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Magnetic Nuclear Resonance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231145/recent-advances-in-techniques-for-starch-esters-and-the-applications-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Jing Hong, Xin-An Zeng, Charles S Brennan, Margaret Brennan, Zhong Han
Esterification is one of the most important methods to alter the structure of starch granules and improve its applications. Conventionally, starch esters are prepared by conventional or dual modification techniques, which have the disadvantages of being expensive, have regent overdoses, and are time-consuming. In addition, the degree of substitution (DS) is often considered as the primary factor in view of its contribution to estimate substituted groups of starch esters. In order to improve the detection accuracy and production efficiency, different detection techniques, including titration, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis/infrared spectroscopy (TGA/IR) and headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC), have been developed for DS...
July 9, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231139/evaluation-of-the-bitterness-masking-effect-of-powdered-roasted-soybeans
#2
Yoshimasa Makita, Tomoko Ishida, Noriko Kobayashi, Mai Fujio, Kyoko Fujimoto, Rina Moritomo, Jun-Ichi Fujita, Shin-Ichi Fujiwara
The masking of bitterness is considered important because many pharmaceutical compounds have a bitter taste. The bitterness-masking effect of powdered roasted soybeans (PRS) was investigated using a bitter taste sensor. PRS was revealed to significantly suppress the bitterness of quinine hydrochloride and denatonium benzoate. Furthermore, the bitterness-masking mechanism of PRS extracts was evaluated using dynamic light scattering. These results showed that the extracted suspension consisted of particles that were several hundreds of nanometers in size...
June 18, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230816/new-route-synthesis-of-thiadiazoles-bisthiadiazoles-thiadiazolotriazines-and-pyrazolothiadiazoles-based-on-hydrazonoyl-halides-and-dihydrazinylthiadiazole
#3
Abdelwahed R Sayed, Shar Saad Al-Shihry
Synthesis and characterization of new thiadiazoles, bisthiadiazoles from the reaction of mono- and di-hydrazonoyl halides with various hydrazinecarbodithioate derivatives were studied. Treatment of hydrazonoyl halides with 2,5-dihydrazinyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole afforded new bistriazines containing thiadiazole; we also examined the reaction of 2,5-dihydrazinyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole with active methylene compounds to afford new pyrazoles containing thiadiazole compounds. The new synthesized compounds were identified by elemental analysis and various spectral data (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance)...
February 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230201/relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients-display-an-altered-lipoprotein-profile-with-dysfunctional-hdl
#4
Winde Jorissen, Elien Wouters, Jeroen F Bogie, Tim Vanmierlo, Jean-Paul Noben, Denis Sviridov, Niels Hellings, Veerle Somers, Roland Valcke, Bart Vanwijmeersch, Piet Stinissen, Monique T Mulder, Alan T Remaley, Jerome J A Hendriks
Lipoproteins modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. In the chronic inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS), reports on lipoprotein level alterations are inconsistent and it is unclear whether lipoprotein function is affected. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we analysed the lipoprotein profile of relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients, progressive MS patients and healthy controls (HC). We observed smaller LDL in RRMS patients compared to healthy controls and to progressive MS patients...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229920/in-vitro-wound-healing-and-cytotoxic-activity-of-the-gel-and-whole-leaf-materials-from-selected-aloe-species
#5
Lizelle T Fox, Anisha Mazumder, Anupma Dwivedi, Minja Gerber, Jeanetta du Plessis, Josias H Hamman
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aloe vera is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world with applications in the cosmetic industry and also in the tonic or health drink product market. Different parts of Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii are used as traditional medicines for different applications. Although wound healing has been shown for certain aloe gel materials (e.g. A. vera) previously, there are conflicting reports on this medicinal application of aloe leaf gel materials...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229388/effects-of-boron-supplementation-on-peripartum-dairy-cows-health
#6
Abdullah Basoglu, Nuri Baspinar, Leonardo Tenori, Alessia Vignoli, Erdem Gulersoy
Although many different dietary studies on the prevention of negative energy balance related diseases are often encountered, this is the first study investigating the effects of boron supplementation on peripartum dairy cows' health in the light of an omics approach. Twenty-eight healthy cows (1 control and 3 experimental groups) were enrolled from 2 months before predicted calving until 2 months after calving. Experimental groups were assigned to receive boron at increasing doses as an oral bolus. Production parameters, biochemical profile, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance based metabolomics profile, and mRNA abundance of gluconeogenic enzymes and lipid oxidation genes were determined...
