries. Several anesthetic techniques and drugs used in humans are also used in animals. However, unlike humans, the animal kingdom includes a wide variety of species, breeds, and sizes. Different species have variable pharmacological responses, anatomy, temperament, behavior, and lifestyles. The anesthetic techniques and drugs have to suit different species and breeds...
September 2015: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
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