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Infectious laryngotracheitis virus

Nola J Parsons, Tertius A Gous, Adam M Schaefer, Ralph E T Vanstreels
The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is an endangered seabird that breeds along the coast of Namibia and South Africa, and disease surveillance was identified as a priority for its conservation. Aiming for the establishment of baseline data on the presence of potential pathogens in this species, a comprehensive health assessment (blood smear examination, haematology, biochemistry and serology) was conducted on samples obtained from 578 African penguins at 11 breeding colonies and a rehabilitation centre...
September 20, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Vishwanatha R A P Reddy, Ivan Trus, Hans J Nauwynck
Although it has been speculated that the tracheal obstructions and asphyxiation during acute infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) are due to mucoid plugs/casts formed by mucus hypersecretion, there are no reports demonstrating this. Hence, in the present study, we first examined if the main respiratory mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B, are expressed in the mucosae of larynx, trachea and bronchi of mock-inoculated and ILTV infected chickens. Second, the tracheas with plugs/casts were stained for mucins (MUC5AC and MUC5B) and nuclear material (traps)...
January 2, 2017: Virus Research
L Pohjola, N Tammiranta, C Ek-Kommonen, T Soveri, M L Hänninen, M Fredriksson-Ahomaa, A Huovilainen
Backyard poultry is regaining popularity in Europe and increased interest in the health and management of non-commercial farms has resulted. Furthermore, commercial poultry farm owners have become concerned about the risk represented by contagious animal diseases that nearby backyard poultry could transmit. Fifty-one voluntary backyard chicken farms were visited between October 2012 and January 2013. Blood samples and individual cloacal swabs were collected from 457 chickens. In 44 farms (86%), one or more of the tested chickens had antibodies against avian encephalomyelitis and chicken infectious anemia viruses, 24 farms (47%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bronchitis virus, 10 farms (20%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bursal disease virus, six farms (12%) had chickens seropositive for infectious laryngotracheitis virus and two farms (5...
September 13, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Nacira Laamiri, Pia Fällgren, Siamak Zohari, Jaouher Ben Ali, Abdeljelil Ghram, Mikael Leijon, Issam Hmila
A novel oligonucleotide suspension microarray (Luminex® microsphere system) is developed for rapid diagnosis of avian respiratory viruses of major clinical importance. This test was optimized and validated with 70 clinical samples. The developed tool was accurate for high throughput detection and differentiation of the most important avian respiratory viruses: avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infection bronchitis virus (IBV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in single and mixed viral infections...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Virginia Marugan-Hernandez, Charlotte Cockle, Sarah Macdonald, Elaine Pegg, Colin Crouch, Damer P Blake, Fiona M Tomley
BACKGROUND: Eimeria species are parasitic protozoa that cause coccidiosis, an intestinal disease commonly characterised by malabsorption, diarrhoea and haemorrhage that is particularly important in chickens. Vaccination against chicken coccidiosis is effective using wild-type or attenuated live parasite lines. The development of protocols to express foreign proteins in Eimeria species has opened up the possibility of using Eimeria live vaccines to deliver heterologous antigens and function as multivalent vaccine vectors that could protect chickens against a range of pathogens...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Ольга І Гладченко, Павло В Токарєв, Олександр Б Надрага
INTRODUCTION: One of the most severe complications of acute respiratory infections in young children is acute stenotic laryngotracheitis (croup). The relationship between cytokine blood levels and symptoms of croup, croup severity, disease sequel, despite numerous studies is still unclear. AIM: Cytokine profile in young children with acute stenotic laryngotracheitis investigation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 112 children aged 12 min. - 36 mon. with acute stenotic laryngotracheitis which were treated at the Lviv Regional Infectious Diseases Hospital were kept under observation...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Nik M Faiz, Aneg L Cortes, James S Guy, Jonathan E Fogle, Isabel M Gimeno
Marek's disease virus (MDV) induces tumors and severe immunosuppression in chickens. MDV-induced immunosuppression (MDV-IS) is very complex and difficult to study. In particular, the late MDV-IS (late-MDV-IS) is of great concern since it can occur in the absence of lymphoid organ atrophy or gross tumors. We have recently developed a model to reproduce late-MDV-IS under laboratory conditions. This model measures MDV-IS indirectly by assessing the effect of MDV infection on the efficacy of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccination; hence the name late-MDV-IS ILT model...
