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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777360/crossed-aphasia-following-cerebral-infarction-in-a-right-handed-patient-with-atypical-cerebral-language-dominance
#1
Xiaoping Tan, Yang Guo, Saihong Dun, Hongzan Sun
OBJECTIVE: Crossed aphasia (CA), usually referred to as an acquired language disturbance, is caused by a lesion in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to the dominant hand, and the exact mechanism is not clear. The development of handedness is influenced by education and training and the impact of habitualization, while language is more susceptible to the impact of speech habits, and it is not absolutely accurate to judge cerebral language dominance by the degree of hand preference. METHODS: We describe a case of CA after right hemispheric stroke in a right-handed patient with atypical language dominance and attempt to analyze the mechanism of CA based on functional imaging methods, including arterial spin labeling (ASL) and positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773951/the-role-of-neuroinflammation-and-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-major-depressive-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Sang Won Jeon, Yong-Ku Kim
Although depression has generally been explained with monoamine theory, it is far more multifactorial, and therapies that address the disease's pathway have not been developed. In this context, an understanding of neuroinflammation and neurovascular dysfunction would enable a more comprehensive approach to depression. Inflammation is in a sense a type of allostatic load involving the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of depression by increasing proinflammatory cytokines, activating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, increasing glucocorticoid resistance, and affecting serotonin synthesis and metabolism, neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis, and neuroplasticity...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767624/the-maternal-brain-in-women-with-a-history-of-early-life-maltreatment-an-imagination-based-fmri-study-of-conflictual-versus-pleasant-interactions-with-children
#3
Corinne Neukel, Katja Bertsch, Anna Fuchs PhD, Anna-Lena Zietlow, Corinna Reck, Eva Moehler, Romuald Brunner, Felix Bermpohl, Sabine C Herpertz
BACKGROUND: Early-life maltreatment has severe consequences for the affected individual, and it has an impact on the next generation. To improve understanding of the intergenerational effects of abuse, we investigated the consequences of early-life maltreatment on maternal sensitivity and associated brain mechanisms during mother-child interactions. METHODS: In total, 47 mothers (22 with a history of physical and/or sexual childhood abuse and 25 without, all without current mental disorders) took part in a standardized real-life interaction with their 7- to 11-year-old child (not abused) and a subsequent functional imaging script-driven imagery task...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767320/post-hepatectomy-liver-failure-after-major-hepatic-surgery-not-only-size-matters
#4
Ulrika Asenbaum, Klaus Kaczirek, Ahmed Ba-Ssalamah, Helmut Ringl, Christoph Schwarz, Fredrik Waneck, Fabian Fitschek, Christian Loewe, Richard Nolz
OBJECTIVES: To compare the value of functional future liver remnant (functFLR) to established clinical and imaging variables in prediction of post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) after major liver resection. METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study included 62 patients, who underwent gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI and MDCT within 10 weeks prior to resection of ≥ 4 liver segments. Future liver remnant (FLR) was measured in MDCT using semi-automatic software...
May 16, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761008/the-importance-of-hippocampal-dynamic-connectivity-in-explaining-memory-function-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Quinten van Geest, Hanneke E Hulst, Kim A Meijer, Lieke Hoyng, Jeroen J G Geurts, Linda Douw
Introduction: Brain dynamics (i.e., variable strength of communication between areas), even at the scale of seconds, are thought to underlie complex human behavior, such as learning and memory. In multiple sclerosis (MS), memory problems occur often and have so far only been related to "stationary" brain measures (e.g., atrophy, lesions, activation and stationary (s) functional connectivity (FC) over an entire functional scanning session). However, dynamics in FC (dFC) between the hippocampus and the (neo)cortex may be another important neurobiological substrate of memory impairment in MS that has not yet been explored...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760977/fast-volume-scanning-light-sheet-microscopy-reveals-transient-neuronal-events
#6
Peter Haslehurst, Zhengyi Yang, Kishan Dholakia, Nigel Emptage
Light sheet fluorescence microscopy offers considerable potential to the cellular neuroscience community as it makes it possible to image extensive areas of neuronal structures, such as axons or dendrites, with a low light budget, thereby minimizing phototoxicity. However, the shallow depth of a light sheet, which is critical for achieving high contrast, well resolved images, adds a significant challenge if fast functional imaging is also required, as multiple images need to be collected across several image planes...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759149/functional-imaging-methods-for-assessment-of-minimal-residual-disease-in-multiple-myeloma-current-status-and-novel-immunopet-based-methods
#7
REVIEW
Neeta Pandit-Taskar
Imaging plays a key role in assessment of myeloma. Osteolytic bone lesions are optimally assessed using structural imaging, however the structural changes lag the functional changes in the disease. Functional imaging with fluoro deoxy glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) computerized tomography (CT) is useful in assessment of high-risk myeloma. FDG PET provides prognostic information and is helpful in monitoring response to therapy. However, it is nonspecific and may not be optimal in assessing treatment response to immunotherapeutic agents...
