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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446645/hypothalamus-as-a-mediator-of-chronic-migraine-evidence-from-high-resolution-fmri
#1
Laura H Schulte, Angie Allers, Arne May
OBJECTIVE: To identify pathophysiologic mechanisms of migraine chronification using a recently standardized protocol for high-resolution brainstem imaging of trigeminal nociceptive stimulation. METHODS: Eighteen episodic migraineurs (EMs), 17 chronic migraineurs (CMs), and 19 healthy controls (HCs) underwent painful ammonia stimulation of the left nostril in a 3T MRI scanner. Functional images were acquired with a brainstem-optimized protocol for high-resolution echo-planar imaging...
April 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443736/brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-is-preserved-under-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-patients-with-pervasive-developmental-disorders-a-pilot-study
#2
Lakshmikumar Venkat Raghavan, Suparna Bharadwaj, Vincent Wourms, Audrey Tan, Michael T Jurkiewicz, David J Mikulis, Adrian P Crawley
Background Functional connectivity studies play a huge role in understanding the relationship between the network connections and the behavioral phenotype of patients with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). However, some patients with PDD may not tolerate the imaging procedure while awake and they often need general anesthesia. General anesthesia is a confounding factor in functional imaging studies due to its effect on the functional connectivity. The objective of this study is to look at the resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC) under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with pervasive developmental disorders...
April 26, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439530/using-cognitive-training-studies-to-unravel-the-mechanisms-by-which-the-approximate-number-system-supports-symbolic-math-ability
#3
Stephanie Bugden, Nicholas K DeWind, Elizabeth M Brannon
A picture is emerging that preverbal nonsymbolic numerical representations derived from the approximate number system (ANS) play an important role in mathematical development and sustained mathematical thinking. Functional imaging studies are revealing developmental trends in how the brain represents number. We propose that combining behavioral and neuroimaging techniques with cognitive training approaches will help identify the fundamental relationship between the ANS and symbolic mathematics. Understanding this relationship should ultimately benefit educators by providing ways to harness the ANS and hopefully improve math readiness in young children...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433483/functional-image-guided-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-planning-for-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Uranchimeg Tsegmed, Tomoki Kimura, Takeo Nakashima, Yuko Nakamura, Toru Higaki, Nobuki Imano, Yoshiko Doi, Masahiro Kenjo, Shuichi Ozawa, Yuji Murakami, Kazuo Awai, Yasushi Nagata
The aim of the current planning study is to evaluate the ability of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI)-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) planning by using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques in sparing the functional liver tissues during SBRT for hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, 20 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled. Functional liver tissues were defined according to quantitative liver-spleen contrast ratios ≥ 1...
April 19, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432222/low-expression-of-hexokinase-2-is-associated-with-false-negative-fdg-positron-emission-tomography-in-multiple-myeloma
#5
Leo Rasche, Edgardo Angtuaco, James E McDonald, Amy Buros, Caleb Stein, Charlotte Pawlyn, Sharmilan Thanendrarajan, Carolina Schinke, Rohan Samant, Shmuel Yaccoby, Brian Walker, Joshua Epstein, Maurizio Zangari, Frits van Rhee, Tobias Meissner, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Kari Hemminki, Richard Houlston, Bart Barlogie, Faith E Davies, Gareth J Morgan, Niels Weinhold
18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging with background signal suppression (DWIBS) are two powerful functional imaging modalities in the evaluation of the malignant plasma cell (PC) disease multiple myeloma (MM). Preliminary observations have suggested that MM patients with extensive disease according to DWIBS may be reported as being disease-free on FDG-PET ("PET-false-negative"). The aim of this study was to describe the proportion of PET-false-negativity in a representative set of 227 newly diagnosed MM patients with simultaneous assessment of FDG-PET and DWIBS, and to identify tumor-intrinsic features associated with this pattern...
April 21, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431905/dynamic-interhemispheric-competition-and-vestibulo-cortical-control-in-humans-a-theoretical-proposition
#6
REVIEW
Qadeer Arshad
Neuroscientific research has made a concerted effort to determine cortical localisation using various functional imaging techniques. This approach has undoubtedly yielded important novel anatomical knowledge, albeit at times contradictory, regarding the structural organisation of the vestibular cortex. Unfortunately however, this knowledge has not translated to our understanding regarding how neural mechanisms control vestibular function. Based upon recent functional imaging, lesion and neuro-physiological data that has demonstrated (i) the close behavioural and neuro-anatomical relationship between cortical processing of vestibular and spatial attention signals, and (ii) that inducing interhemispheric competition can in-turn strongly modulate vestibular function akin to that observed in cortical lesion patients, I herewith propose the hypothesis that vestibular cortical processing is controlled, as per for spatial attention, via dynamic interhemispheric competition...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430974/using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-undamaged-brain-to-identify-lesion-sites-that-predict-language-outcome-after-stroke
#7
Diego L Lorca-Puls, Andrea Gajardo-Vidal, Mohamed L Seghier, Alexander P Leff, Varun Sethi, Susan Prejawa, Thomas M H Hope, Joseph T Devlin, Cathy J Price
Transcranial magnetic stimulation focused on either the left anterior supramarginal gyrus or opercular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus has been reported to transiently impair the ability to perform phonological more than semantic tasks. Here we tested whether phonological processing abilities were also impaired following lesions to these regions in right-handed, English speaking adults, who were investigated at least 1 year after a left-hemisphere stroke. When our regions of interest were limited to 0...
