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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823007/excretory-secretory-products-from-two-fasciola-hepatica-isolates-induce-different-transcriptional-changes-and-il-10-release-in-lps-activated-bovine-boma-macrophages
#1
Piotr Bąska, Luke James Norbury, Anna Zawistowska-Deniziak, Marcin Wiśniewski, Kamil Januszkiewicz
Fasciola hepatica are trematodes that reside in the bile ducts of mammals. Infection causes US$3 billion in losses annually in animal production and is considered a zoonosis of growing importance. An under-represented area in F. hepatica research has been the examination of the different immunomodulatory abilities of various parasite isolates on the host immune system. In this paper, this issue was explored, with the bovine macrophage cell line "BOMA". The cells were matured by LPS treatment and stimulated with excretory/secretory antigens (ES) from two Fasciola hepatica isolates: a laboratory isolate "Weybridge" (Fh-WeyES) and a wild isolate (Fh-WildES)...
August 19, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822992/low-dose-bisphenol-a-increases-bile-duct-proliferation-in-juvenile-rats-a-possible-evidence-for-risk-of-liver-cancer-in-the-exposed-population
#2
Ji Seong Jeong, Ki Taek Nam, Buhyun Lee, Aryo Dimas Pamungkas, Daeun Song, Minjeong Kim, Wook-Joon Yu, Jinsoo Lee, Sunha Jee, Youngja H Park, Kyung-Min Lim
Increasing concern is being given to the association between risk of cancer and exposure to low-dose bisphenol A (BPA), especially in young-aged population. In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated oral treatment of low to high dose BPA in juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats. Exposing juvenile rats to BPA (0, 0.5, 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg oral gavage) from post-natal day 9 for 90 days resulted in higher food intakes and increased body weights in biphasic dose-effect relationship. Male mammary glands were atrophied at high dose, which coincided with sexual pre-maturation of females...
August 21, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805232/the-protective-effect-of-heme-oxygenase-1-against-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-in-cholestatic-liver-injury-is-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibition
#3
Lijing Zhang, Zhenling Zhang, Bojia Liu, Yanling Jin, Yan Tian, Yi Xin, Zhijun Duan
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is reported to protect against liver injury, but little is known about its effect on the intestinal barrier in cholestatic liver injury. In this study, we investigated the effects of HO-1 and its enzymatic by-product on intestinal barrier dysfunction in bile duct ligation (BDL) rats and explored the possible mechanism. The HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) and carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) were used; the expression levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins, intestinal inflammation and NF-κB p65 were measured...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802564/interactions-between-platelets-and-inflammatory-monocytes-affect-sickness-behavior-in-mice-with-liver-inflammation
#4
Charlotte D'Mello, Wagdi Almishri, Hongqun Liu, Mark Gordon Swain
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with inflammatory liver disease commonly develop debilitating symptoms, called sickness behaviors, which arise via changes in brain function. Monocytes that produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) interact with cerebral endothelial cells to activate microglial cells and promote sickness behavior. Platelets regulate inflammation, and aggregates of monocytes and platelets are increased in the circulation of patients with liver disease. We investigated the role of platelets in inducing inflammatory features of circulating monocytes and promoting sickness behaviors in mice with cholestatic liver injury...
August 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791611/chronic-autoimmune-epithelitis-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-and-primary-biliary-cholangitis-a-comprehensive-review
#5
REVIEW
Carlo Selmi, M Eric Gershwin
Within the spectrum of autoimmune diseases, Sjögren's syndrome and primary biliary cholangitis are exemplary and can be coined as chronic epithelitis based on their frequent coexistence in clinical practice and the highly specific immune-mediated injury of the small bile ducts and the exocrine glands. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying the diseases are similar, with apoptosis being the key element leading to organ-specific immune-mediated injury directed against the small bile ducts and salivary gland epithelia, respectively along with similar epidemiological features, such as female predominance and the age of onset in the fifth decade of life...