February 22, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224913/parent-heparin-and-daughter-lmw-heparin-correlation-analysis-using-lc-ms-and-nmr
#7
Xinyue Liu, Kalib St Ange, Xiaohua Wang, Lei Lin, Fuming Zhang, Lianli Chi, Robert J Linhardt
Heparin is a structurally complex, polysaccharide anticoagulant derived from livestock, primarily porcine intestinal tissues. Low molecular weight (LMW) heparins are derived through the controlled partial depolymerization of heparin. Increased manufacturing and regulatory concerns have provided the motivation for the development of more sophisticated analytical methods for determining both their structure and pedigree. A strategy, for the comprehensive comparison of parent heparins and their LMW heparin daughters, is described that relies on the analysis of monosaccharide composition, disaccharide composition, and oligosaccharide composition...
April 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224195/paenibacillus-sp-598k-6-%C3%AE-glucosyltransferase-is-essential-for-cycloisomaltooligosaccharide-synthesis-from-%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-4-glucan
#8
Hitomi Ichinose, Ryuichiro Suzuki, Takatsugu Miyazaki, Keitarou Kimura, Mitsuru Momma, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Zui Fujimoto, Atsuo Kimura, Kazumi Funane
Paenibacillus sp. 598K produces cycloisomaltooligosaccharides (cyclodextrans) from starch even in the absence of dextran. Cycloisomaltooligosaccharide glucanotransferase synthesizes cycloisomaltooligosaccharides exclusively from an α-(1 → 6)-consecutive glucose chain consisting of at least four molecules. Starch is not a substrate of this enzyme. Therefore, we predicted that the bacterium possesses another enzyme system for extending α-(1 → 6)-linked glucoses from starch, which can be used as the substrate for cycloisomaltooligosaccharide glucanotransferase, and identified the transglucosylation enzyme Ps6GT31A...
February 21, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223697/dynamic-regulation-of-gdp-binding-to-g-proteins-revealed-by-magnetic-field-dependent-nmr-relaxation-analyses
#9
Yuki Toyama, Hanaho Kano, Yoko Mase, Mariko Yokogawa, Masanori Osawa, Ichio Shimada
Heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signalling pathways, by coupling the activation of cell surface receptors to intracellular responses. Mutations in the G protein α-subunit (Gα) that accelerate guanosine diphosphate (GDP) dissociation cause hyperactivation of the downstream effector proteins, leading to oncogenesis. However, the structural mechanism of the accelerated GDP dissociation has remained unclear. Here, we use magnetic field-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analyses to investigate the structural and dynamic properties of GDP bound Gα on a microsecond timescale...
February 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223120/supramolecular-formulation-of-nitidine-chloride-can-alleviate-its-hepatotoxicity-and-improve-its-anticancer-activity
#10
Wanying Li, Hang Yin, David Bardelang, Jianbo Xiao, Ying Zheng, Ruibing Wang
Nitidine chloride (NC) has demonstrated promising anticancer activity. However, NC has also shown non-specific toxicity in various healthy organs such as the liver. In this study, we aimed to develop a supramolecular formulation for NC and investigate the associated benefits of such a supramolecular formulation on modulating its inherent hepatotoxicity and anticancer activity. The formation of NC-cucurbit[7]uil (NC@CB[7]) complexes was characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction analysis...
