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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913497/response-adapted-frontline-therapy-for-hodgkin-lymphoma-are-we-there-yet
#1
Peter W M Johnson
Treating Hodgkin lymphoma by using chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy is highly successful, with substantially fewer deaths from lymphoma than from other causes in recent studies of both early-stage and advanced-stage disease. Long-term toxicity is a major consideration in this context, and recent trials have used functional imaging with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography early in the course of treatment (interim PET) to assess response and modulate subsequent therapy. In early-stage disease, this has allowed omission of consolidation radiotherapy after a good response to doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy, and trials have shown that this can be done without detriment to overall survival, despite a small increase in rates of recurrence of ∼5%...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911950/a-specialized-multi-transmit-head-coil-for-high-resolution-fmri-of-the-human-visual-cortex-at-7t
#2
Shubharthi Sengupta, Alard Roebroeck, Valentin G Kemper, Benedikt A Poser, Jan Zimmermann, Rainer Goebel, Gregor Adriany
PURPOSE: To design, construct and validate radiofrequency (RF) transmit and receive phased array coils for high-resolution visual cortex imaging at 7 Tesla. METHODS: A 4 channel transmit and 16 channel receive array was constructed on a conformal polycarbonate former. Transmit field efficiency and homogeneity were simulated and validated, along with the Specific Absorption Rate, using [Formula: see text] mapping techniques and electromagnetic simulations. Receiver signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), temporal SNR (tSNR) across EPI time series, g-factors for accelerated imaging and noise correlations were evaluated and compared with a commercial 32 channel whole head coil...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911758/multimodal-imaging-for-dreadd-expressing-neurons-in-living-brain-and-their-application-to-implantation-of-ipsc-derived-neural-progenitors
#3
Bin Ji, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Takafumi Minamimoto, Haruhisa Inoue, Hiroki Takeuchi, Katsushi Kumata, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Chie Seki, Maiko Ono, Masaki Tokunaga, Satoshi Tsukamoto, Koji Tanabe, Ryong-Moon Shin, Takeharu Minamihisamatsu, Seiji Kito, Barry J Richmond, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
: Chemogenetic manipulation of neuronal activities has been enabled by a designer receptor (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs, DREADD) that is activated exclusively by clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Here, we applied CNO as a functional reporter probe to positron emission tomography (PET) of DREADD in living brains. Mutant human M4 DREADD (hM4Di) expressed in transgenic (Tg) mouse neurons was visualized by PET with microdose [(11)C]CNO. Deactivation of DREADD-expressing neurons in these mice by nonradioactive CNO at a pharmacological dose could also be captured by arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910097/chronic-migraine-an-update-on-physiology-imaging-and-the-mechanism-of-action-of-two-available-pharmacologic-therapies
#4
Sheena K Aurora, Mitchell F Brin
Several lines of research support the hypothesis that migraine is a spectrum of illness, with clinical symptoms that vary along a continuum from episodic migraine to chronic migraine. Physiologic changes may result in episodic migraine evolving into chronic migraine over months to years in susceptible individuals. With chronification, headache frequency increases, becoming more disabling and less responsive to therapy. Neurophysiologic and functional imaging research has reported that chronic migraine may be associated with severity-specific metabolic, functional, and structural abnormalities in the brainstem...
December 2, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906709/looking-closer-at-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-the-role-of-advanced-imaging-techniques
#5
Giacomo Bellani, Jean-Jaques Rouby, Jean-Michel Constantin, Antonio Pesenti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advanced imaging techniques have provided invaluable insights in understanding of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the effect of therapeutic strategies, thanks to the possibility of gaining regional information and moving from simple 'anatomical' information to in-vivo functional imaging. RECENT FINDINGS: Computed tomography (CT) led to the understanding of several ARDS mechanisms and interaction with mechanical ventilation. It is nowadays frequently part of routine diagnostic workup, often leading to treatment changes...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900939/incidence-and-implications-of-silent-hydronephrosis-following-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy%C3%A2
#6
Lawrence Dagrosa, Rachel Moses, Vernon Pais
OBJECTIVE: While routine renal imaging following ureteroscopy for urinary calculi has been recommended to screen for asymptomatic "silent" obstruction, the rate of silent obstruction following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) remains poorly defined, and no consensus recommendations exist on routine postoperative imaging. At our institution, we sought to assess the incidence of silent hydronephrosis (SH), as a screen for obstruction, following PCNL. METHODS: The records of all 162 patients who met study inclusion criteria were reviewed...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894889/tradeoffs-in-pushing-the-spatial-resolution-of-fmri-for-the-7t-human-connectome-project
#7
An Thanh Vu, Keith Jamison, Matthew F Glasser, Stephen M Smith, Timothy Coalson, Steen Moeller, Edward J Auerbach, Kamil Ugurbil, Essa Yacoub
Whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in conjunction with multiband acceleration, has played an important role in mapping the functional connectivity throughout the entire brain with both high temporal and spatial resolution. Ultrahigh magnetic field strengths (7T and above) allow functional imaging with even higher functional contrast-to-noise ratios for improved spatial resolution and specificity compared to traditional field strengths (1.5T and 3T). High-resolution 7T fMRI, however, has primarily been constrained to smaller brain regions given the amount of time it takes to acquire the number of slices necessary for high resolution whole brain imaging...
