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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074280/premature-brain-aging-in-humans-exposed-to-maternal-nutrient-restriction-during-early-gestation
#1
Katja Franke, Christian Gaser, Susanne R de Rooij, Matthias Schwab, Tessa J Roseboom
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to undernutrition is widespread in both developing and industrialized countries, causing irreversible damage to the developing brain, resulting in altered brain structure and decreased cognitive function during adulthood. The Dutch famine in 1944/45 was a humanitarian disaster, now enabling studies of the effects of prenatal undernutrition during gestation on brain aging in late adulthood. METHODS: We hypothesized that study participants prenatally exposed to maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) would demonstrate altered brain structure resembling premature brain aging in late adulthood, expecting the effect being stronger in men...
October 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033796/laminar-and-cellular-distribution-of-monoamine-receptors-in-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#2
REVIEW
Noemí Santana, Francesc Artigas
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is deeply involved in higher brain functions, many of which are altered in psychiatric conditions. The PFC exerts a top-down control of most cortical and subcortical areas through descending pathways and is densely innervated by axons emerging from the brainstem monoamine cell groups, namely, the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MnR, respectively), the ventral tegmental area and the locus coeruleus (LC). In turn, the activity of these cell groups is tightly controlled by afferent pathways arising from layer V PFC pyramidal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812823/an-assessment-of-national-maternal-and-child-health-policy-makers-knowledge-and-capacity-for-evidence-informed-policy-making-in-nigeria
#3
Chigozie Jesse Uneke, Issiaka Sombie, Namoudou Keita, Virgil Lokossou, Ermel Johnson, Pierre Ongolo-Zogo
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest globally in the use of more rigorous processes to ensure that maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence use. The purpose of this study was to engage Nigerian MNCH policy-makers and other stakeholders to consider issues around research to policy and practice interface and to assess their existing knowledge and capacity on the use of research evidence for policy-making and practice...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744866/effect-of-moderate-30-percent-global-maternal-nutrient-reduction-on-fetal-and-postnatal-baboon-phenotype
#4
Cun Li, Susan Jenkins, Vicki Mattern, Anthony G Comuzzie, Laura A Cox, Hillary F Huber, Peter W Nathanielsz
BACKGROUND: Most developmental programming studies on maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) are in altricial rodents whose maternal nutritional burden and offspring developmental trajectory differ from precocial non-human primates and humans. METHODS: Control (CTR) baboon mothers ate ad libitum; MNR mothers ate 70% global control diet in pregnancy and lactation. RESULTS: We present offspring morphometry, blood cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) during second half of gestation (G) and first three postnatal years...
December 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647807/preoperative-nutritional-status-and-its-impact-on-cholangitis-after-kasai-portoenterostomy-in-biliary-atresia-patients
#5
Dandan Li, Xiaoai Chen, Kang Fu, Jixin Yang, Jiexiong Feng
OBJECTIVE: To explore the preoperative nutrition status in patients with biliary atresia (BA) and its effect on the cholangitis of Kasai portoenterostomy (KPE). METHODS: 106 patients who had been diagnosed with BA type III and were undergoing KPE were divided into two groups according to the score obtained using STRONGkids. Preoperative and postoperative data were collected to compare general characteristics and postoperative outcomes between the different groups...
August 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528079/the-lateral-habenula-and-the-serotonergic-system
#6
REVIEW
Martin Metzger, Debora Bueno, Leandro B Lima
The habenula (Hb) is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). After decades of relative neglect, interest in the Hb resurged when it was demonstrated that LHb neurons play a key role in encoding disappointments and expectation of punishments. Consistent with such a role, the LHb has been implicated in a broad array of functions and pathologic conditions, notably in mechanisms of stress and pain, as well as in the pathophysiology of mood disorders...
November 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376077/maternal-nutrient-restriction-in-guinea-pigs-leads-to-fetal-growth-restriction-with-evidence-for-chronic-hypoxia
#7
Alexander A Elias, Yohei Maki, Brad Matushewski, Karen Nygard, Timothy R H Regnault, Bryan S Richardson
BackgroundWe determined whether maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in guinea pigs leading to fetal growth restriction (FGR) impacts markers for tissue hypoxia, implicating a mechanistic role for chronic hypoxia.MethodsGuinea pigs were fed ad libitum (Control) or 70% of the control diet before pregnancy, switching to 90% at mid-pregnancy (MNR). Near term, hypoxyprobe-1 (HP-1), a marker of tissue hypoxia, was injected into pregnant sows. Fetuses were then necropsied and liver, kidney, and placental tissues were processed for erythropoietin (EPO), EPO-receptor (EPOR), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels, and for HP-1 immunoreactivity (IR)...
