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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943846/a-computational-model-for-the-automatic-diagnosis-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-based-on-functional-brain-volume
#1
Lirong Tan, Xinyu Guo, Sheng Ren, Jeff N Epstein, Long J Lu
In this paper, we investigated the problem of computer-aided diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) using machine learning techniques. With the ADHD-200 dataset, we developed a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model to classify ADHD patients from typically developing controls (TDCs), using the regional brain volumes as predictors. Conventionally, the volume of a brain region was considered to be an anatomical feature and quantified using structural magnetic resonance images. One major contribution of the present study was that we had initially proposed to measure the regional brain volumes using fMRI images...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943261/retinal-microcirculation-imaging-in-sickle-cell-disease-patients
#2
W Birkhoff, J de Vries, G Dent, A Verma, J L Kerkhoffs, A H F van Meurs, M de Kam, M Moerland, J Burggraaf
OBJECTIVES: To explore the feasibility of a new quantitative method for microvascular function: non-invasive retinal function imaging (RFI). in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients and healthy controls and have it benchmarked against Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) measurements. METHODS: The variability of Microvascular measurements was assessed in 8 SCD patients and 8 healthy matched controls. Measurements were conducted twice on two different study days. RFI was performed for assessment of arterial and venous retinal blood flow...
September 21, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942896/visuo-spatial-orienting-during-active-exploratory-behavior-processing-of-task-related-and-stimulus-related-signals
#3
Emiliano Macaluso, Akitoshi Ogawa
Functional imaging studies have associated dorsal and ventral fronto-parietal regions with the control of visuo-spatial attention. Previous studies demonstrated that the activity of both the dorsal and the ventral attention systems can be modulated by many different factors, related both to the stimuli and the task. However, the vast majority of this work utilized stereotyped paradigms with simple and repeated stimuli. This is at odd with any real life situation that instead involve complex combinations of different types of co-occurring signals, thus raising the question of the ecological significance of the previous findings...
September 5, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942018/integration-of-fmri-and-meg-functional-maps-into-a-cyberknife-planning-system-feasibility-study-for-motor-activity-localization-and-dose-planning
#4
Elena De Martin, Dunja Duran, Francesco Ghielmetti, Elisa Visani, Domenico Aquino, Marcello Marchetti, Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Davide Cusumano, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Ferruccio Panzica, Laura Fariselli
OBJECTIVE: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provide non-invasive localization of eloquent brain areas for pre-surgical planning. The aim of this study is the integration of MEG and fMRI maps into a CyberKnife (CK) system to optimize dose planning. METHODS: Four patients with brain metastases in the motor area underwent functional imaging study of the hand motor cortex prior radiosurgery. MEG data were acquired during a visually cued hand motor-task...
September 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938417/new-perspectives-on-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma-towards-a-molecular-classification
#5
Joakim Crona, David Taïeb, Karel Pacak
A new molecular biology based taxonomy has been proposed for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). Data from the Cancer Genome Atlas revealed clinically relevant prognostic and predictive biomarkers and stratified PPGLs into three main clusters. Each subgroup has a distinct molecular-biochemical-imaging signature. Concurrently, new methods for biochemical analysis, functional imaging, and medical therapies have also become available. The research community now strives to match the cluster biomarkers with the most superior intervention...
August 4, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935195/the-dimensionalities-of-lesion-deficit-mapping
#6
Tianbo Xu, Ashwani Jha, Parashkev Nachev
Lesion-deficit mapping remains the most powerful method for localising function in the human brain. As the highest court of appeal where competing theories of cerebral function conflict, it ought to be held to the most stringent inferential standards. Though at first sight elegantly transferable, the mass-univariate statistical framework popularized by functional imaging is demonstrably ill-suited to the task, both theoretically and empirically. The critical difficulty lies with the handling of the data's intrinsically high dimensionality...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933871/neuropsychology-and-cognitive-neuroscience-in-the-fmri-era-a-recapitulation-of-localizationist-and-connectionist-views
#7
Matthew J Sutterer, Daniel Tranel
OBJECTIVE: We highlight the past 25 years of cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the impact to the field of the introduction in 1992 of functional MRI (fMRI). METHOD: We reviewed the past 25 years of literature in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the relation and interplay of fMRI studies and studies utilizing the "lesion method" in human participants with focal brain damage. RESULTS: Our review highlights the state of localist/connectionist research debates in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology circa 1992, and details how the introduction of fMRI into the field at that time catalyzed a new wave of efforts to map complex human behavior to specific brain regions...