July 29, 2016: Vaccine
Maricarmen Garcia, S J Spatz, Y Cheng, S M Riblet, J D Volkening, G H Schneiders
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is controlled by the use of live-attenuated vaccines. Previously we reported the complete nucleotide sequence of the ILTV vaccine strain (TCO) and identified a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding the ORF C protein. This suggested that the ORF C protein might be associated with viral virulence. To investigate this, an ILTV recombinant with a deletion in the gene encoding ORF C was constructed using the genome of the virulent United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) challenge strain (USDAch)...
September 2016: Journal of General Virology
Rebecca Agnew-Crumpton, Paola K Vaz, Joanne M Devlin, Denise O'Rourke, Hayley Patricia Blacker-Smith, Barbara Konsak-Ilievski, Carol A Hartley, Amir H Noormohammadi
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a significant viral disease of chickens in many countries around the globe. In this report the status of ILT in Australia has been used as a model to evaluate the evolution of the ILT viruses (ILTVs). Due to its geographical isolation, Australia harbored a distinct lineage of ILT viruses (ILTV) up to 2007. However examination of the ILT viruses (ILTV) involved in outbreaks between 2007 and 2009 has revealed that many of the outbreaks were caused by two new viral genotypes, class 8 and class 9...
September 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Nik M Faiz, Aneg L Cortes, James S Guy, Oscar J Fletcher, Melissa West, Enrique Montiel, Isabel M Gimeno
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus that induces lymphomas and immunosuppression in chickens. MDV-induced immunosuppression (MDV-IS) is divided into two phases: early-MDV-IS occurring mainly in chickens lacking maternal antibodies (MAb) against MDV and associated with lymphoid organ atrophy; and late-MDV-IS occurring once MDV enters latency and during tumor development. Our objectives were to document the impact of late-MDV-IS on commercial poultry (meat type chickens bearing MAb against MDV and that were vaccinated or unvaccinated against MD) and to optimize a model to study late-MDV-IS under laboratory conditions...
May 20, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Wei Zhao, Stephen Spatz, Laszlo Zsak, Qingzhong Yu
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), a member of the family Herpesviridae. The current commercial ILT vaccines are either unsafe or ineffective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious vaccines. Newcastle disease (ND), caused by infection with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, is one of the most serious infectious diseases of poultry...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eun-Jung Choi, Tae-Min La, In-Soo Choi, Chang-Seon Song, Seung-Yong Park, Joong-Bok Lee, Sang-Won Lee
Live attenuated vaccines are extensively used worldwide to control the outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis. Virulent field strains showing close genetic relationship with the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines of chicken embryo origin have been detected in the poultry industry. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, a reliable molecular epidemiological method, of multiple genomic regions was performed. The PCR-RFLP is a time-consuming method that requires considerable amount of intact viral genomic DNA to amplify genomic regions greater than 4 kb...
August 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ariel Vagnozzi, Sylva Riblet, Guillermo Zavala, Roselene Ecco, Claudio L Afonso, Maricarmen García
Infectious laryngotracheitis is a highly contagious disease of chickens responsible for significant economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. The disease is caused by Gallid herpesvirus-1 (GaHV-1) commonly known as the infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Although characterized by their potential to regain virulence, chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines are the most effective vaccines against laryngotracheitis as they significantly reduce the replication of challenge virus in the trachea and conjunctiva...
