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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898189/ct-texture-analysis-definitions-applications-biologic-correlates-and-challenges
#1
Meghan G Lubner, Andrew D Smith, Kumar Sandrasegaran, Dushyant V Sahani, Perry J Pickhardt
This review discusses potential oncologic and nononcologic applications of CT texture analysis ( CTTA CT texture analysis ), an emerging area of "radiomics" that extracts, analyzes, and interprets quantitative imaging features. CTTA CT texture analysis allows objective assessment of lesion and organ heterogeneity beyond what is possible with subjective visual interpretation and may reflect information about the tissue microenvironment. CTTA CT texture analysis has shown promise in lesion characterization, such as differentiating benign from malignant or more biologically aggressive lesions...
September 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893902/the-cytosolic-domain-of-t-cell-receptor-%C3%AE-associates-with-membranes-in-a-dynamic-equilibrium-and-deeply-penetrates-the-bilayer
#2
Kerstin Zimmermann, Rebecca Eells, Frank Heinrich, Stefanie Rintoul, Brian Josey, Prabhanshu Shekhar, Mathias Lösche, Lawrence J Stern
Interactions between lipid bilayers and the membrane-proximal regions of membrane-associated proteins play important roles in regulat-ing membrane protein structure and function. The T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) is an assembly of eight single-pass membrane-spanning subunits on the surface of T-lymphocytes that initiates cytosolic signaling cascades upon binding antigens presented by MHC-family proteins on antigen-presenting cells. Its ζ subunit contains multiple cytosolic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) involved in signal transduction, and this subunit by itself is sufficient to couple extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling events...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887401/proposal-of-a-structured-reporting-system-for-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-psma-targeted-pet-imaging-psma-rads-version-1-0
#3
Steven Rowe, Kenneth Pienta, Martin G Pomper, Michael Gorin
As medical imaging has grown progressively more complicated and sub-specialized in recent decades, a number of standardized reporting systems have been proposed for a variety of imaging modalities and conditions. These include reporting and data systems for imaging of the breast (BI-RADS) (1), prostate (PI-RADS) (2), lung (LUNG-RADS) (3), liver (LI-RADS) (4), and thyroid (TI-RADS) (5). While these systems differ extensively in their details, each provides a standardized framework for conveying findings and recommendations to clinicians...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886658/communication-hypothetical-ultralow-density-ice-polymorphs
#4
Takahiro Matsui, Masanori Hirata, Takuma Yagasaki, Masakazu Matsumoto, Hideki Tanaka
More than 300 kinds of porous ice structures derived from zeolite frameworks and space fullerenes are examined using classical molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that a hypothetical zeolitic ice phase is less dense and more stable than the sparse ice structures reported by Huang et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 671, 186 (2017)]. In association with the zeolitic ice structure, even less dense structures, "aeroices," are proposed. It is found that aeroices are the most stable solid phases of water near the absolute zero temperature under negative pressure...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882376/a-novel-approach-to-improving-the-interpretation-of-ct-brain-in-trauma
#5
L R Evans, M C Fitzgerald, D Varma, B Mitra
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography of the brain (CTB) has a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of traumatic brain injury (TBI). There may be substantial discordance between initial CTB interpretation by emergency clinicians and the final radiology report. This study aimed to assess the utility of a structured reporting template in improving the accuracy of CTB interpretation by emergency clinicians. METHOD: A prospective pre- and post-intervention cohort study was undertaken using a study population of emergency medicine trainees...
September 4, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841019/structural-and-chemical-biology-of-terpenoid-cyclases
#6
David W Christianson
The year 2017 marks the twentieth anniversary of terpenoid cyclase structural biology: a trio of terpenoid cyclase structures reported together in 1997 were the first to set the foundation for understanding the enzymes largely responsible for the exquisite chemodiversity of more than 80000 terpenoid natural products. Terpenoid cyclases catalyze the most complex chemical reactions in biology, in that more than half of the substrate carbon atoms undergo changes in bonding and hybridization during a single enzyme-catalyzed cyclization reaction...
September 13, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834966/checklist-and-scoring-system-for-the-assessment-of-soft%C3%A2-tissue-preservation-in-ct-examinations-of-human-mummies-application-to-the-tyrolean-iceman
#7
Stephanie Panzer, Patrizia Pernter, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Rimantas Jankauskas, Stephanie Zesch, Wilfried Rosendahl, Gerhard Hotz, Albert R Zink
Purpose Soft tissues make a skeleton into a mummy and they allow for a diagnosis beyond osteology. Following the approach of structured reporting in clinical radiology, a recently developed checklist was used to evaluate the soft tissue preservation status of the Tyrolean Iceman using computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study was to apply the "Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies" to the Tyrolean Iceman, and to compare the Iceman's soft tissue preservation score to the scores calculated for other mummies...
