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"functional imaging"

Bin Deng, Mats Lundqvist, Qianqian Fang, Stefan A Carp
Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (NIR-DOT) is an emerging technology that offers hemoglobin based, functional imaging tumor biomarkers for breast cancer management. The most promising clinical translation opportunities are in the differential diagnosis of malignant vs. benign lesions, and in early response assessment and guidance for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Accurate quantification of the tissue oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration across the field of view, as well as repeatability during longitudinal imaging in the context of therapy guidance, are essential for the successful translation of NIR-DOT to clinical practice...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Sarah Marchina, Andrea Norton, Sandeep Kumar, Gottfried Schlaug
Functional imaging studies have provided insight into the effect of rate on production of syllables, pseudowords, and naturalistic speech, but the influence of rate on repetition of commonly-used words/phrases suitable for therapeutic use merits closer examination. Aim: To identify speech-motor regions responsive to rate and test the hypothesis that those regions would provide greater support as rates increase, we used an overt speech repetition task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to capture rate-modulated activation within speech-motor regions and determine whether modulations occur linearly and/or show hemispheric preference...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
David Taïeb, Abhishek Jha, Carole Guerin, Ying Pang, Karen T Adams, Clara C Chen, Pauline Romanet, Philippe Roche, Wassim Essamet, Alexander Ling, Martha M Quezado, Frédéric Castinetti, Fréderic Sebag, Karel Pacak
Context: MYC associated factor X (MAX) has been recently described as a new susceptibility pheochromocytoma (PHEO) gene with a total of approximately 40 reported cases. At present, no study has specifically described the functional imaging phenotype of MAX-related PHEO. Objective, Patients, and Design: The objective of this study was to present our experience with contrast-enhanced CT and 18F-FDOPA PET/CT imaging in 6 consecutive patients (4 at initial diagnosis and 2 at follow-up evaluation) with rare but clinically important MAX-related PHEOs...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Saad Mohammed AlShareef, Richard Mark Smith, Ahmed Salem BaHammam
Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is the commonest recurrent sleep disorder, with a prevalence of 1-2 per million population. Clear diagnostic criteria are now defined, but effective treatment remains elusive. The significant body of published literature allows consideration of possible aetiological mechanisms, an understanding of which could guide the development of therapeutic strategies. Functional imaging studies have been inconclusive; although diencephalic abnormalities are a common finding, no consistent pattern has emerged, and these studies have not revealed the mechanism(s) underlying the development of the abnormalities detected...
March 12, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
James A Roberts, Karl J Friston, Michael Breakspear
Brain activity derives from intrinsic dynamics (due to neurophysiology and anatomical connectivity) in concert with stochastic effects that arise from sensory fluctuations, brainstem discharges, and random microscopic states such as thermal noise. The dynamic evolution of systems composed of both dynamic and random fluctuations can be studied with stochastic dynamic models (SDMs). This article, Part II of a two-part series, reviews applications of SDMs to large-scale neural systems in health and disease. Stochastic models have already elucidated a number of pathophysiological phenomena, such as epilepsy and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, although their use in biological psychiatry remains rather nascent...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Stephanie S G Brown, Shinjini Basu, Heather C Whalley, Peter C Kind, Andrew C Stanfield
The FMR1 premutation confers a 40-60% risk for males of developing a neurodegenerative disease called the Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS). FXTAS is a late-onset disease that primarily involves progressive symptoms of tremor and ataxia, as well as cognitive decline that can develop into dementia in some patients. At present, it is not clear whether changes to brain function are detectable in motor regions prior to the onset of frank symptomatology. The present study therefore aimed to utilize an fMRI motor task for the first time in an asymptomatic premutation population...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Lora Minkova, Sarah Gregory, Rachael I Scahill, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Christoph P Kaller, Jessica Peter, Jeffrey D Long, Julie C Stout, Ralf Reilmann, Raymund A Roos, Alexandra Durr, Blair R Leavitt, Sarah J Tabrizi, Stefan Klöppel
