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Infectious laryngotracheitis virus

M Nadimpalli, S W Lee, J M Devlin, J R Gilkerson, C A Hartley
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) encodes several unique genes, including a pair of unique nuclear proteins UL0 and UL[-1] that are expressed during replication in cell culture. Although the UL0 gene has been shown to be dispensable for replication, the role of UL[-1] has not been elucidated. In this study a deletion mutant of ILTV lacking the UL[-1] gene was constructed using homologous recombination. The coding sequences of the gene were replaced with the gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein and the cytomegalovirus major immediate early promoter element...
February 13, 2017: Archives of Virology
Nik M Faiz, Aneg L Cortes, James S Guy, Oscar J Fletcher, Thomas Cimino, Isabel M Gimeno
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus that induces lymphoma and immunosuppression in chickens. MDV induced immunosuppression (MDV-IS) is complex and can be divided into two phases: early-MDV-IS associated with cytolytic infection in the lymphoid organs in chickens lacking maternal antibodies against MDV (MAbs) and late-MDV-IS that appears later in the pathogenesis and occurs even in chickens bearing MAbs. We have recently developed a model to reproduce late-MDV-IS under laboratory conditions. This model evaluates late-MDV-IS indirectly by assessing the effect of MDV infection on the efficacy of infectious laryngotracheitis vaccines against challenge with infectious laryngotracheitis virus...
February 2, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Maricarmen García
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important respiratory disease of poultry that affects the industry worldwide. Vaccination is the principal tool in the control of the disease. Two types of vaccines, live attenuated and recombinant viral vector, are commercially available. The first generation of GaHV-1 vaccines available since the early 1960's are live viruses, attenuated by continuous passages in cell culture or embryos. These vaccines significantly reduce mortalities and, in particular, the chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines have shown to limit outbreaks of the disease...
December 24, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Qingzhong Yu, Stephen Spatz, Yufeng Li, Jilong Yang, Wei Zhao, Zhenyu Zhang, Guoyuan Wen, Maricarmen Garcia, Laszlo Zsak
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoproteins B and D have previously been demonstrated to confer complete clinical protection against virulent ILTV and NDV challenges in naive chickens. We extended this study to assess whether maternally derived antibody (MDA) against NDV and ILTV would interfere with protection in vaccinated broiler chickens. Chickens with a mean NDV MDA hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer of 6.4 (log2) and detectable ILTV neutralization (VN) antibodies at hatch were vaccinated with rLS/ILTV-gB or rLS/ILTV-gD at 1 or 10day of age (DOA) or on both days...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
S Hutton, J Bettridge, R Christley, T Habte, K Ganapathy
A survey was conducted into respiratory infectious diseases of poultry on a chicken breeder farm run by the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), located in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 117 randomly selected birds, and blood was taken from a subset of 73 of these birds. A combination of serological and molecular methods was used for detection of pathogens. For the first time in Ethiopia, we report the detection of variant infectious bronchitis virus (793B genotype), avian metapneumovirus subtype B and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Nola J Parsons, Tertius A Gous, Adam M Schaefer, Ralph E T Vanstreels
The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is an endangered seabird that breeds along the coast of Namibia and South Africa, and disease surveillance was identified as a priority for its conservation. Aiming for the establishment of baseline data on the presence of potential pathogens in this species, a comprehensive health assessment (blood smear examination, haematology, biochemistry and serology) was conducted on samples obtained from 578 African penguins at 11 breeding colonies and a rehabilitation centre...
September 20, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Vishwanatha R A P Reddy, Ivan Trus, Hans J Nauwynck
Although it has been speculated that the tracheal obstructions and asphyxiation during acute infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) are due to mucoid plugs/casts formed by mucus hypersecretion, there are no reports demonstrating this. Hence, in the present study, we first examined if the main respiratory mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B, are expressed in the mucosae of larynx, trachea and bronchi of mock-inoculated and ILTV infected chickens. Second, the tracheas with plugs/casts were stained for mucins (MUC5AC and MUC5B) and nuclear material (traps)...