November 25, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893680/the-value-of-ezis-analysis-of-tc-99m-ecd-spect-on-identifying-cerebellar-hypoperfusion-in-a-patient-with-superficial-siderosis-a-case-report
#8
Cheng-Yu Wei, Tai-Yi Chen, Ian Shih, Pai-Yi Chiu, Guang-Uei Hung, Hiroshi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: Brain perfusion single photon computed tomography (SPECT) is a functional imaging modality and has been widely utilized in evaluation of various kinds of neurological disorders. Easy z-score imaging system (eZIS) is a computer-assisted statistical analysis, based on the comparison with age-classified ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) normal database, which provides objectively interpretation of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT.Here we presented a 64-year-old male with dizziness, spin sensation, nausea, and vomiting in the emergency room, and brain computed tomography scan showed only small hypodensity lesion in cerebellum...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892871/phenotypic-modulation-of-porcine-cd14-monocytes-natural-killer-natural-killer-t-cells-and-cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subsets-by-an-antibody-derived-killer-peptide-kp
#9
Luca Ferrari, Paolo Borghetti, Giulia Ferrarini, Elena De Angelis, Elena Canelli, Giulia Ogno, Alessia Catella, Tecla Ciociola, Walter Magliani, Paolo Martelli
An engineered killer peptide (KP) based on a recombinant anti-idiotypic antibody representing the functional image of a yeast killer toxin (KT) was demonstrated to mediate antimicrobial effects against fungi and viruses. KP binds to murine dendritic cells and macrophages and up-regulate co-receptor expression, thus sustaining CD4+ lymphocyte activation. No immunological data are available in domestic animals thus KP-induced immunomodulation was evaluated in porcine monocyte and lymphocyte subsets. PBMC from healthy adult pigs were stimulated with KP or a scramble peptide (SP), or kept unstimulated for 24, 48 and 72h, and subsequently analyzed by flow cytometry...
September 14, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889022/advanced-mr-imaging-in-pediatric-brain-tumors-clinical-applications
#10
REVIEW
Maarten Lequin, Jeroen Hendrikse
Advanced MR imaging techniques, such as spectroscopy, perfusion, diffusion, and functional imaging, have improved the diagnosis of brain tumors in children and also play an important role in defining surgical as well as therapeutic responses in these patients. In addition to the anatomic or structural information gained with conventional MR imaging sequences, advanced MR imaging techniques also provide physiologic information about tumor morphology, metabolism, and hemodynamics. This article reviews the physiology, techniques, and clinical applications of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, perfusion MR imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and functional MR imaging in the setting of neuro-oncology...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887852/morphological-and-functional-imaging-of-neck-paragangliomas
#11
J-P Guichard, N Fakhry, J Franc, P Herman, C-A Righini, D Taieb
OBJECTIVE: To review the optimal techniques for localization and characterization of neck paragangliomas (PGL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Systematic review of the literature from the PubMed/Medline database. RESULTS: Neck PGL are hypervascular tumours essentially arising from paraganglionic tissue situated at the carotid bifurcation (carotid body) and along the vagus nerve. Morphological and functional imaging are indicated to confirm the diagnosis, identify multifocal disease and for local and regional staging...
November 22, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878406/diagnostic-value-of-layer-specific-global-longitudinal-strain-during-adenosine-stress-in-patients-suspected-of-coronary-artery-disease
#12
June A Ejlersen, Steen H Poulsen, Jesper Mortensen, Ole May
Speckle tracking global longitudinal strain (GLS) from dobutamine stress echocardiography (SE) predicts coronary artery disease (CAD). The diagnostic value of GLS from vasodilator SE and the additional value of layer-specific speckle tracking analysis are unclear. We explored the usefulness of layer-specific GLS and non-layer-specific strain (automated functional imaging, AFI) from adenosine SE. The included 132 patients (67% male, 62.6 (9.0) years), of which 46 (35%) had CAD defined as ≥1 stenosis ≥70% (≥50% in the left main), underwent adenosine SE and invasive coronary angiography...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876341/imaging-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-pancreas
#13
C Dromain, D Déandréis, J-Y Scoazec, D Goere, M Ducreux, E Baudin, L Tselikas
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are rare and represent a heterogeneous disease. PNET can be functioning or non-functioning with different clinical presentations and different prognosis based on WHO and pTNM classifications. The role of imaging includes the localization of small functioning tumor, differentiation of these tumors from adenocarcinoma, identification of signs of malignancy and evaluation of extent. PNETs have a broad spectrum of appearance. On CT and MRI, most of functioning PNETs are well defined small tumors with intense and homogeneous enhancement on arterial and portal phases...
