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Photochemicals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221773/air-quality-impacts-of-electrifying-vehicles-and-equipment-across-the-united-states
#1
Uarporn Nopmongcol, John Grant, Eladio Knipping, Mark Alexander, Rob Schurhoff, David Young, Jaegun Jung, Tejas Shah, Greg Yarwood
U.S.-wide air quality impacts of electrifying vehicles and off-road equipment are estimated for 2030 using 3-D photochemical air quality model and detailed emissions inventories. Electrification reduces tailpipe emissions and emissions from petroleum refining, transport, and storage, but increases electricity demand. The Electrification Case assumes approximately 17% of light duty and 8% of heavy duty vehicle miles traveled and from 17% to 79% of various off-road equipment types considered good candidates for electrification is powered by electricity...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221387/one-step-in-situ-synthesis-of-core-shell-structured-cr2o3-p-fibrous-phosphorus-hybrid-composites-with-highly-efficient-full-spectrum-response-photocatalytic-activities
#2
Hongpeng Zhou, Shixin Xu, Dingke Zhang, Shijian Chen, Junkai Deng
Making full use of solar energy and achieving high charge separation efficiency are critical factors for the photocatalysis technique. In this work, we report core-shell structured fibrous phosphorus (f-P) coated P-doped Cr2O3 (Cr2O3:P@f-P) hybrid composites with a strong optical absorption in the full region of 200-2600 nm. The Cr2O3:P@f-P hybrid composites exhibit a record photocatalytic efficiency under UV, visible and near-infrared light irradiation, demonstrating as promising photocatalysts for the full utilization of solar energy...
February 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221385/ir-spectroscopic-investigations-of-chemical-and-photochemical-reactions-on-metal-oxides-bridging-the-materials-gap
#3
REVIEW
Yuemin Wang, Christof Wöll
In this review, we highlight recent progress (2008-2016) in infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) studies on oxide powders achieved by using different types of metal oxide single crystals as reference systems. Precise polarization- and azimuth-dependent IRRAS data recorded for single crystal substrates has allowed for fundamental insights into the surface chemistry and photochemistry of numerous probe molecules on various surfaces exposed by three very important metal oxides (ZnO, TiO2, and CeO2)...
February 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220700/probing-the-intrinsic-thermal-and-photochemical-stability-of-hybrid-and-inorganic-lead-halide-perovskites
#4
Azat F Akbulatov, Sergey Yurevich Luchkin, Lyubov A Frolova, Nadezhda N Dremova, Ivan S Zhidkov, Kirill L Gerasimov, Denis V Anokhin, Ernst Z Kurmaev, Keith J Stevenson, Pavel A Troshin
We report a careful and systematic study of the thermal and photochemical degradation of a series of complex haloplumbates APbX3 (X=I, Br) with hybrid organic (A+= CH3NH3) and inorganic (A+=Cs+) cations under anoxic conditions (i.e., without exposure to oxygen and moisture by testing in an inert glove box environment). We show that the most common hybrid materials (e.g. MAPbI3) are intrinsically unstable with respect to the heat- and light-induced stress and, therefore, can hardly sustain the real solar cell operation conditions...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218846/arylazoindazole-photoswitches-facile-synthesis-and-functionalization-via-sn%C3%A2-ar-substitution
#5
Raquel Travieso-Puente, Simon Budzak, Juan Chen, Peter Stacko, Johann T B H Jastrzebski, Denis Jacquemin, Edwin Otten
A straightforward synthetic route to arylazoindazoles via nucleophilic aromatic substitution is presented. Upon deprotonation of the NH group, a C6F5-substituted formazan undergoes facile cyclization as a result of intermolecular nucleophilic substitution (SNAr). This new class of azo pho-toswitches containing an indazole five-membered heterocycle shows photochemical isomerization with high fatigue resistance. In addition, the Z-isomers have long thermal half-lives in the dark of up to several days at room temperature...
February 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218708/oncologic-photodynamic-therapy-basic-principles-current-clinical-status-and-future-directions
#6
REVIEW
Demian van Straten, Vida Mashayekhi, Henriette S de Bruijn, Sabrina Oliveira, Dominic J Robinson
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved cancer therapy, based on a photochemical reaction between a light activatable molecule or photosensitizer, light, and molecular oxygen. When these three harmless components are present together, reactive oxygen species are formed. These can directly damage cells and/or vasculature, and induce inflammatory and immune responses. PDT is a two-stage procedure, which starts with photosensitizer administration followed by a locally directed light exposure, with the aim of confined tumor destruction...