February 18, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222243/studies-on-the-binding-of-modest-modulators-of-the-human-enzyme-sirtuin-6-using-std-nmr
#11
Beatriz E Bolívar, John T Welch
Pyrazinamide (PZA), an essential constituent of short course tuberculosis chemotherapy, binds weakly but selectively to Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6). Despite structural similarities between nicotinamide (NAM), PZA, and pyrazinoic acid (POA), these inhibitors modulate SIRT6 via different mechanisms and binding sites, as suggested by Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Available experimental evidence, such as that derived from crystal structures and kinetic experiments, is of only limited utility in the elucidation of the mechanistic details of sirtuin inhibition by NAM or other inhibitors...
February 21, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221786/chemical-trends-in-solid-alkali-pertechnetates
#12
Jamie Weaver, Chuck Z Soderquist, Nancy M Washton, Andrew S Lipton, Paul L Gassman, Wayne W Lukens, Albert A Kruger, Nathalie A Wall, John S McCloy
Insight into the solid-state chemistry of pure technetium-99 ((99)Tc) oxides is required in the development of a robust immobilization and disposal system for nuclear waste stemming from the radiopharmaceutical industry, from the production of nuclear weapons, and from spent nuclear fuel. However, because of its radiotoxicity and the subsequent requirement of special facilities and handling procedures for research, only a few studies have been completed, many of which are over 20 years old. In this study, we report the synthesis of pure alkali pertechnetates (sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium) and analysis of these compounds by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (static and magic angle spinning), and neutron diffraction...
February 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220878/homozygous-carriers-of-the-tcf7l2-rs7903146-t-allele-show-altered-postprandial-response-in-triglycerides-and-triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins
#13
L Engelbrechtsen, T H Hansen, Y Mahendran, P Pyl, E Andersson, A Jonsson, A Gjesing, A Linneberg, T Jørgensen, T Hansen, H Vestergaard
The TCF7L2 rs7903146 T-allele shows the strongest association with type 2 diabetes (T2D) among common gene variants. The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of metabolites following a meal test in individuals carrying the high risk rs790346 TT genotype (cases) and low-risk CC genotype (controls). Sixty-two men were recruited based on TCF7L2 genotype, 31 were TT carriers and 31 were age- and BMI-matched CC carriers. All participants consumed a test meal after 12 hours of fasting. Metabolites were measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220550/metabolomic-profiling-in-umbilical-venous-plasma-reveals-effects-of-dietary-rumen-protected-arginine-or-n-carbamylglutamate-supplementation-in-nutrient-restricted-hu-sheep-during-pregnancy
#14
L Sun, H Zhang, Y Fan, Y Guo, G Zhang, H Nie, F Wang
Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy is a major problem worldwide for human and animal production. Arginine (Arg) is critical to health, growth and reproduction. N-carbamylglutamate (NCG), a key enzyme in arginine synthesis, is not extensively degraded in rumen. The aim of this study was to investigate ameliorating effects of rumen-protected arginine (RP-Arg) and NCG supplementation on dietary in undernourished Hu sheep during gestation. From day 35 to 110 of gestation, 32 Hu ewes carrying twin foetuses were randomly divided into four groups: a control (CG) group (n = 8; fed 100% National Research Council (NRC) requirements for pregnant sheep), a nutrient-restricted (RG) group (n = 8; fed 50% NRC requirements, which included 50% mineral-vitamin mixture) and two treatment (Arg and NCG) groups (n = 8; fed 50% NRC requirements supplemented with 20 g/day RP-Arg or 5 g/day NCG, which included 50% mineral-vitamin mixture)...
February 20, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220202/enzyme-inhibitory-metabolites-from-endophytic-penicillium-citrinum-isolated-from-boswellia-sacra
#15
Sajid Ali, Abdul Latif Khan, Liaqat Ali, Tania Shamim Rizvi, Sumera Afzal Khan, Javid Hussain, Muhammad Hamayun, Ahmed Al-Harrasi
Fungal endophytes establish an important niche within the host plant through the secretion of chemical constituents. Isolation of bioactive metabolites could be a vital source for inhibiting the function of enzymes such as α-glucosidase and urease. The present study aimed to elucidate the potential of endophytes associated with Boswellia sacra through bioassay-guided isolation and identification of secondary metabolites with enzyme inhibitory ability. Endophytic fungal strains viz. Penicillium citrinum, P...