January 2, 2017: Virus Research
L Pohjola, N Tammiranta, C Ek-Kommonen, T Soveri, M L Hänninen, M Fredriksson Ahomaa, A Huovilainen
Backyard poultry are regaining popularity in Europe and increased interest in the health and management of non-commercial farms has resulted. Furthermore, commercial poultry farm owners have become concerned about the risk represented by contagious avian diseases that nearby backyard poultry could transmit. Fifty-one voluntary backyard chicken farms were visited between October 2012 and January 2013. Blood samples and individual cloacal swabs were collected from 457 chickens. In 44 farms (86%), one or more of the tested chickens had antibodies against avian encephalomyelitis and chicken infectious anaemia viruses, 24 farms (47%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bronchitis virus, 10 farms (20%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bursal disease virus, six farms (12%) had chickens seropositive for infectious laryngotracheitis virus and two farms (5...
April 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Nacira Laamiri, Pia Fällgren, Siamak Zohari, Jaouher Ben Ali, Abdeljelil Ghram, Mikael Leijon, Issam Hmila
A novel oligonucleotide suspension microarray (Luminex microsphere system) was developed for the rapid detection of avian respiratory viruses of major clinical importance. This test was optimized and validated with 70 clinical samples. The developed tool was accurate for high-throughput detection and differentiation of the most important avian respiratory viruses: avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infection bronchitis virus (IBV), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in single- and mixed-virus infections...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Virginia Marugan-Hernandez, Charlotte Cockle, Sarah Macdonald, Elaine Pegg, Colin Crouch, Damer P Blake, Fiona M Tomley
BACKGROUND: Eimeria species are parasitic protozoa that cause coccidiosis, an intestinal disease commonly characterised by malabsorption, diarrhoea and haemorrhage that is particularly important in chickens. Vaccination against chicken coccidiosis is effective using wild-type or attenuated live parasite lines. The development of protocols to express foreign proteins in Eimeria species has opened up the possibility of using Eimeria live vaccines to deliver heterologous antigens and function as multivalent vaccine vectors that could protect chickens against a range of pathogens...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Ольга І Гладченко, Павло В Токарєв, Олександр Б Надрага
INTRODUCTION: One of the most severe complications of acute respiratory infections in young children is acute stenotic laryngotracheitis (croup). The relationship between cytokine blood levels and symptoms of croup, croup severity, disease sequel, despite numerous studies is still unclear. AIM: Cytokine profile in young children with acute stenotic laryngotracheitis investigation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 112 children aged 12 min. - 36 mon. with acute stenotic laryngotracheitis which were treated at the Lviv Regional Infectious Diseases Hospital were kept under observation...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Nik M Faiz, Aneg L Cortes, James S Guy, Jonathan E Fogle, Isabel M Gimeno
Marek's disease virus (MDV) induces tumors and severe immunosuppression in chickens. MDV-induced immunosuppression (MDV-IS) is very complex and difficult to study. In particular, the late MDV-IS (late-MDV-IS) is of great concern since it can occur in the absence of lymphoid organ atrophy or gross tumors. We have recently developed a model to reproduce late-MDV-IS under laboratory conditions. This model measures MDV-IS indirectly by assessing the effect of MDV infection on the efficacy of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccination; hence the name late-MDV-IS ILT model...
July 29, 2016: Vaccine
Maricarmen Garcia, S J Spatz, Y Cheng, S M Riblet, J D Volkening, G H Schneiders
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is controlled by the use of live-attenuated vaccines. Previously we reported the complete nucleotide sequence of the ILTV vaccine strain (TCO) and identified a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding the ORF C protein. This suggested that the ORF C protein might be associated with viral virulence. To investigate this, an ILTV recombinant with a deletion in the gene encoding ORF C was constructed using the genome of the virulent United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) challenge strain (USDAch)...