January 2018: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758994/structural-and-functional-connectivity-underlying-grey-matter-covariance-impact-of-developmental-insult
#8
Casey Paquola, Maxwell Bennett, Jim Lagopoulos
Structural covariance networks (SCNs) may offer unique insights into the developmental impact of childhood maltreatment because they are thought to reflect coordinated maturation of distinct grey matter regions. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 121 young people with emerging mental illness. Diffusion weighted and resting state functional imaging was also acquired from a random subset of the participants (n=62). Ten study-specific SCNs were identified using a whole brain grey matter independent component analysis...
May 15, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755969/evaluation-of-fluorine-18-labeled-%C3%AE-1-i-n-telopeptide-analogs-as-substrate-based-radiotracers-for-pet-imaging-of-melanoma-associated-lysyl-oxidase
#9
Manuela Kuchar, Christin Neuber, Birgit Belter, Ralf Bergmann, Jens Lenk, Robert Wodtke, Torsten Kniess, Jörg Steinbach, Jens Pietzsch, Reik Löser
Accumulating evidence suggests an unequivocal role of lysyl oxidases as key players of tumor progression and metastasis, which renders this enzyme family highly attractive for targeted non-invasive functional imaging of tumors. Considering their function in matrix remodeling, malignant melanoma appears as particularly interesting neoplasia in this respect. For the development of radiotracers that enable PET imaging of the melanoma-associated lysyl oxidase activity, substrates derived from the type I collagen α1 N-telopeptide were labeled with fluorine-18 using N -succinimidyl 4-[18 F]fluorobenzoate ([18 F]SFB) as prosthetic reagent...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755515/anticorrelations-between-active-brain-regions-an-agent-based-model-simulation-study
#10
Fabrizio Parente, Alfredo Colosimo
Anticorrelations among brain areas observed in fMRI acquisitions under resting state are not endowed with a well-defined set of characters. Some evidence points to a possible physiological role for them, and simulation models showed that it is appropriate to explore such an issue. A large-scale brain representation was considered, implementing an agent-based brain-inspired model (ABBM) incorporating the SER (susceptible-excited-refractory) cyclic mechanism of state change. The experimental data used for validation included 30 selected functional images of healthy controls from the 1000 Functional Connectomes Classic collection...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746906/multi-subject-hierarchical-inverse-covariance-modelling-improves-estimation-of-functional-brain-networks
#11
Giles L Colclough, Mark W Woolrich, Samuel J Harrison, Pedro A Rojas López, Pedro A Valdes-Sosa, Stephen M Smith
A Bayesian model for sparse, hierarchical inverse covariance estimation is presented, and applied to multi-subject functional connectivity estimation in the human brain. It enables simultaneous inference of the strength of connectivity between brain regions at both subject and population level, and is applicable to fmri, meg and eeg data. Two versions of the model can encourage sparse connectivity, either using continuous priors to suppress irrelevant connections, or using an explicit description of the network structure to estimate the connection probability between each pair of regions...
May 7, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745536/-design-and-experiment-of-a-multi-modal-electroencephalogram-near-infrared-spectroscopy-helmet-for-simultaneously-acquiring-at-the-same-brain-area
#12
Xin Xiong, Yunfa Fu, Xiabing Zhang, Song Li, Baolei Xu, Xuxian Yin
Multi-modal brain-computer interface and multi-modal brain function imaging are developing trends for the present and future. Aiming at multi-modal brain-computer interface based on electroencephalogram-near infrared spectroscopy (EEG-NIRS) and in order to simultaneously acquire the brain activity of motor area, an acquisition helmet by NIRS combined with EEG was designed and verified by the experiment. According to the 10-20 system or 10-20 extended system, the diameter and spacing of NIRS probe and EEG electrode, NIRS probes were aligned with C3 and C4 as the reference electrodes, and NIRS probes were placed in the middle position between EEG electrodes to simultaneously measure variations of NIRS and the corresponding variation of EEG in the same functional brain area...
April 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745511/-non-contacting-photoacoustic-tomography-in-biological-samples
#13
Cheng Wang, Gan Cai, Xiaona Dong, Jing Yang, Xiaofu Weng, Xunbin Wei
In photoacoustic imaging the ultrasonic signals are usually detected by contacting transducers. For some applications, contact with the tissue should be avoided, e.g. in those of brain functional imaging. As alternatives to contacting transducers interferometric techniques can be used to acquire photoacoustic signals remotely. Here, a system for non-contact photoacoustic tomography imaging (NCPAT) has been established. This approach enables NCPAT not to exceed laser exposure safety limits. The stimulated source of NCPAT utilized a laser with center wavelength of 532 nm and output intensity of 17...