April 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428191/the-role-of-minimal-residual-disease-testing-in-myeloma-treatment-selection-and-drug-development-current-value-and-future-applications
#8
Kenneth C Anderson, Daniel Auclair, Gary J Kelloff, Caroline C Sigman, Herve Avet-Loiseau, Ann T Farrell, Nicole J Gormley, Shaji K Kumar, Ola Landgren, Nikhil C Munshi, Michele Cavo, Faith E Davies, Alessandra Di Bacco, Jennifer S Dickey, Steven I Gutman, Howard R Higley, Mohamad A Hussein, J Milburn Jessup, Ilan R Kirsch, Richard F Little, Robert D Loberg, Jens G Lohr, Lata Mukundan, James L Omel, Trevor J Pugh, Gregory H Reaman, Michael D Robbins, A Kate Sasser, Nancy Valente, Elena Zamagni
Treatment of myeloma has benefited from the introduction of more effective and better tolerated agents, improvements in supportive care, better understanding of disease biology, revision of diagnostic criteria, and new sensitive and specific tools for disease prognostication and management. Assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) in response to therapy is one of these tools, as longer progression-free survival (PFS) is seen consistently among patients who have achieved MRD negativity. Current therapies lead to unprecedented frequency and depth of response, and next generation flow and sequencing methods to measure MRD in bone marrow are in use and being developed with sensitivities in the range of 10(-5)‒10(-6) cells...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427516/prognostic-and-predictive-biomarkers-in-neuroendocrine-tumours
#9
REVIEW
David L Chan, Stephen J Clarke, Connie I Diakos, Paul J Roach, Dale L Bailey, Simron Singh, Nick Pavlakis
Neuroendocrine tumours are extremely heterogeneous malignancies. Despite marked heterogeneity in clinical course and prognosis, few biomarkers exist to help predict prognosis and guide treatment. Many tumour-based biomarkers (Ki-67, mitotic count, genetic/epigenetic changes and microRNAs) exist, but only Ki-67 and mitotic count have strong evidence to support their routine use. Blood-based markers are easily repeatable, but currently established biomarkers (chromogranin A and urinary 5-HIAA) are difficult to measure accurately in practice...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427314/capturing-complexity-in-pulmonary-system-modelling
#10
Alys R Clark, Haribalan Kumar, Kelly Burrowes
Respiratory disease is a significant problem worldwide, and it is a problem with increasing prevalence. Pathology in the upper airways and lung is very difficult to diagnose and treat, as response to disease is often heterogeneous across patients. Computational models have long been used to help understand respiratory function, and these models have evolved alongside increases in the resolution of medical imaging and increased capability of functional imaging, advances in biological knowledge, mathematical techniques and computational power...
May 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424014/semi-quantitative-analysis-of-cerebral-fdg-pet-reveals-striatal-hypermetabolism-and-normal-cortical-metabolism-in-a-case-of-vgkcc-limbic-encephalitis
#11
Patrick Moloney, Ruth Boylan, Marwa Elamin, Sean O'Riordan, Ronan Killeen, Christopher McGuigan
In the context of delayed autoimmune encephalitis antibody results, functional imaging can support the diagnosis of limbic encephalitis associated with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKCC) antibodies. Here we present a typical case of VGKCC encephalitis in a 69-year-old woman whose symptoms responded to plasmapheresis. A cerebral 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan performed prior to commencing treatment revealed striatal hypermetabolism assessed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively, with normal uptake in the cortex and cerebellum when analysed semi-quantitatively...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422979/correlation-of-egfr-or-kras-mutation-status-with-18f-fdg-uptake-on-pet-ct-scan-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#12
Kazuya Takamochi, Kaoru Mogushi, Hideya Kawaji, Kota Imashimizu, Mariko Fukui, Shiaki Oh, Masayoshi Itoh, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Weijey Ko, Masao Akeboshi, Kenji Suzuki
BACKGROUND: 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging modality based on glucose metabolism. The correlation between EGFR or KRAS mutation status and the standardized uptake value (SUV) of 18F-FDG PET scanning has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Correlations between EGFR or KRAS mutation status and clinicopathological factors including SUVmax were statistically analyzed in 734 surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419201/functional-imaging-of-audio-visual-selective-attention-in-monkeys-and-humans-how-do-lapses-in-monkey-performance-affect-cross-species-correspondences
#13
Teemu Rinne, Ross S Muers, Emma Salo, Heather Slater, Christopher I Petkov
The cross-species correspondences and differences in how attention modulates brain responses in humans and animal models are poorly understood. We trained 2 monkeys to perform an audio-visual selective attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), rewarding them to attend to stimuli in one modality while ignoring those in the other. Monkey fMRI identified regions strongly modulated by auditory or visual attention. Surprisingly, auditory attention-related modulations were much more restricted in monkeys than humans performing the same tasks during fMRI...