August 8, 2017: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789951/hepatoprotective-activities-of-rosmarinic-acid-against-extrahepatic-cholestasis-in-rats
#6
Shih-Yi Lin, Ya-Yu Wang, Wen-Ying Chen, Su-Lan Liao, Su-Tze Chou, Ching-Ping Yang, Chun-Jung Chen
Though rosmarinic acid possesses nutritional, pharmaceutical, and toxic properties and shows therapeutic potential on liver diseases, its therapeutic effects against cholestatic liver diseases have not been proven. Using an extrahepatic cholestasis rat model by bile-duct ligation (BDL), daily oral administration of rosmarinic acid showed improvement effects on liver histology, serum biochemicals, ductular reaction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. Rosmarinic acid alleviated BDL-induced transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) production and hepatic collagen deposition, and the anti-fibrotic effects were accompanied by reductions in matrix-producing cells and Smad2/3...
August 5, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783896/liver-fluke-associated-biliary-tract-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Piyapan Prueksapanich, Panida Piyachaturawat, Prapimphan Aumpansub, Wiriyaporn Ridtitid, Roongruedee Chaiteerakij, Rungsun Rerknimitr
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive cancer arising from epithelial cells of the bile duct. Most patients with CCA have an unresectable tumor at the time of diagnosis. In Western countries, the risk of CCA increases in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, whereas liver fluke infection appears to be the major risk factor for CCA in Asian countries. A diagnosis of liver fluke infection often relies on stool samples, including microscopic examination, polymerase chain reaction-based assays, and fluke antigen detection...
August 9, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774674/concurrent-hepatic-tuberculosis-and-hepatic-graft-versus-host-disease-in-an-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-a-case-report
#8
Z Zhao, W Q Leow
BACKGROUND: Infection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are among the most common complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). With well-known risk factors including allogeneic HSCT and GVHD, tuberculosis (TB) has a higher incidence and shorter survival rate in HSCT recipients than in the general population. CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old Indonesian female with a history of latent TB was found to have acute myeloid leukemia 3 months after allogeneic HSCT...
July 31, 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769978/ultrastructural-characteristics-of-rat-hepatic-oval-cells-and-their-intercellular-contacts-in-the-model-of-biliary-fibrosis-new-insights-into-experimental-liver-fibrogenesis
#9
Joanna Maria Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta Sobaniec-Lotowska, Dariusz Marek Lebensztejn, Urszula Daniluk, Piotr Sobaniec, Krzysztof Sendrowski, Jaroslaw Daniluk, Joanna Reszec, Wojciech Debek
PURPOSE: Recently, it has been emphasized that hepatic progenitor/oval cells (HPCs) are significantly involved in liver fibrogenesis. We evaluated the multipotential population of HPCs by transmission electron microscope (TEM), including relations with adherent hepatic nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) in rats with biliary fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). METHODS: The study used 6-week-old Wistar Crl: WI(Han) rats after BDL for 1, 6, and 8 weeks. RESULTS: Current ultrastructural analysis showed considerable proliferation of HPCs in experimental intensive biliary fibrosis...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763485/cxcr2-signaling-and-the-microbiome-suppress-inflammation-bile-duct-injury-and-the-phenotype-of-experimental-biliary-atresia
#10
Junbae Jee, Reena Mourya, Pranavkumar Shivakumar, Lin Fei, Michael Wagner, Jorge A Bezerra
Biliary atresia is progressive fibro-inflammatory cholangiopathy of young children. Central to pathogenic mechanisms of injury is the tissue targeting by the innate and adaptive immune cells. Among these cells, neutrophils and the IL-8/Cxcl-8 signaling via its Cxcr2 receptor have been linked to bile duct injury. Here, we aimed to investigate whether the intestinal microbiome modulates Cxcr2-dependent bile duct injury and obstruction. Adult wild-type (WT) and Cxcr2-/- mice were fed a diet supplemented with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) during pregnancy and lactation, and their pups were injected intraperitoneally with rhesus rotavirus (RRV) within 24 hours of life to induce experimental biliary atresia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757911/baicalin-ameliorates-experimental-liver-cholestasis-in-mice-by-modulation-of-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-nrf2-transcription-factor