July 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340505/afferent-and-efferent-connections-of-the-interpeduncular-nucleus-with-special-reference-to-circuits-involving-the-habenula-and-raphe-nuclei
#8
Leandro B Lima, Debora Bueno, Fernanda Leite, Stefani Souza, Luciano Gonçalves, Isadora C Furigo, Jose Donato, Martin Metzger
The habenula is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). Recently, MHb together with its primary target, the interpeduncular nucleus (IP), have been identified as major players in mediating the aversive effects of nicotine. However, structures downstream of the MHb-IP axis, including the median (MnR) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), may contribute to the behavioral effects of nicotine. The afferent and efferent connections of the IP have hitherto not been systematically investigated with sensitive tracers...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338365/movement-velocity-as-indicator-of-relative-intensity-and-level-of-effort-attained-during-the-set-in-pull-up-exercise
#9
Miguel Sánchez-Moreno, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Ricardo Mora-Custodio, Juan José González-Badillo
PURPOSE: to analyze the relationship between movement velocity and relative load (%1RM) in the pull-up exercise (PU), and to determine the pattern of repetition velocity loss during a single set to failure in pulling one's own body mass. METHODS: Fifty-two men (age = 26.5 ± 3.9 years, body mass = 74.3 ± 7.2 kg) performed a first evaluation (T1) consisting of an one-repetition maximum test (1RM), and a test of maximum number of repetitions to failure pulling one's own body mass (MNR) in the PU exercise...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282601/isolation-and-characterization-of-bioactive-polyacetylenes-panax-ginseng-meyer-roots
#10
Chia-Rou Yeo, Jin-Jie Yong, David G Popovich
Panax ginseng has been studied for its chemo-preventive properties and pharmaceutical potential. Polyacetylenic compounds isolated from Panax ginseng root typically comprised of non-polar C17 compound have been reported to exhibit bioactive properties. The objective of this project is to extract, isolate, and characterize bioactive polyacetylenes from Panax ginseng root using various extraction and separation methods Ginseng was extracted by reflux using methanol, ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanolic ultrasonication...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212941/injections-of-the-of-the-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-antagonist-prazosin-into-the-median-raphe-nucleus-increase-food-intake-and-fos-expression-in-orexin-neurons-of-free-feeding-rats
#11
Eduardo Simão da Silva, Rafael Appel Flores, Anderson Savaris Ribas, Ana Paula Taschetto, Moacir Serralvo Faria, Leandro Bueno Lima, Martin Metzger, José Donato, Marta Aparecida Paschoalini
Previously, we showed that the blockade of α1-adrenoreceptors in the median raphe nucleus (MnR) increased food intake in free-feeding rats, indicating that adrenergic mechanisms in the MnR participate in the regulation of food intake. However, the impact of such a pharmacological manipulation on other neural circuits related to food intake remains unknown. In the current study, we sought to identify forebrain regions which are responsive to α1-adrenergic receptor blockade and presumably involved in the modulation of the feeding response...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197551/ephrina5-signaling-is-required-for-the-distinctive-targeting-of-raphe-serotonin-neurons-in-the-forebrain
#12
Teng Teng, Afsaneh Gaillard, Aude Muzerelle, Patricia Gaspar
Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission in the brain relies on a widespread axon terminal network originating from the hindbrain raphe nuclei. These projections are topographically organized such that the dorsal (DR), and median raphe (MnR) nuclei have different brain targets. However, the guidance molecules involved in this selective targeting in development are unknown. Here, we show the implication of ephrinA5 signaling in this process. We find that the EphA5 gene is selectively expressed in a subset of 5-HT neurons during embryonic and postnatal development...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192832/velocity-loss-as-a-variable-for-monitoring-resistance-exercise
#13
Juan José González-Badillo, Juan Manuel Yañez-García, Ricardo Mora-Custodio, David Rodríguez-Rosell
This study aimed to analyze: 1) the pattern of repetition velocity decline during a single set to failure against different submaximal loads (50-85% 1RM) in the bench press exercise; and 2) the reliability of the percentage of performed repetitions, with respect to the maximum possible number that can be completed, when different magnitudes of velocity loss have been reached within each set. Twenty-two men performed 8 tests of maximum number of repetitions (MNR) against loads of 50-55-60-65-70-75-80-85% 1RM, in random order, every 6-7 days...
March 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120242/improvement-of-ad-biosynthesis-response-to-enhanced-oxygen-transfer-by-oxygen-vectors-in-mycobacterium-neoaurum-tccc-11979
#14
Liqiu Su, Yanbing Shen, Tian Gao, Jianmei Luo, Min Wang
In steroid biotransformation, soybean oil can improve the productivity of steroids by increasing substrate solubility and strengthen the cell membrane permeability. However, little is known of its role as oxygen carrier and its mechanism of promoting the steroid biotransformation. In this work, soybean oil used as oxygen vector for the enhancement of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) production by Mycobacterium neoaurum TCCC 11979 (MNR) was investigated. Upon the addition of 16% (v/v) soybean oil, the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (K L a) value increased by 44%, and the peak molar yield of AD (55...