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that can be genetically confirmed with certainty decades before clinical onset. This allows the investigation of functional and structural changes in HD many years prior to disease onset, which may reveal important mechanistic insights into brain function, structure and organization in general. While regional atrophy is present at early stages of HD, it is still unclear if both hemispheres are equally affected by neurodegeneration and how the extent of asymmetry affects domain-specific functional decline...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Ephraim E Parent, David M Schuster
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging method that can exploit various aspects of tumor biology to enable greater detection of prostate cancer than can be provided by morphologic imaging alone. Anti-1-amino-3-[18 F]-flurocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18 F-fluciclovine) is a non-naturally occurring amino acid PET radiotracer that is recently United States Food and Drug Administration approved for detection of suspected recurrent prostate cancer. The tumor imaging features of this radiotracer mirror the upregulation of transmembrane amino acid transport that occurs in prostate cancer due to increased amino acid metabolism for energy and protein synthesis...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Margherita Lorusso, Frediano Inzani, Paola Castaldi, Roberta Menghi, Giovanni Schinzari, Guido Rindi, Vittoria Rufini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Pancreas
Mohsen Beheshti, Lukas Hehenwarter, Zeinab Paymani, Gundula Rendl, Larisa Imamovic, Rupert Rettenbacher, Oleksiy Tsybrovskyy, Werner Langsteger, Christian Pirich
PURPOSE: In this prospective study we compared the accuracy of18 F-fluorocholine PET/CT with that of99m Tc-MIBI or99m Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT/CT in the preoperative detection of parathyroid adenoma in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. We also assessed the value of semiquantitative parameters in differentiating between parathyroid hyperplasia and adenoma. METHODS: Both18 F-fluorocholine PET/CT and99m Tc-MIBI/tetrofosmin SPECT/CT were performed in 100 consecutive patients with biochemical evidence of primary hyperparathyroidism...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Ali Ajdari, Archis Ghate, Minsun Kim
Recent theoretical research on spatiobiologically integrated 
 radiotherapy has focused on optimization models that adapt fluence-maps to the 
 evolution of tumor state, for example, cell densities, as observed in quantitative 
 functional images 
 acquired over the treatment course. We propose an optimization 
 model that adapts the length of the treatment course as well as the fluence-maps 
 to such imaged tumor state. Specifically, after observing the tumor cell 
 densities at the beginning of a session, the treatment planner solves a group of convex optimization problems to determine an optimal number of remaining treatment sessions, and a corresponding optimal fluence-map for each of these sessions...
March 7, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Soumya Chatterjee, Heather A Sullivan, Bryan J MacLennan, Ran Xu, YuanYuan Hou, Thomas K Lavin, Nicholas E Lea, Jacob E Michalski, Kelsey R Babcock, Stephan Dietrich, Gillian A Matthews, Anna Beyeler, Gwendolyn G Calhoon, Gordon Glober, Jennifer D Whitesell, Shenqin Yao, Ali Cetin, Julie A Harris, Hongkui Zeng, Kay M Tye, R Clay Reid, Ian R Wickersham
Recombinant rabies viral vectors have proven useful for applications including retrograde targeting of projection neurons and monosynaptic tracing, but their cytotoxicity has limited their use to short-term experiments. Here we introduce a new class of double-deletion-mutant rabies viral vectors that left transduced cells alive and healthy indefinitely. Deletion of the viral polymerase gene abolished cytotoxicity and reduced transgene expression to trace levels but left vectors still able to retrogradely infect projection neurons and express recombinases, allowing downstream expression of other transgene products such as fluorophores and calcium indicators...
March 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Rie Tanaka, Tohru Tani, Norihisa Nitta, Takahisa Tabata, Noritsugu Matsutani, Shintaro Muraoka, Tsutomu Yoneyama, Shigeru Sanada
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to address the relationship between respiratory changes in image density of the lungs and tidal volume, to compare the changes between affected and unaffected lobes, and to apply this new technique to the diagnosis of atelectasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our animal care committee approved this prospective animal study. Sequential chest radiographs of 4 pigs were obtained under respiratory control with a ventilator using a dynamic flat-panel detector system...