December 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867731/functional-imaging-of-the-human-brain-using-a-modular-fibre-less-high-density-diffuse-optical-tomography-system
#14
Danial Chitnis, Robert J Cooper, Laura Dempsey, Samuel Powell, Simone Quaggia, David Highton, Clare Elwell, Jeremy C Hebden, Nicholas L Everdell
We present the first three-dimensional, functional images of the human brain to be obtained using a fibre-less, high-density diffuse optical tomography system. Our technology consists of independent, miniaturized, silicone-encapsulated DOT modules that can be placed directly on the scalp. Four of these modules were arranged to provide up to 128, dual-wavelength measurement channels over a scalp area of approximately 60 × 65 mm(2). Using a series of motor-cortex stimulation experiments, we demonstrate that this system can obtain high-quality, continuous-wave measurements at source-detector separations ranging from 14 to 55 mm in adults, in the presence of hair...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867707/scanless-functional-imaging-of-hippocampal-networks-using-patterned-two-photon-illumination-through-grin-lenses
#15
Claudio Moretti, Andrea Antonini, Serena Bovetti, Carlo Liberale, Tommaso Fellin
Patterned illumination through the phase modulation of light is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool to investigate biological tissues in combination with two-photon excitation and light-sensitive molecules. However, to date two-photon patterned illumination has only been coupled to traditional microscope objectives, thus limiting the applicability of these methods to superficial biological structures. Here, we show that phase modulation can be used to efficiently project complex two-photon light patterns, including arrays of points and large shapes, in the focal plane of graded index (GRIN) lenses...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865588/pediatric-patients-with-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma-should-have-routine-preoperative-genetic-testing-for-common-susceptibility-genes-in-addition-to-imaging-to-detect-extra-adrenal-and-metastatic-tumors
#16
Bruna Babic, Dhaval Patel, Rachel Aufforth, Yasmine Assadipour, Samira M Sadowski, Martha Quezado, Naris Nilubol, Tamara Prodanov, Karel Pacak, Electron Kebebew
BACKGROUND: Pediatric pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare with limited data on the optimal management approach. The aim of this study was to determine the role of genetic testing and imaging to detect extra-adrenal and/or metastatic tumors in pediatric pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 55 patients diagnosed at ≤21 years of age with pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas with analysis of data on genetic testing and multimodal imaging...
November 16, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862590/hepatic-gadoxetic-acid-uptake-as-a-measure-of-diffuse-liver-disease-where-are-we
#17
REVIEW
Ahmed Ba-Ssalamah, Nina Bastati, Andreas Wibmer, Romana Fragner, Jacqueline C Hodge, Michael Trauner, Christian J Herold, Mustafa R Bashir, Bernard E Van Beers
: MRI has emerged as the most comprehensive noninvasive diagnostic tool for focal liver lesions and diffuse hepatobiliary disorders. The introduction of hepatobiliary contrast agents, most notably gadoxetic acid (GA), has expanded the role of MRI, particularly in the functional imaging of chronic liver diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). GA-enhanced MRI (GA-MRI) may help to distinguish between the two subgroups of NAFLD, simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861502/abnormal-profiles-of-local-functional-connectivity-proximal-to-focal-cortical-dysplasias
#18
René M H Besseling, Jacobus F A Jansen, Anton J A de Louw, Mariëlle C G Vlooswijk, M Christianne Hoeberigs, Albert P Aldenkamp, Walter H Backes, Paul A M Hofman
INTRODUCTION: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a congenital malformation of cortical development that often leads to medically refractory epilepsy. Focal resection can be an effective treatment, but is challenging as the surgically relevant abnormality may exceed the MR-visible lesion. The aim of the current study is to develop methodology to characterize the profile of functional connectivity around FCDs using resting-state functional MRI and in the individual patient. The detection of aberrant connectivity may provide a means to more completely delineate the clinically relevant lesion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853987/evaluation-of-tspo-pet-ligands-18-f-vuiis1009a-and-18-f-vuiis1009b-tracers-for-cancer-imaging
#19
Dewei Tang, Jun Li, Jason R Buck, Mohamed Noor Tantawy, Yan Xia, Joel M Harp, Michael L Nickels, Jens Meiler, H Charles Manning
PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography (PET) ligands targeting translocator protein (TSPO) are potential imaging diagnostics of cancer. In this study, we report two novel, high-affinity TSPO PET ligands that are 5,7 regioisomers, [(18)F]VUIIS1009A ([(18)F]3A) and [(18)F]VUIIS1009B ([(18)F]3B), and their initial in vitro and in vivo evaluation in healthy mice and glioma-bearing rats. PROCEDURES: VUIIS1009A/B was synthesized and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Interactions between TSPO binding pocket and novel ligands were evaluated and compared with contemporary TSPO ligands using 2D (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectroscopy...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853829/-hepatopancreaticobiliary-diseases-in-igg4-associated-autoimmune-diseases
#20
L Grenacher
BACKGROUND: IgG4-related diseases are rare systemic multiorgan diseases and can thus affect any organ system. The incidence of diagnosis has significantly increased due to increasing awareness. OBJECTIVE: In the abdomen the hepatopancreaticobiliary system provides an essential organ system for the expression of IgG4-associated autoimmune diseases. The focus here is autoimmune pancreatitis type 1 but IgG4-associated sclerosing cholangitis and IgG4-associated hepatopathy, which can also occur in combination are less well-known...
November 16, 2016: Der Radiologe
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