September 21, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933018/-18-f-fluoromisonidazole-pet-in-rectal-cancer
#8
Tanuj Puri, Tessa A Greenhalgh, James M Wilson, Jamie Franklin, Lia Mun Wang, Victoria Strauss, Chris Cunningham, Mike Partridge, Tim Maughan
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in developing predictive biomarkers of tissue hypoxia using functional imaging for personalised radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer that are considered for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The study explores [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole ([(18)F]FMISO) positron emission tomography (PET) scans for predicting clinical response in rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant CRT. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven rectal adenocarcinoma were imaged at 0-45 min, 2 and 4 h, at baseline and after 8-10 fractions of CRT (week 2)...
September 20, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931611/feature-coding-transitions-to-conjunction-coding-with-progression-through-human-visual-cortex
#9
Rosemary A Cowell, Krystal Leger, John T Serences
Identifying an object and distinguishing it from similar items depends upon the ability to perceive its component parts as conjoined into a cohesive whole, but the brain mechanisms underlying this ability remain elusive. The ventral visual processing pathway in primates is organized hierarchically: Neuronal responses in early stages are sensitive to the manipulation of simple visual features whereas neuronal responses in subsequent stages are tuned to increasingly complex stimulus attributes. It is widely assumed that feature-coding dominates in early visual cortex whereas later visual regions employ conjunction-coding in which object representations are different from the sum of their simple-feature parts...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930993/confocal-imaging-of-neuropeptide-y-phluorin-a-technique-to-visualize-insulin-granule-exocytosis-in-intact-murine-and-human-islets
#10
Madina Makhmutova, Tao Liang, Herbert Gaisano, Alejandro Caicedo, Joana Almaça
Insulin secretion plays a central role in glucose homeostasis under normal physiological conditions as well as in disease. Current approaches to study insulin granule exocytosis either use electrophysiology or microscopy coupled to the expression of fluorescent reporters. However most of these techniques have been optimized for clonal cell lines or require dissociating pancreatic islets. In contrast, the method presented here allows for real time visualization of insulin granule exocytosis in intact pancreatic islets...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930070/rapid-whole-brain-imaging-of-neural-activity-in-freely-behaving-larval-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#11
Lin Cong, Zeguan Wang, Yuming Chai, Wei Hang, Chunfeng Shang, Wenbin Yang, Lu Bai, Jiulin Du, Kai Wang, Quan Wen
The internal brain dynamics that link sensation and action are arguably better studied during natural animal behaviors. Here we report on a novel volume imaging and 3D tracking technique that monitors whole brain neural activity in freely swimming larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). We demonstrated the capability of our system through functional imaging of neural activity during visually evoked and prey capture behaviors in larval zebrafish.
September 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929571/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-over-inferior-frontal-cortex-impairs-the-suppression-but-not-expression-of-action-impulses-during-action-conflict
#12
A Dilene van Campen, Richard Kunert, Wery P M van den Wildenberg, K Richard Ridderinkhof
In the recent literature, the effects of noninvasive neurostimulation on cognitive functioning appear to lack consistency and replicability. We propose that such effects may be concealed unless dedicated, sensitive, and process-specific dependent measures are used. The expression and subsequent suppression of response capture are often studied using conflict tasks. Response-time distribution analyses have been argued to provide specific measures of the susceptibility to make fast impulsive response errors, as well as the proficiency of the selective suppression of these impulses...
September 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924564/signal-processing-of-functional-nirs-data-acquired-during-overt-speaking
#13
Xian Zhang, Jack Adam Noah, Swethasri Dravida, Joy Hirsch
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) offers an advantage over traditional functional imaging methods [such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] by allowing participants to move and speak relatively freely. However, neuroimaging while actively speaking has proven to be particularly challenging due to the systemic artifacts that tend to be located in the critical brain areas. To overcome these limitations and enhance the utility of fNIRS, we describe methods for investigating cortical activity during spoken language tasks through refinement of deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb) signals with principal component analysis (PCA) spatial filtering to remove global components...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920628/fluoroquinolones-as-imaging-agents-for-bacterial-infection
#14
Syed Ali Raza Naqvi, Karl Drlica
Diagnosis of deep-seated bacterial infection is difficult, as neither standard anatomical imaging nor radiolabeled, autologous leukocytes distinguish sterile inflammation from infection. Two recent imaging efforts are receiving attention: (1) radioactive derivatives of sorbitol show good specificity with Gram-negative bacterial infections, and (2) success in combining anatomical and functional imaging for cancer diagnosis has rekindled interest in (99m)Tc-fluoroquinolone-based imaging. With the latter, computed tomography (CT) would be combined with single-photon-emission-computed tomography (SPECT) to detect (99m)Tc-fluoroquinolone-bacterial interactions...