#11
Kezhen Shen, Xiaowen Feng, Hao Pan, Feng Zhang, Haiyang Xie, Shusen Zheng
Experimental cholestatic liver fibrosis was performed by bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice, and significant liver injury was observed in 15 days. Administration of baicalin in mice significantly ameliorates liver fibrosis. Experimental cholestatic liver fibrosis was associated with induced gene expression of fibrotic markers such as collagen I, fibronectin, alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF); increased inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, MIP1α, IL1β, and MIP2); increased oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species- (ROS-) inducing enzymes (NOX2 and iNOS); dysfunctional mitochondrial electron chain complexes; and apoptotic/necrotic cell death markers (DNA fragmentation, caspase 3 activity, and PARP activity)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754451/role-of-inflammation-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-cholangiocyte-pathophysiology
#12
REVIEW
Claudio, Debora Maria Giordano, Luca Maroni, Marco Marzioni
Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the bile ducts, are an important subset of liver cells. They are involved in the modification of bile volume and composition, and respond to endogenous and exogenous stimuli. Along the biliary tree, two different kinds of cholangiocytes exist: small and large cholangiocytes. Each type has different features and biological role in physiologic and pathologic conditions, and their immunobiology is important for understanding biliary diseases. Cholangiocytes provide the first line of defence against luminal microbes in the hepatobiliary system...
July 25, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754450/pathogenesis-of-biliary-fibrosis
#13
REVIEW
Massimo Pinzani, Tu Vinh Luong
Chronic cholestatic liver diseases such as primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are associated with active hepatic fibrogenesis, and, ultimately, to the development of cirrhosis. However, the precise relationship between cholestasis, in its broad meaning, and liver tissue fibrosis is still poorly defined. Fibrogenesis is currently viewed as a dynamic process that appears strictly related to the extent and duration of parenchymal injury. This relationship is clearly evident in the presence of reiterative hepatocellular necrosis due to viral infection or alcohol abuse...
July 25, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751425/melatonin-inhibits-hypothalamic-gonandotropin-releasing-hormone-release-and-reduces-biliary-hyperplasia-and-fibrosis-in-cholestatic-rats
#14
Matthew McMillin, Sharon DeMorrow, Shannon Glaser, Julie Venter, Konstantina Kyritsi, Tianhao Zhou, Stephanie Grant, Thao Giang, John F Greene, Nan Wu, Brandi Jefferson, Fanyin Meng, Gianfranco Alpini
Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland with increased circulating levels shown to inhibit biliary hyperplasia and fibrosis during cholestasis. Melatonin also has the capability to suppress the release of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), a hormone that promotes cholangiocyte proliferation when serum levels are elevated. However, the interplay and contribution of neural melatonin and GnRH to cholangiocyte proliferation and fibrosis in bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats has not been investigated...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747678/the-liver-enriched-lnc-lfar1-promotes-liver-fibrosis-by-activating-tgf%C3%AE-and-notch-pathways
#15
Kun Zhang, Xiaohui Han, Zhen Zhang, Lina Zheng, Zhimei Hu, Qingbin Yao, Hongmei Cui, Guiming Shu, Maojie Si, Chan Li, Zhemin Shi, Ting Chen, Yawei Han, Yanan Chang, Zhi Yao, Tao Han, Wei Hong
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in various biological processes such as proliferation, cell death and differentiation. Here, we show that a liver-enriched lncRNA, named liver fibrosis-associated lncRNA1 (lnc-LFAR1), promotes liver fibrosis. We demonstrate that lnc-LFAR1 silencing impairs hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, reduces TGFβ-induced hepatocytes apoptosis in vitro and attenuates both CCl4- and bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in mice. Lnc-LFAR1 promotes the binding of Smad2/3 to TGFβR1 and its phosphorylation in the cytoplasm...