August 23, 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813369/gas-sensing-enhancement-methods-for-hydrothermal-synthesized-sno2-based-sensors
#8
Yalei Zhao, Wenlong Zhang, Bin Yang, Jingquan Liu, Xiang Chen, Xiaolin Wang, Chunsheng Yang
The gas sensing enhancement methods for hydrothermal synthesized SnO2-based gas sensors could be performed from three areas: structural improvement, composition optimization and processing improvement, which were aimed to improve the performance of the gas sensors. There was 0-D, 1-D and 3-D structures reported in literatures. Controllable synthesis of different structures was deployed to increase specific surface area. Change of composition would intensively tailor the SnO2 structure, which affected the gas sensing performance...
August 16, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765613/structural-and-functional-identification-of-vasculogenic-mimicry-in-vitro
#9
Dusan Racordon, Andrés Valdivia, Gabriel Mingo, Rafaela Erices, Raúl Aravena, Felice Santoro, Maria Loreto Bravo, Carolina Ramirez, Pamela Gonzalez, Alejandra Sandoval, Alfonso González, Claudio Retamal, Marcelo J Kogan, Sumie Kato, Mauricio A Cuello, German Osorio, Francisco Nualart, Pedro Alvares, Araceli Gago-Arias, Daniella Fabri, Ignacio Espinoza, Beatriz Sanchez, Alejandro H Corvalán, Mauricio P Pinto, Gareth I Owen
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) describes a process by which cancer cells establish an alternative perfusion pathway in an endothelial cell-free manner. Despite its strong correlation with reduced patient survival, controversy still surrounds the existence of an in vitro model of VM. Furthermore, many studies that claim to demonstrate VM fail to provide solid evidence of true hollow channels, raising concerns as to whether actual VM is actually being examined. Herein, we provide a standardized in vitro assay that recreates the formation of functional hollow channels using ovarian cancer cell lines, cancer spheres and primary cultures derived from ovarian cancer ascites...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755055/structured-reports-of-videofluoroscopic-swallowing-studies-have-the-potential-to-improve-overall-report-quality-compared-to-free-text-reports
#10
Franziska Schoeppe, Wieland H Sommer, Mareike Haack, Miriam Havel, Marika Rheinwald, Juliane Wechtenbruch, Martin R Fischer, Felix G Meinel, Bastian O Sabel, Nora N Sommer
PURPOSE: To compare free text (FTR) and structured reports (SR) of videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) and evaluate satisfaction of referring otolaryngologists and speech therapists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both standard FTR and SR of 26 patients with VFSS were acquired. A dedicated template focusing on oropharyngeal phases was created for SR using online software with clickable decision-trees and concomitant generation of semantically structured reports...
July 28, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742342/the-structure-of-thymidylate-kinase-from-candida-albicans-reveals-a-unique-structural-element
#11
Kaustubh Sinha, Gordon S Rule
The structure of thymidylate kinase from Candida albicans, determined by X-ray crystallography, is reported to a resolution of 2.45 Å with a final Rfree of 0.223. Thymidylate kinase from C. albicans possesses a unique 15-residue loop that is not seen in thymidylate kinases from other genera. The structure reported here reveals that the conformation of this loop is constrained by both intra- and intersubunit hydrogen bonding, and a number of key residues in this loop are conserved among different Candida species that are medically important...
August 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725209/a-national-early-intervention-system-as-a-strategy-to-promote-inclusion-and-academic-achievement-in-portugal
#12
Vitor Franco, Madalena Melo, Graça Santos, Ana Apolónio, Leonor Amaral
Early intervention with children at risk or facing developmental problems is a practice defined by three fundamental characteristics: being family-centered, being based on the community and on the child's life context, and being conducted by a team with transdisciplinary practice. In this paper we wish to present how the SNIPI-National System of Early Intervention, implemented in Portugal over the past 15 years, contributes to promote maximum development and the full inclusion of children up to 6 years of age and works to prevent school failure...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716619/attachment-insecurity-in-advanced-cancer-patients-psychometric-properties-of-the-german-version-of-the-brief-experiences-in-close-relationships-scale-ecr-m16-g
#13
Philipp Rebecca, Vehling Sigrun, Scheffold Katharina, Grünke Britta, Härter Martin, Mehnert Anja, Schulz-Kindermann Frank, Lo Christopher
CONTEXT: Attachment insecurity refers to difficulty in trusting and relying on others in times of need. Its underlying factors attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance have been empirically associated with impaired coping in advanced cancer, and therefore should be considered in individually tailored medical and psychosocial treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the German translation of the Brief Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR-M16-G)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688384/prompt-release-of-o-1-d-products-upon-uv-excitation-of-ch2oo-criegee-intermediates
#14
Michael F Vansco, Hongwei Li, Marsha I Lester