February 18, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218620/endothelial-antigen-assembly-leads-to-thrombotic-complications-in-heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia
#7
Vincent Hayes, Ian Johnston, Gowthami M Arepally, Steven E McKenzie, Douglas B Cines, Lubica Rauova, Mortimer Poncz
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic disorder initiated by antibodies against complexes between human platelet factor 4 (hPF4) and heparin. A better understanding of the events that initiate the prothrombotic state may improve approaches to antithrombotic management. Here, we visualized thrombus formation in an in vivo murine model and an endothelialized microfluidic system that simulate the pathogenesis of HIT. hPF4 released from platelets predominantly bound to peri-injury endothelium and formed HIT antigenic complexes that were dissociated by heparin...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218530/ultrafast-excited-state-dynamics-in-a-molecular-motors-coupling-of-motor-length-to-medium-viscosity
#8
Jamie Conyard, Peter Stacko, Jiawen Chen, Sophie McDonagh, Christopher R Hall, Sergey P Laptenok, Wesley R Browne, Ben L Feringa, Stephen R Meech
Photochemically driven molecular motors convert the energy of incident radiation to intramolecular rotational motion. The motor molecules considered here execute four step unidirectional rotational motion. This comprises a pair of successive light induced isomerizations to a metastable state followed by thermal helix inversions. The internal rotation of a large molecular unit required in these steps is expected to be sensitive to both the viscosity of the medium and the volume of the rotating unit. In this work we describe a study of motor motion in both ground and excited states as a function of the size of the rotating units...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218294/correlated-electron-nuclear-dynamics-in-above-threshold-multiphoton-ionization-of-asymmetric-molecule
#9
Zhuo Wang, Min Li, Yueming Zhou, Pengfei Lan, Peixiang Lu
The partition of the photon energy into the subsystems of molecules determines many photon-induced chemical and physical dynamics in laser-molecule interactions. The electron-nuclear energy sharing from multiphoton ionization of molecules has been used to uncover the correlated dynamics of the electron and fragments. However, most previous studies focus on symmetric molecules. Here we study the electron-nuclear energy sharing in strong-field photoionization of HeH(2+) by solving the one-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE)...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217924/environmental-impact-of-ionic-liquids-automated-evaluation-of-chemical-oxygen-demand-of-photochemical-degraded-compounds
#10
M Lúcia Mfs Saraiva, Susana Costa, Marieta Passos
A novel automated fluorimetric technique was developed for the assessment of ionic liquids (ILs) chemical oxygen demand (COD). It was combined a photodegradation step with the perspective of promote ILs degradation. The method was implemented on a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system and based on the reduction of cerium (IV) in the presence of irradiated ILs. The obtained results demonstrated higher COD values for compounds incorporating the chloride anion. Bmim [Cl], bmpyr [Cl] and hmim [Cl] also exhibiting considerable photodegradability ratio...
February 19, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217798/non-sensitized-selective-photochemical-reduction-of-co2-to-co-under-visible-light-with-an-iron-molecular-catalyst
#11
Heng Rao, Julien Bonin, Marc Robert
A substituted tetraphenyl iron porphyrin, bearing positively charged trimethylammonio groups at the para position of each phenyl ring, demonstrates its ability as a homogeneous molecular catalyst to selectively reduce CO2 to CO under visible light irradiation in organic media without the assistance of a sensitizer and no competitive hydrogen evolution for several days.
February 20, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215095/ph-dependence-of-photoinduced-electron-transfer-with-ru-tap-3-2
#12
Ludovic Troian-Gautier, Epiphanie Mugeniwabagara, Luca Fusaro, Cécile Moucheron, Andrée Kirsch-De Mesmaeker, Michel Luhmer
The quenching of the excited state of [Ru(TAP)3](2+) (TAP = 1,4,5,8-tetraazaphenanthrene) by guanosine-5'-monophosphate (GMP), N-acetyltyrosine (N-Ac-Tyr), and hydroquinone (H2Q) has been studied in aqueous solution over a wide range of pH values including, for the first time, strongly acidic media. This quenching by electron transfer was examined by steady-state (1)H photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) as well as by more conventional techniques, among which are pulsed laser-induced transient absorption and emission experiments...
February 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214942/an-analytical-investigation-of-ozone-episodes-in-bangu-rio-de-janeiro
#13
Claudio Gabriel Pinheiro Geraldino, Eduardo Monteiro Martins, Cleyton Martins da Silva, Graciela Arbilla
This study investigated the potential factors that contribute to frequent high levels of ozone as well as ozone episodes in Bangu, one of the most critical areas in the city of Rio de Janeiro regarding ozone levels. For 74 days in a two-year period (10.3%), the national air quality standard was exceeded. For the same period, a total of 378 days (51.8%) had ozone concentrations that were between 80 and 160 µg m(-3). A statistical analysis of pollutant concentrations and meteorological data as well as a kinetic and mechanistic analysis of VOC reactivity showed that the high ozone concentrations did not seem to be closely related to local emissions but, rather, were related to pollutant transport and triggered by photochemical activity...