April 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417852/nuclear-medicine-in-pediatric-nephro-urology-an-overview
#14
REVIEW
Iosif Mendichovszky, Bernardita Troncoso Solar, Naima Smeulders, Marina Easty, Lorenzo Biassoni
In the context of ante-natally diagnosed hydronephrosis, the vast majority of children with a dilated renal pelvis do not need any surgical treatment, as the dilatation resolves spontaneously with time. Slow drainage demonstrated at Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renography does not necessarily mean obstruction. Obstruction is defined as resistance to urinary outflow with urinary stasis at the level of the pelvic-ureteric junction (PUJ) which, if left untreated, will damage the kidney. Unfortunately this definition is retrospective and not clinically helpful...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415803/individual-isotoxic-radiation-dose-escalation-based-on-v20-and-advanced-technologies-benefits-unresectable-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-treated-with-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-long-term-follow-up
#15
Ming Liu, Zhongtang Wang, Tao Zhou, Antang Zhou, Qian Zhao, Hongsheng Li, Hongfu Sun, Wei Huang, BaoSheng Li
Under the assumption that the highest therapeutic ratio could be achieved by increasing the total tumor dose (TTD) to the limits of normal tissues, the phase I trial was conducted in patients with unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy, to determine the feasibility and effects of individual isotoxic radiation dose escalation based on bilateral lung V20 and advanced technologies. Consecutive eligible patients were assigned to cohorts of eight. V20 of each cohort was increased from 27% to 30%, 33%, 35%, 37%, and so on...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415128/p1270effects-of-blood-pressure-variability-on-layer-specific-longitudinal-strain-in-hypertension
#16
W-C Tsai, W-H Lee, Y-W Liu
Background: Our previous study showed sub-epicardial longitudinal strain (EpiLS) was an independent prognostic factor for worse outcome in regular treated hypertension but not global longitudinal strain (GLS) and sub-endocardial longitudinal strain (EndLS). Increased blood pressure variability (BPV) has been found associated with target organ damage in hypertension. However, effects of BPV on layer-specific longitudinal strain have not been well studied. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different blood pressure parameters on layer-specific longitudinal strain in hypertension...
December 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411159/in-vivo-visualization-of-connections-among-revised-papez-circuit-hubs-using-full-q-space-diffusion-spectrum-imaging-tractography
#17
Peng-Hu Wei, Zhi-Qi Mao, Fei Cong, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Bo Wang, Zhi-Pei Ling, Shu-Li Liang, Lin Chen, Xin-Guang Yu
Structural connections among the hubs of the revised Papez circuit remain to be elucidated in the human brain. As the original Papez circuit failed to explain functional imaging findings, a more detailed investigation is needed to delineate connections among the circuit's key hubs. Here we acquired diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) from eight normal subjects and used data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) to elucidate connections among hubs in the retrosplenial gyrus, hippocampus, mammillary bodies, and anterior thalamic nuclei...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407556/functional-network-based-statistics-in-depression-theory-of-mind-subnetwork-and-importance-of-parietal-region
#18
Chien-Han Lai, Yu-Te Wu, Yuh-Ming Hou
OBJECTIVE: The functional network analysis of whole brain is an emerging field for research in depression. We initiated this study to investigate which subnetwork is significantly altered within the functional connectome in major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: The study enrolled 52 first-episode medication-naïve patients with MDD and 40 controls for functional network analysis. All participants received the resting-state functional imaging using a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance scanner...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396293/the-impact-of-ultra-high-field-mri-on-cognitive-and-computational-neuroimaging
#19
Federico De Martino, Essa Yacoub, Valentin Kemper, Michelle Moerel, Kamil Uludag, Peter De Weerd, Kamil Ugurbil, Rainer Goebel, Elia Formisano
The ability to measure functional brain responses non-invasively with ultra high field MRI (7 T and above) represents a unique opportunity in advancing our understanding of the human brain. Compared to lower fields (3 T and below), ultra high field MRI has an increased sensitivity, which can be used to acquire functional images with greater spatial resolution, and greater specificity of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal to the underlying neuronal responses. Together, increased resolution and specificity enable investigating brain functions at a submillimeter scale, which so far could only be done with invasive techniques...
April 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393096/18f-fdg-positron-emission-tomography-findings-of-gliomatosis-peritonei-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
J-M Lavoie, F Lacroix-Poisson, L N Hoang, D C Wilson, M J Seckl, A V Tinker
•Gliomatosis peritonei (GP) is a rare benign complication of ovarian teratomas that does not impact overall survival.•GP exhibits high 18-F FDG uptake unlike other non-malignant forms of mature teratoma.•The specific characteristics of GP on functional imaging may be used to follow it with active surveillance in select cases.
May 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
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