September 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906462/time-resolved-diffuse-optical-spectroscopy-and-imaging-using-solid-state-detectors-characteristics-present-status-and-research-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Mrwan Alayed, M Jamal Deen
Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and diffuse optical imaging (DOI) are emerging non-invasive imaging modalities that have wide spread potential applications in many fields, particularly for structural and functional imaging in medicine. In this article, we review time-resolved diffuse optical imaging (TR-DOI) systems using solid-state detectors with a special focus on Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) and Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). These TR-DOI systems can be categorized into two types based on the operation mode of the detector (free-running or time-gated)...
September 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905408/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-rat-cervical-spinal-cord-at-9-4-t
#16
Tung-Lin Wu, Feng Wang, Arabinda Mishra, George H Wilson, Nellie Byun, Li Min Chen, John C Gore
PURPOSE: Numerous studies have adopted resting-state functional MRI methods to infer functional connectivity between cortical regions, but very few have translated them to the spinal cord, despite its critical role in the central nervous system. Resting-state functional connectivity between gray matter horns of the spinal cord has previously been shown to be detectable in humans and nonhuman primates, but it has not been reported previously in rodents. METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI of the cervical spinal cord of live anesthetized rats was performed at 9...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902897/testing-the-effects-of-sensory-stimulation-as-a-collateral-based-therapeutic-for-ischemic-stroke-in-c57bl-6j-and-cd1-mouse-strains
#17
Aneeka M Hancock, Ron D Frostig
Utilizing a rat model of ischemic stroke, we have previously shown that sensory stimulation can completely protect rats from impending ischemic damage of cortex if this treatment is delivered within the first two hours post-permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAo). The current study sought to extend our findings in rats to mice, which would allow new avenues of research not available in rats. Thus, young adult C57BL/6J and CD1 mice were tested for protection from ischemic stroke with the same protective sensory stimulation-based treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900235/neural-correlates-of-ambient-thermal-sensation-an-fmri-study
#18
Hajime Oi, Teruo Hashimoto, Takayuki Nozawa, Akitake Kanno, Natasha Kawata, Kanan Hirano, Yuki Yamamoto, Motoaki Sugiura, Ryuta Kawashima
An increasing number of biometeorological and psychological studies have demonstrated the importance and complexity of the processes involved in environmental thermal perception in humans. However, extant functional imaging data on thermal perception have yet to fully reveal the neural mechanisms underlying these processes because most studies were performed using local thermal stimulation and did not dissociate thermal sensation from comfort. Thus, for the first time, the present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and manipulated ambient temperature during brain measurement to independently explore the neural correlates of thermal sensation and comfort...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899821/correlation-between-brain-circuit-segregation-and-obesity
#19
Hse-Huang Chao, Yin-To Liao, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Cheng-Jui Li, Roger S McIntyre, Yena Lee, Jun-Cheng Weng
Obesity is a major public health problem. Herein, we aim to identify the correlation between brain circuit segregation and obesity using multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques and analysis. Twenty obese patients (BMI=37.66±5.07) and 30 healthy controls (BMI=22.64±3.45) were compared using neuroimaging and assessed for symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). All participants underwent resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and T1-weighted imaging using a 1...
September 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898516/structural-and-functional-imaging-of-aqueous-humor-outflow-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Alex S Huang, Brian A Francis, Robert N Weinreb
Maintaining healthy aqueous humor outflow (AHO) is important for intraocular cellular health and stable vision. Impairment of AHO can lead to increased intraocular pressure, optic nerve damage, and concomitant glaucoma. An improved understanding of AHO will lead to improved glaucoma surgeries that enhance native AHO as well as facilitate the development of AHO-targeted pharmaceuticals. Recent AHO imaging has evolved to live human assessment and has focused on the structural evaluation of AHO pathways and the functional documentation of fluid flow...
September 12, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
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