June 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740289/two-photon-functional-imaging-of-the-auditory-cortex-in-behaving-mice-from-neural-networks-to-single-spines
#14
Ruijie Li, Meng Wang, Jiwei Yao, Shanshan Liang, Xiang Liao, Mengke Yang, Jianxiong Zhang, Junan Yan, Hongbo Jia, Xiaowei Chen, Xingyi Li
In vivo two-photon Ca2+ imaging is a powerful tool for recording neuronal activities during perceptual tasks and has been increasingly applied to behaving animals for acute or chronic experiments. However, the auditory cortex is not easily accessible to imaging because of the abundant temporal muscles, arteries around the ears and their lateral locations. Here, we report a protocol for two-photon Ca2+ imaging in the auditory cortex of head-fixed behaving mice. By using a custom-made head fixation apparatus and a head-rotated fixation procedure, we achieved two-photon imaging and in combination with targeted cell-attached recordings of auditory cortical neurons in behaving mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737490/regional-entropy-of-functional-imaging-signals-varies-differently-in-sensory-and-cognitive-systems-during-propofol-modulated-loss-and-return-of-behavioral-responsiveness
#15
Xiaolin Liu, Kathryn K Lauer, B Douglas Ward, Christopher J Roberts, Suyan Liu, Suneeta Gollapudy, Robert Rohloff, William Gross, Zhan Xu, Shanshan Chen, Lubin Wang, Zheng Yang, Shi-Jiang Li, Jeffrey R Binder, Anthony G Hudetz
The level and richness of consciousness depend on information integration in the brain. Altered interregional functional interactions may indicate disrupted information integration during anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. How anesthetics modulate the amount of information in various brain regions has received less attention. Here, we propose a novel approach to quantify regional information content in the brain by the entropy of the principal components of regional blood oxygen-dependent imaging signals during graded propofol sedation...
May 8, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734228/glucocorticoids-and-hippocampal-structure-and-function-in-ptsd
#16
Philip R Szeszko, Amy Lehrner, Rachel Yehuda
This review examines the putative link between glucocorticoid and hippocampal abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity in PTSD may permit enhanced negative feedback inhibition of cortisol at the pituitary, hypothalamus, or other brain regions comprising the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and would be expected to affect other physiological systems that are regulated by glucocorticoids. Molecular and transcriptional studies of cortisol are consistent with the hypothesis that cortisol actions may be amplified in PTSD as a result of enhanced GR sensitivity in monocytes and some brain regions, although cortisol levels themselves are unchanged and oftentimes lower than normal...
May 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733054/an-application-study-of-low-dose-computed-tomography-perfusion-imaging-ldctpi-in-breast-cancer-and-breast-fibroadenoma
#17
You-Gen Cheng, Zong-Qiong Sun, Hong-Xia Zhang, Guo-Qun Mao
PURPOSE: To explore the characteristics of breast cancer and breast fibroadenoma using low-dose computed tomography perfusion imaging (LDCTPI) including specific perfusion parameter values, and seek the potential clinical applications in cancer prognosis assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients including 30 diagnosed with breast cancer and 20 with breast fibroadenoma, as well as 15 control subjects with normal breasts were studied prospectively using LDCTPI examinations...
May 3, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730991/feasibility-of-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-to-detect-oxygenation-deficits-in-patients-with-multi-vessel-coronary-artery-disease-triggered-by-breathing-maneuvers
#18
Kady Fischer, Kyohei Yamaji, Silvia Luescher, Yasushi Ueki, Bernd Jung, Hendrik von Tengg-Kobligk, Stephan Windecker, Matthias G Friedrich, Balthasar Eberle, Dominik P Guensch
BACKGROUND: Hyperventilation with a subsequent breath-hold has been successfully used as a non-pharmacological vasoactive stimulus to induce changes in myocardial oxygenation. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess if this maneuver is feasible in patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD), and if it is effective at detecting coronary artery stenosis > 50% determined by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with coronary artery stenosis (QCA > 50% diameter stenosis) underwent a contrast-free cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) exam in the time interval between their primary coronary angiography and a subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, n = 24) or coronary artery bypass (CABG, n = 2) revascularization procedure...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730541/stroke-causes-a-transient-imbalance-of-interhemispheric-information-flow-in-eeg-during-non-rem-sleep
#19
Frederic Zubler, Andrea Seiler, Thomas Horvath, Corinne Roth, Silvia Miano, Christian Rummel, Heidemarie Gast, Lino Nobili, Kaspar A Schindler, Claudio L Bassetti
OBJECTIVE: Large-scale connectivity, especially interhemispheric connections, plays a crucial role for recovery after stroke. Here we used methods from information theory to characterize interhemispheric information flow in wake- and sleep-EEG after cerebral ischemia. METHODS: 34 patients with unilateral ischemic stroke were included. Symbolic Transfer Entropy (STE) was applied between bipolar EEG signals on the left and the right cerebral hemisphere during polysomnographic recordings in the acute phase and 3 months after stroke...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730492/trade-off-of-cerebello-cortical-and-cortico-cortical-functional-networks-for-planning-in-6-year-old-children
#20
Judy A Kipping, Daniel S Margulies, Simon Eickhoff, Annie Lee, Anqi Qiu
Childhood is a critical period for the development of cognitive planning. There is a lack of knowledge on its neural mechanisms in children. This study aimed to examine cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional connectivity in association with planning skills in 6-year-olds (n = 76). We identified the cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional networks related to cognitive planning using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on existing functional imaging studies on spatial planning, and data-driven independent component analysis (ICA) of children's resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI)...
May 3, 2018: NeuroImage
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