February 20, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219798/integrative-hepatoprotective-efficacy-comparison-of-raw-and-vinegar-baked-radix-bupleuri-using-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based-metabolomics
#16
Jie Xing, Hui-Min Sun, Jin-Ping Jia, Xue-Mei Qin, Zhen-Yu Li
Radix Bupleuri (RB), with a Chinese name Chaihu, is one of the most popular Traditional Chinese herbal drug. It can be baked with vinegar to afford vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB), which is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for liver diseases treatment. In the present study, nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic approach was used to compare the liver protective effect of RB and two types of VBRBs, which were prepared by two kinds of vinegar. The contents of 14 metabolites in the liver of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated mice were significantly altered in comparison with control group, and VBRB prepared by Shanxi vinegar showed best effect as revealed by the amount and regulatory degree of the perturbed metabolites...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219465/relationships-between-methane-emission-of-holstein-friesian-dairy-cows-and-fatty-acids-volatile-metabolites-and-non-volatile-metabolites-in-milk
#17
S van Gastelen, E C Antunes-Fernandes, K A Hettinga, J Dijkstra
This study investigated the relationships between methane (CH4) emission and fatty acids, volatile metabolites (V) and non-volatile metabolites (NV) in milk of dairy cows. Data from an experiment with 32 multiparous dairy cows and four diets were used. All diets had a roughage : concentrate ratio of 80 : 20 based on dry matter (DM). Roughage consisted of either 1000 g/kg DM grass silage (GS), 1000 g/kg DM maize silage (MS), or a mixture of both silages (667 g/kg DM GS and 333 g/kg DM MS; 333 g/kg DM GS and 677 g/kg DM MS)...
February 21, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218831/new-possibilities-for-magnetic-control-of-chemical-and-biochemical-reactions
#18
Anatoly Buchachenko, Ronald G Lawler
Chemistry is controlled by Coulomb energy; magnetic energy is lower by many orders of magnitude and may be confidently ignored in the energy balance of chemical reactions. The situation becomes less clear, however, when reaction rates are considered. In this case, magnetic perturbations of nearly degenerate energy surface crossings may produce observable, and sometimes even dramatic, effects on reactions rates, product yields, and spectroscopic transitions. A case in point that has been studied for nearly five decades is electron spin-selective chemistry via the intermediacy of radical pairs...
February 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218749/mechanistic-basis-for-the-recognition-of-a-misfolded-protein-by-the-molecular-chaperone-hsp90
#19
Javier Oroz, Jin Hae Kim, Bliss J Chang, Markus Zweckstetter
The critical toxic species in over 40 human diseases are misfolded proteins. Their interaction with molecular chaperones such as Hsp90, which preferentially interacts with metastable proteins, is essential for the blocking of disease progression. Here we used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine the three-dimensional structure of the misfolded cytotoxic monomer of the amyloidogenic human protein transthyretin, which is characterized by the release of the C-terminal β-strand and perturbations of the A-B loop...
February 20, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218654/caffeoylquinic-acids-from-the-aerial-parts-of-chrysanthemum-coronarium-l
#20
Chunpeng Wan, Shanshan Li, Lin Liu, Chuying Chen, Shuying Fan
To elucidate the chemical compositions of the aerial parts of Chrysanthemum coronarium L., the ethanol extracts of Ch. coronarium L. were firstly isolated by the MCI-gel resin column. The caffeoylquinic acid-rich fractions were further purified by various chromatographic columns including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative HPLC to yield the compounds. The purified compounds were characterized by ¹H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR), (13)C-NMR, and high resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectral (HR-ESI-MS) spectroscopy...
February 17, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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