July 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744285/placental-growth-factor-contributes-to-liver-inflammation-angiogenesis-fibrosis-in-mice-by-promoting-hepatic-macrophage-recruitment-and-activation
#16
Xi Li, Qianwen Jin, Qunyan Yao, Yi Zhou, Yanting Zou, Zheng Li, Shuncai Zhang, Chuantao Tu
Placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, mediates wound healing and inflammatory responses, exerting an effect on liver fibrosis and angiogenesis; however, the precise mechanism remains unclear. The aims of this study are to identify the role of PlGF in liver inflammation and fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. PlGF small interfering RNA (siRNA) or non-targeting control siRNA was injected by tail vein starting 2 days after BDL...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735098/cholangiocytes-cell-transplantation
#17
REVIEW
Lorenzo Ridola, Maria Consiglia Bragazzi, Vincenzo Cardinale, Guido Carpino, Eugenio Gaudio, Domenico Alvaro
BACKGROUND: Due to significant limitations to the access to orthotropic liver transplantation, cell therapies for liver diseases have gained large interest worldwide. SCOPE OF REVIEW: To revise current literature dealing with cell therapy for liver diseases. We discussed the advantages and pitfalls of the different cell sources tested so far in clinical trials and the rationale underlying the potential benefits of transplantation of human biliary tree stem cells (hBTSCs)...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734947/platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-contributes-to-human-hepatic-stellate-cell-proliferation-and-migration
#18
Alexander Kikuchi, Tirthadipa Pradhan-Sundd, Sucha Singh, Shanmugam Nagarajan, Nick Loizos, Satdarshan Monga
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα), a tyrosine kinase receptor, is up-regulated in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) during chronic liver injury. HSCs mediate hepatic fibrosis through their activation from a quiescent state partially in response to pro-fibrotic growth factors. HSC activation entails enhanced expression of pro-fibrotic genes, increase in proliferation, and increase in motility, which facilitates migration within the hepatic lobule. We show co-localization of PDGFRα in murine carbon tetrachloride, bile duct ligation (BDL), and 0...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701913/common-hepatic-branch-of-vagus-nerve-dependent-expression-of-immediate-early-genes-in-the-mouse-brain-by-intraportal-l-arginine-comparison-with-cholecystokinin-8
#19
Daisuke Yamada, Peter Koppensteiner, Saori Odagiri, Megumi Eguchi, Shun Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri, Keiji Wada, Masayuki Sekiguchi
Information from the peripheral organs is thought to be transmitted to the brain by humoral factors and neurons such as afferent vagal or spinal nerves. The common hepatic branch of the vagus (CHBV) is one of the main vagus nerve branches, and consists of heterogeneous neuronal fibers that innervate multiple peripheral organs such as the bile duct, portal vein, paraganglia, and gastroduodenal tract. Although, previous studies suggested that the CHBV has a pivotal role in transmitting information on the status of the liver to the brain, the details of its central projections remain unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697823/-clinical-feature-and-genetic-analysis-of-a-family-affected-by-congenital-bile-acid-synthesis-defect-type-2-identification-of-2-novel-mutations-in-akr1d1-gene
#20
Ying Cheng, Li Guo, Mei Deng, Yuan-Zong Song
Congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 2 (CBAS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic mutations of AKR1D1 gene, which encodes the Δ4-3-oxo-steroid 5β-reductase. Cholestatic jaundice is the main clinical manifestation, accompanied by malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins. This paper reported the clinical and genetic features of a CBAS2 patient definitely diagnosed by AKR1D1 genetic analysis. An 8-month-old male infant was referred to the hospital with the complaint of jaundiced skin and sclera over 7 months...
July 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
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