September 2016: Journal of General Virology
Rebecca Agnew-Crumpton, Paola K Vaz, Joanne M Devlin, Denise O'Rourke, Hayley Patricia Blacker-Smith, Barbara Konsak-Ilievski, Carol A Hartley, Amir H Noormohammadi
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a significant viral disease of chickens in many countries around the globe. In this report the status of ILT in Australia has been used as a model to evaluate the evolution of the ILT viruses (ILTVs). Due to its geographical isolation, Australia harbored a distinct lineage of ILT viruses (ILTV) up to 2007. However examination of the ILT viruses (ILTV) involved in outbreaks between 2007 and 2009 has revealed that many of the outbreaks were caused by two new viral genotypes, class 8 and class 9...
September 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Nik M Faiz, Aneg L Cortes, James S Guy, Oscar J Fletcher, Melissa West, Enrique Montiel, Isabel M Gimeno
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus that induces lymphomas and immunosuppression in chickens. MDV-induced immunosuppression (MDV-IS) is divided into two phases: early-MDV-IS occurring mainly in chickens lacking maternal antibodies (MAb) against MDV and associated with lymphoid organ atrophy; and late-MDV-IS occurring once MDV enters latency and during tumour development. Our objectives were to document the impact of late-MDV-IS on commercial poultry (meat-type chickens bearing MAb against MDV and that were vaccinated or unvaccinated against MD) and to optimize a model to study late-MDV-IS under laboratory conditions...
December 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Wei Zhao, Stephen Spatz, Laszlo Zsak, Qingzhong Yu
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), a member of the family Herpesviridae. The current commercial ILT vaccines are either unsafe or ineffective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious vaccines. Newcastle disease (ND), caused by infection with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, is one of the most serious infectious diseases of poultry...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eun-Jung Choi, Tae-Min La, In-Soo Choi, Chang-Seon Song, Seung-Yong Park, Joong-Bok Lee, Sang-Won Lee
Live attenuated vaccines are extensively used worldwide to control the outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis. Virulent field strains showing close genetic relationship with the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines of chicken embryo origin have been detected in the poultry industry. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, a reliable molecular epidemiological method, of multiple genomic regions was performed. The PCR-RFLP is a time-consuming method that requires considerable amount of intact viral genomic DNA to amplify genomic regions greater than 4 kb...
August 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ariel Vagnozzi, Sylva Riblet, Guillermo Zavala, Roselene Ecco, Claudio L Afonso, Maricarmen García
Infectious laryngotracheitis is a highly contagious disease of chickens responsible for significant economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. The disease is caused by Gallid herpesvirus-1 (GaHV-1) commonly known as the infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Although characterized by their potential to regain virulence, chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines are the most effective vaccines against laryngotracheitis as they significantly reduce the replication of challenge virus in the trachea and conjunctiva...
2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ismaila Shittu, Lanre K Sulaiman, Dorcas A Gado, Anthony N Egbuji, Mwapu D Ndahi, Ezekiel Pam, Tony M Joannis
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens with outbreaks resulting in high economic losses due to increased mortality and drop in egg production. This study reports a survey of ILT virus antibody conducted in nine local government areas (LGAs) of Plateau State involving 67 randomly selected commercial poultry flocks. In all, 938 sera were tested using the Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion (AGID) technique. Overall prevalence of 1.2% (N = 11) was recorded. ILT virus antibody was found in 2...
2016: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Alessandra Piccirillo, Enrico Lavezzo, Giulia Niero, Ana Moreno, Paola Massi, Elisa Franchin, Stefano Toppo, Cristiano Salata, Giorgio Palù
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by an alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Recently, full genome sequences of wild-type and vaccine strains have been determined worldwide, but none was from Europe. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse the complete genome sequences of five ILTV strains. Sequences were also compared to reveal the similarity of strains across time and to discriminate between wild-type and vaccine strains...
2016: PloS One
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