August 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093719/metabolic-nodal-response-as-a-prognostic-marker-after-neoadjuvant-therapy-for-oesophageal-cancer
#15
J M Findlay, K M Bradley, L M Wang, J M Franklin, E J Teoh, F V Gleeson, N D Maynard, R S Gillies, M R Middleton
BACKGROUND: The ability to predict recurrence and survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and surgery for oesophageal cancer remains elusive. This study evaluated the role of [(18) F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT in assessing tumour and nodal response as a prognostic marker. METHODS: This was a single-centre UK cohort study. From 2006 to 2014, patients with oesophageal cancer staged with PET-CT before NAC, and restaged by CT or PET-CT before resection, were included...
March 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907910/a-mononucleotide-repeat-in-prrt2-is-an-important-frequent-target-of-mismatch-repair-deficiency-in-cancer
#16
Inês Teles Alves, David Cano, René Böttcher, Hetty van der Korput, Winand Dinjens, Guido Jenster, Jan Trapman
The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system corrects DNA replication mismatches thereby contributing to the maintenance of genomic stability. MMR deficiency has been observed in prostate cancer but its impact on the genomic landscape of these tumours is not known. In order to identify MMR associated mutations in prostate cancer we have performed whole genome sequencing of the MMR deficient PC346C prostate cancer cell line. We detected a total of 1196 mutations in PC346C which was 1.5-fold higher compared to a MMR proficient prostate cancer sample (G089)...
January 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867274/pharmacognostical-analysis-and-protective-effect-of-standardized-extract-and-rizonic-acid-from-erythrina-velutina-against-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-neurotoxicity-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#17
Aline H Silva, Francisco Noé Fonseca, Antônia T A Pimenta, MaryAnne S Lima, Edilberto Rocha Silveira, Glauce S B Viana, Silvânia M M Vasconcelos, Luzia Kalyne A M Leal
BACKGROUND: Erythrina velutina is a tree common in the northeast of Brazil extensively used by traditional medicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. OBJECTIVE: To develop a standardized ethanol extract of E. velutina (EEEV) and to investigate the neuroprotective potential of the extract and rizonic acid (RA) from E. velutina on neuronal cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The plant drug of E. velutina previously characterized was used for the production of EEEV...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801598/eccentric-resistance-training-increases-and-retains-maximal-strength-muscle-endurance-and-hypertrophy-in-trained-men
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Giuseppe Coratella, Federico Schena
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different resistance training protocols on muscle strength, endurance, and hypertrophy after training and detraining. Thirty-four resistance-trained males were randomized in concentric-only (CONC), eccentric-only (ECC), traditional concentric-eccentric (TRAD) bench press resistance training or control group. The training volume was equalized among the intervention groups. Bench press of 1-repetition maximum (1RM)/body mass, maximum number of repetitions (MNR), and chest circumference were evaluated at the baseline, after 6 weeks of training, and after 6 weeks of detraining...
November 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757384/effects-of-creatine-monohydrate-supplementation-and-exercise-on-depression-like-behaviors-and-raphe-5-ht-neurons-in-mice
#19
Na-Ri Ahn, Yea-Hyun Leem, Morimasa Kato, Hyuk-ki Chang
PURPOSE: The effects of creatine and exercise on chronic stress-induced depression are unclear. In the present study, we identified the effects of 4-week supplementation of creatine monohydrate and/or exercise on antidepressant behavior and raphe 5-HT expression in a chronic mild stress-induced depressed mouse model. METHODS: Seven-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (n=48) were divided randomly into 5 groups: (1) non-stress control (CON, n=10), (2) stress control (ST-CON, n=10), (3) stress and creatine intake (ST-Cr, n=10), (4) stress and exercise (ST-Ex, n=9), and (5) combined stress, exercise, and creatine intake (ST-Cr+Ex, n=9)...
2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705746/a-multi-protein-receptor-ligand-complex-underlies-combinatorial-dendrite-guidance-choices-in-c-elegans
#20
Wei Zou, Ao Shen, Xintong Dong, Madina Tugizova, Yang K Xiang, Kang Shen
Ligand receptor interactions instruct axon guidance during development. How dendrites are guided to specific targets is less understood. The C. elegans PVD sensory neuron innervates muscle-skin interface with its elaborate dendritic branches. Here, we found that LECT-2, the ortholog of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2), is secreted from the muscles and required for muscle innervation by PVD. Mosaic analyses showed that LECT-2 acted locally to guide the growth of terminal branches. Ectopic expression of LECT-2 from seam cells is sufficient to redirect the PVD dendrites onto seam cells...
October 5, 2016: ELife
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