March 2, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Sean H Lim, Peter W M Johnson
The treatment of Hodgkin Lymphoma has evolved continuously since the introduction of extended-field radiotherapy in the 1960s to involved-field then involved-node radiotherapy, multi-agent chemotherapy, combined chemo-radiotherapy, risk-adapted and response-adapted modulation, and most recently, introduction of antibody-drug conjugates and immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies. These changes have translated into progressively increasing cure rates, so that 10-year survival figures now exceed 80%, compared to less than 50% 40 years ago...
March 2, 2018: Blood
Kaartiga Sivanesan, Subhi J Al'Aref, James K Min, Jessica M Peña, Fay Lin, Erica C Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for women and men around the world. However, traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not fully capture cardiac risk in women. This review summarizes sex-based differences in the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and risk assessment of ischemic heart disease. We also examine the use of anatomic and functional imaging modalities in the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease in women. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies with women subjects have bolstered the predictive value of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in predicting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk and major adverse cardiac events in a graded fashion...
March 2, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Pras Pathmanathan, Richard A Gray
Computational models of cardiac electrophysiology have a long history in basic science applications and device design and evaluation, but have significant potential for clinical applications in all areas of cardiovascular medicine, including functional imaging and mapping, drug safety evaluation, disease diagnosis, patient selection, and therapy optimisation or personalisation. For all stakeholders to be confident in model-based clinical decisions, cardiac electrophysiological (CEP) models must be demonstrated to be trustworthy and reliable...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Elvis Dohmatob, Gael Varoquaux, Bertrand Thirion
In Echo-Planar Imaging (EPI)-based Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), inter-subject registration typically uses the subject's T1-weighted (T1w) anatomical image to learn deformations of the subject's brain onto a template. The estimated deformation fields are then applied to the subject's EPI scans (functional or diffusion-weighted images) to warp the latter to a template space. Historically, such indirect T1w-based registration was motivated by the lack of clear anatomical details in low-resolution EPI images: a direct registration of the EPI scans to template space would be futile...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Chunliang Feng, Benjamin Becker, Wenhao Huang, Xia Wu, Simon B Eickhoff, Taolin Chen
The emotional Stroop task (EST) is among the most influential paradigms used to probe attention-related or cognitive control-related emotional processing in healthy subjects and clinical populations. The neuropsychological mechanism underlying the emotional Stroop effect has attracted extensive and long-lasting attention in both cognitive and clinical psychology and neuroscience; however, a precise characterization of the neural substrates underlying the EST in healthy and clinical populations remains elusive...
February 26, 2018: NeuroImage
Rahel A Kubik-Huch, Michael Weston, Stephanie Nougaret, Henrik Leonhardt, Isabelle Thomassin-Naggara, Mariana Horta, Teresa Margarida Cunha, Cristina Maciel, Andrea Rockall, Rosemarie Forstner
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the Female Pelvic Imaging Working Group of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) was to develop imaging guidelines for MR work-up in patients with known or suspected uterine leiomyomas. METHODS: Guidelines for imaging uterine leiomyomas were defined based on a survey distributed to all members of the working group, an expert consensus meeting at European Congress of Radiology (ECR) 2017 and a critical review of the literature...
February 28, 2018: European Radiology
Tetsuya Tsujikawa, Norihiko Narita, Masafumi Kanno, Tetsuji Takabayashi, Shigeharu Fujieda, Hidehiko Okazawa
The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) released the 8th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual in 2017 that includes significant modifications from the 7th edition in the sections on oral cavity cancer (OCC) and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). These highlights comprise the incorporation of the depth of invasion and exclusion of extrinsic tongue muscle involvement in the T staging of OCC, the separation of OPC staging based on the high-risk human papilloma virus status, and the inclusion of extranodal extension in N staging...
February 27, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
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