February 18, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211532/structure-of-a-lov-protein-in-apo-state-and-implications-for-construction-of-lov-based-optical-tools
#14
Vladimir Arinkin, Joachim Granzin, Katrin Röllen, Ulrich Krauss, Karl-Erich Jaeger, Dieter Willbold, Renu Batra-Safferling
Unique features of Light-Oxygen-Voltage (LOV) proteins like relatively small size (~12-19 kDa), inherent modularity, highly-tunable photocycle and oxygen-independent fluorescence have lately been exploited for the generation of optical tools. Structures of LOV domains reported so far contain a flavin chromophore per protein molecule. Here we report two new findings on the short LOV protein W619_1-LOV from Pseudomonas putida. First, the apo-state crystal structure of W619_1-LOV at 2.5 Å resolution reveals conformational rearrangements in the secondary structure elements lining the chromophore pocket including elongation of the Fα helix, shortening of the Eα-Fα loop and partial unfolding of the Eα helix...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211527/depth-specific-fluctuations-of-gene-expression-and-protein-abundance-modulate-the-photophysiology-in-the-seagrass-posidonia-oceanica
#15
Gabriele Procaccini, Miriam Ruocco, Lázaro Marín-Guirao, Emanuela Dattolo, Christophe Brunet, Daniela D'Esposito, Chiara Lauritano, Silvia Mazzuca, Ilia Anna Serra, Letizia Bernardo, Amalia Piro, Sven Beer, Mats Björk, Martin Gullström, Pimchanok Buapet, Lina M Rasmusson, Paulo Felisberto, Sylvie Gobert, John W Runcie, João Silva, Irene Olivé, Monya M Costa, Isabel Barrote, Rui Santos
Here we present the results of a multiple organizational level analysis conceived to identify acclimative/adaptive strategies exhibited by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to the daily fluctuations in the light environment, at contrasting depths. We assessed changes in photophysiological parameters, leaf respiration, pigments, and protein and mRNA expression levels. The results show that the diel oscillations of P. oceanica photophysiological and respiratory responses were related to transcripts and proteins expression of the genes involved in those processes and that there was a response asynchrony between shallow and deep plants probably caused by the strong differences in the light environment...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211322/incubation-of-solid-state-c60-fullerene-under-uv-irradiation-mimicking-environmentally-relevant-conditions
#16
Andrea Carboni, Rick Helmus, John R Parsons, Karsten Kalbitz, Pim de Voogt
Carbon-based nanomaterials, such as C60 fullerenes, are expected to accumulate in soil due to direct release and deposition from the atmosphere. However, little is known about the environmental fate of these nanoparticles which may be susceptible to photochemical and microbial degradation. In the present work, C60 was incubated for a period of 28 days and irradiated with UVA light. Three experiments were carried out where the fullerenes were either spiked onto a glass surface or added to quartz sand or sandy soil samples...
February 2, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208267/highly-selective-capture-surfaces-on-medical-wires-for-fishing-tumor-cells-in-whole-blood
#17
Frank D Scherag, Robert Niestroj-Pahl, Solveigh Krusekopf, Klaus Lücke, Thomas Brandstetter, Jürgen Rühe
The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of cancer patients is a challenging task. CTCs are, especially at the early stages of cancer development, extremely rare cells hidden in a vast background of regular blood cells. We describe a new strategy for the isolation of CTCs from whole blood. The key component is a medical wire coated with a multilayer assembly that allows highly specific capture of EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) positive CTCs from blood. The assembly is generated in a layer-by-layer fashion through photochemically induced C,H insertion reactions and consists of a protective layer, which shields the contacting solution from the metal, a protein resistant layer, which prevents nonspecific interactions with proteins and a layer containing the EpCAM antibodies...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205400/design-features-for-optimization-of-tetrapyrrole-macrocycles-as-antimicrobial-and-anticancer-photosensitizers
#18
EDITORIAL
Alejandra Martinez De Pinillos Bayona, Pawel Mroz, Connor Thunshelle, Michael R Hamblin
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic dyes called photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light that combine to form highly toxic reactive oxygen species that kill cells. Originally, a cancer therapy, PDT, now includes applications for infections. The most widely studied PS are tetrapyrrole macrocycles including porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins, and phthalocyanines. The present review covers the design features in PS that can work together to maximize the PDT activity for various disease targets...
February 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205348/photochemical-eradication-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-by-blue-light-activation-of-riboflavin
#19
Karim Makdoumi, Ray Goodrich, Anders Bäckman
PURPOSE: To compare elimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by exposure of blue light alone and with riboflavin. METHODS: A reference strain of MRSA was cultured and diluted in PBS with and without riboflavin (0.01%). Fifteen microlitre was added on a microscope slide, creating a fluid layer with a thickness of around 400 microns. Both of the bacterial suspensions were exposed to blue light, and the effect between exposure with and without riboflavin was compared...
February 15, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205244/spatial-organization-of-the-three-component-lichen-peltigera-aphthosa-in-functional-terms
#20
Konstantin Chekanov, Alexandr Feoktistov, Elena Lobakova
The cephalolichen Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd. is characterized by lateral heterogeneity, which manifests itself in the presence of three thallus zones, referred to as the apical, basal and medial zone. These zones differ in terms of interaction between lichen bionts and their physiological activity. The apical thallus zone is more efficient in establishing a contact with cyanobacteria, due to a higher lectin content and a larger overall thallus surface area due to the presence of numerous mycobiont hyphae...
February 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
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