2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ismaila Shittu, Lanre K Sulaiman, Dorcas A Gado, Anthony N Egbuji, Mwapu D Ndahi, Ezekiel Pam, Tony M Joannis
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens with outbreaks resulting in high economic losses due to increased mortality and drop in egg production. This study reports a survey of ILT virus antibody conducted in nine local government areas (LGAs) of Plateau State involving 67 randomly selected commercial poultry flocks. In all, 938 sera were tested using the Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion (AGID) technique. Overall prevalence of 1.2% (N = 11) was recorded. ILT virus antibody was found in 2...
2016: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Alessandra Piccirillo, Enrico Lavezzo, Giulia Niero, Ana Moreno, Paola Massi, Elisa Franchin, Stefano Toppo, Cristiano Salata, Giorgio Palù
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by an alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Recently, full genome sequences of wild-type and vaccine strains have been determined worldwide, but none was from Europe. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse the complete genome sequences of five ILTV strains. Sequences were also compared to reveal the similarity of strains across time and to discriminate between wild-type and vaccine strains...
2016: PloS One
I Davidson, I Raibshtein, A Altori, N Elkin
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of poultry caused by an alphaherpesvirus, ILTV. The live vaccine is applied worldwide by drinking water or by the respiratory route, and by the vent application in Israel. No system of direct evaluation of the efficacy of vaccination exists today, except of antibody elicitation, which is an indirect indication of vaccination intake and might happen due to environment exposure. We suggest for the first time an assay for evaluating the accuracy of the vaccination process by spotting the spread of the live vaccine systemically, namely by virus detection in the feather shafts of the vaccinated birds...
March 18, 2016: Vaccine
Zhuanqiang Yan, Shengpeng Li, Qingmei Xie, Feng Chen, Yingzuo Bi
Nineteen strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; Gallid herpesvirus 1) were isolated from dead or diseased birds in chicken flocks from different areas of China between 2010 and 2014 and used to investigate ILTV epidemiology. These strains were characterized using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) patterns and sequence analysis of the thymidine kinase (TK) gene. PCR-RFLP analysis showed that the TK gene generated 2 patterns when digested with restriction endonuclease enzymes...
January 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Ariel Vagnozzi, Sylva M Riblet, Susan M Williams, Guillermo Zavala, Maricarmen García
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious disease of chickens and is responsible for significant economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide; it is caused by Gallid herpesvirus-1 (GaHV-1), commonly known as infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Experimental evaluation of ILTV strains is fundamental to identify changes in virulence that can contribute to the severity and spread of outbreaks and consequently influence the efficacy of vaccination. Several criteria had been utilized to determine the degree of virulence associated with ILTV strains...
September 2015: Avian Diseases
Isabel M Gimeno, Aneg L Cortes, Nik M Faiz, Byron A Hernandez-Ortiz, James S Guy, Henry D Hunt, Robert F Silva
Laryngotracheitis (LT) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens that produces significant economic losses to the poultry industry. Traditionally, LT has been controlled by administration of modified live vaccines. In recent years, the use of recombinant DNA-derived vaccines using turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and fowlpox virus has expanded, as they protect not only against the vector used but also against LT. However, HVT-based vaccines confer limited protection against challenge, with emergent very virulent plus Marek's disease virus (vv+MDV)...
June 2015: Avian Diseases
Hai Li, Fengjie Wang, Zongxi Han, Qi Gao, Huixin Li, Yuhao Shao, Nana Sun, Shengwang Liu
UNLABELLED: Given the side effects of vaccination against infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), novel strategies for ILT control and therapy are urgently needed. The modulation of host-virus interactions is a promising strategy to combat the virus; however, the interactions between the host and avian ILT herpesvirus (ILTV) are unclear. Using genome-wide transcriptome studies in combination with a bioinformatic analysis, we identified proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (Src) to be an important modulator of ILTV infection...
January 2016: Journal of Virology
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