Velocity map imaging has been used to characterize the angular and velocity distributions of O (1)D photofragments arising from UV excitation of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO in the long wavelength tail region (364 to 417 nm) of the B(1)A'-X(1)A' spectrum. The O (1)D images exhibit anisotropic angular distributions indicative of rapid dissociation to H2CO X(1)A1 + O (1)D products, which occurs faster than the rotational period (ps) of CH2OO. As a result, the broad oscillatory structure reported previously in the long wavelength region of the UV absorption spectrum is attributed to short-lived resonances associated with the excited B(1)A' state of CH2OO, which decay by nonadiabatic coupling to repulsive singlet states...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665434/surface-restructuring-of-cu-based-single-atom-alloy-catalysts-under-reaction-conditions-the-essential-role-of-adsorbates
#15
Kunran Yang, Bo Yang
The stabilities and catalytic performances of single-atom alloy (SAA) structures under the reaction conditions of acetylene hydrogenation are thoroughly examined utilizing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Four Cu-based alloys with stable SAA structures reported before, namely PdCu, PtCu, RhCu and NiCu alloys, are investigated here. We find that the SAA structures of PdCu and PtCu are stable during the reaction, whilst the RhCu-SAA and NiCu-SAA structures are thermodynamically unstable upon acetylene adsorption and surface restructuring through the aggregation of the Rh and Ni atoms on the surfaces may also happen...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661686/a-tetramer-derived-from-islet-amyloid-polypeptide
#16
Yilin Wang, Adam G Kreutzer, Nicholas L Truex, James S Nowick
Aggregation of the islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) to form fibrils and oligomers is important in the progression of type 2 diabetes. This paper describes X-ray crystallographic and solution-state NMR studies of peptides derived from residues 11-17 of IAPP that assemble to form tetramers. Incorporation of residues 11-17 of IAPP (RLANFLV) into a macrocyclic β-sheet peptide results in a monomeric peptide that does not self-assemble to form oligomers. Mutation of Arg11 to the uncharged isostere citrulline gives peptide homologues that assemble to form tetramers in both the crystal state and in aqueous solution...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636805/a-hybrid-phantom-system-for-patient-skin-and-organ-dosimetry-in-fluoroscopically-guided-interventions
#17
David Borrego, Daniel A Siragusa, Stephen Balter, Wesley E Bolch
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate calibrations for improved estimates of skin dose and to develop software for computing absorbed organ doses for fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGIs) with the use of radiation dose structured reports (RDSR) and the UF/NCI family of hybrid computational phantoms. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study in which ten RDSRs were selected for their high cumulative reference air kerma values...
June 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633922/quantifying-language-before-and-after-instituting-structured-ct-reports
#18
Stephany L Ross, Susan M Ascher, Alexander S Somwaru, Ross Filice
AIM: Our aim was to quantify the language in abdominopelvic CT reports before and after implementing structured reporting templates, specifically evaluating the terms normal and unremarkable. METHODS: We performed a search of our database for all CT abdomen and pelvis examinations before and after full template implementation. There were 1,753 studies included-878 "pretemplate" reports, 875 "posttemplate" reports. Pre- and posttemplate reports were analyzed for word count in preliminary report, word count in final report, number of changed words between preliminary and final report, and frequency of normal and unremarkable...
June 17, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623291/crystal-structure-of-the-dna-binding-domain-of-myelin-gene-regulatory-factor
#19
Xiangkai Zhen, Bowen Li, Fen Hu, Shufeng Yan, Gabriele Meloni, Huiliang Li, Ning Shi
Myelin-gene Regulatory Factor (MyRF) is one of the master transcription factors controlling myelin formation and development in oligodendrocytes which is crucial for the powerful brain functions. The N-terminal of MyRF, which contains a proline-rich region and a DNA binding domain (DBD), is auto-cleaved from the ER membrane, and then enters the nucleus to participate in transcription regulation of the myelin genes. Here we report the crystal structure of MyRF DBD. It shows an Ig-fold like architecture which consists of two antiparallel β-sheets with 7 main strands, packing against each other, forming a β-sandwich...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621933/structural-flexibility-of-an-inhibitor-overcomes-drug-resistance-mutations-in-staphylococcus-aureus-ftsz
#20
Junso Fujita, Yoko Maeda, Eiichi Mizohata, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Malvika Kaul, Ajit K Parhi, Edmond J LaVoie, Daniel S Pilch, Hiroyoshi Matsumura
In the effort to combat antibiotic resistance, inhibitors of the essential bacterial protein FtsZ have emerged as a promising new class of compounds with clinical potential. One such FtsZ inhibitor (TXA707) is associated with potent activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that are resistant to current standard-of-care antibiotics. However, mutations in S. aureus FtsZ (SaFtsZ) that confer resistance to TXA707 have been observed, with mutations in the Gly196 and Gly193 residues being among the most prevalent...
June 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
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