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J M Findlay, K M Bradley, L M Wang, J M Franklin, E J Teoh, F V Gleeson, N D Maynard, R S Gillies, M R Middleton
BACKGROUND: The ability to predict recurrence and survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and surgery for oesophageal cancer remains elusive. This study evaluated the role of [(18) F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT in assessing tumour and nodal response as a prognostic marker. METHODS: This was a single-centre UK cohort study. From 2006 to 2014, patients with oesophageal cancer staged with PET-CT before NAC, and restaged by CT or PET-CT before resection, were included...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
Inês Teles Alves, David Cano, René Böttcher, Hetty van der Korput, Winand Dinjens, Guido Jenster, Jan Trapman
The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system corrects DNA replication mismatches thereby contributing to the maintenance of genomic stability. MMR deficiency has been observed in prostate cancer but its impact on the genomic landscape of these tumours is not known. In order to identify MMR associated mutations in prostate cancer we have performed whole genome sequencing of the MMR deficient PC346C prostate cancer cell line. We detected a total of 1196 mutations in PC346C which was 1.5-fold higher compared to a MMR proficient prostate cancer sample (G089)...
November 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Aline H Silva, Francisco Noé Fonseca, Antônia T A Pimenta, MaryAnne S Lima, Edilberto Rocha Silveira, Glauce S B Viana, Silvânia M M Vasconcelos, Luzia Kalyne A M Leal
BACKGROUND: Erythrina velutina is a tree common in the northeast of Brazil extensively used by traditional medicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. OBJECTIVE: To develop a standardized ethanol extract of E. velutina (EEEV) and to investigate the neuroprotective potential of the extract and rizonic acid (RA) from E. velutina on neuronal cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The plant drug of E. velutina previously characterized was used for the production of EEEV...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Giuseppe Coratella, Federico Schena
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different resistance training protocols on muscle strength, endurance, and hypertrophy after training and detraining. Thirty-four resistance-trained males were randomized in concentric-only (CONC), eccentric-only (ECC), traditional concentric-eccentric (TRAD) bench press resistance training or control group. The training volume was equalized among the intervention groups. Bench press of 1-repetition maximum (1RM)/body mass, maximum number of repetitions (MNR), and chest circumference were evaluated at the baseline, after 6 weeks of training, and after 6 weeks of detraining...
November 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Nari Ahn, Yea Hyun Leem, Morimasa Kato, Hyukki Chang
PURPOSE: The effects of creatine and exercise on chronic stress-induced depression are unclear. In the present study, we identified the effects of 4-week supplementation of creatine monohydrate and/or exercise on antidepressant behavior and raphe 5-HT expression in a chronic mild stress-induced depressed mouse model. METHODS: Seven-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (n=48) were divided randomly into 5 groups: (1) non-stress control (CON, n=10), (2) stress control (ST-CON, n=10), (3) stress and creatine intake (ST-Cr, n=10), (4) stress and exercise (ST-Ex, n=9), and (5) combined stress, exercise, and creatine intake (ST-Cr+Ex, n=9)...
September 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Wei Zou, Ao Shen, Xintong Dong, Madina Tugizova, Yang K Xiang, Kang Shen
Ligand receptor interactions instruct axon guidance during development. How dendrites are guided to specific targets is less understood. The C. elegans PVD sensory neuron innervates muscle-skin interface with its elaborate dendritic branches. Here, we found that LECT-2, the ortholog of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2), is secreted from the muscles and required for muscle innervation by PVD. Mosaic analyses showed that LECT-2 acted locally to guide the growth of terminal branches. Ectopic expression of LECT-2 from seam cells is sufficient to redirect the PVD dendrites onto seam cells...
October 5, 2016: ELife
John M Findlay, Kevin M Bradley, Lai Mun Wang, Jamies M Franklin, Eugene J Teoh, Fergus V Gleeson, Nicholas D Maynard, Richard S Gillies, Mark R Middleton
INTRODUCTION: Only a minority of esophageal cancers demonstrates a pathological tumor response (pTR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is often used for restaging after NAC and to assess response. Increasingly, it is used during therapy to identify unresponsive tumors and predict pTR , using avidity of the primary tumor alone. However, definitions of such metabolic tumor response (mTR) vary. We aimed to comprehensively re-evaluate metabolic response assessment using accepted parameters, as well as novel concepts of metabolic nodal stage (mN) and nodal response (mNR)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Priyadarshini Pantham, Fredrick J Rosario, Susan T Weintraub, Peter W Nathanielsz, Theresa L Powell, Cun Li, Thomas Jansson
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an important risk factor for perinatal complications and adult disease. IUGR is associated with down-regulation of placental amino acid transporter expression and activity at birth. It is unknown whether these changes are a cause or a consequence of human IUGR. We hypothesized that placental amino acid transport capacity is reduced prior to onset of reduced fetal growth in baboons with maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Pregnant baboons were fed either a control (n = 8) or MNR diet (70% of control diet, n = 9) from Gestational Day 30...
November 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Carlos A Díaz-Balzac, Maisha Rahman, María I Lázaro-Peña, Lourdes A Martin Hernandez, Yehuda Salzberg, Cristina Aguirre-Chen, Zaven Kaprielian, Hannes E Bülow
Sensory dendrite arbors are patterned through cell-autonomously and non-cell-autonomously functioning factors [1-3]. Yet, only a few non-cell-autonomously acting proteins have been identified, including semaphorins [4, 5], brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNFs) [6], UNC-6/Netrin [7], and the conserved MNR-1/Menorin-SAX-7/L1CAM cell adhesion complex [8, 9]. This complex acts from the skin to pattern the stereotypic dendritic arbors of PVD and FLP somatosensory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans through the leucine-rich transmembrane receptor DMA-1/LRR-TM expressed on PVD neurons [8, 9]...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Taisy Cinthia Ferro Cavalcante, Amanda Alves Marcelino da Silva, Larissa Cavalcanti do Amaral Almeida, Gabriel Araújo Tavares, Renata Cristinny de Farias Campina, Elizabeth do Nascimento, Sandra Lopes de Souza
In neonatal rats, hunger and satiety responses occur particularly via dehydration and gastric distention, respectively. The control of food intake in newborns is yet to be fully consolidated, particularly with respect to the participation of the hypothalamic nuclei and their relationship with the serotonergic pathway. Moreover, it is unclear how the environmental stressors in early life, like undernutrition, interfere in these events. Therefore, this study examined the serotonin-system's impact on food intake in rat neonates at postnatal day (P) 10 and P18 and the manner in which protein undernutrition during pregnancy and lactation interferes in this behavior...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Elena Solana-Madruga, Ángel M Arévalo-López, Antonio J Dos Santos-García, Esteban Urones-Garrote, David Ávila-Brande, Regino Sáez-Puche, J Paul Attfield
Cation ordering in ABO3 perovskites adds to their chemical variety and can lead to properties such as ferrimagnetism and magnetoresistance in Sr2 FeMoO6 . Through high-pressure and high-temperature synthesis, a new type of "double double perovskite" structure has been discovered in the family MnRMnSbO6 (R=La, Pr, Nd, Sm). This tetragonal structure has a 1:1 order of cations on both A and B sites, with A-site Mn(2+) and R(3+) cations ordered in columns and Mn(2+) and Sb(5+) having rock salt order on the B sites...
August 1, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Nathalia P Cavaleiro, Antonio M Solé-Cava, Cláudio M R Melo, Luiz G de Almeida, Cristiano Lazoski, Ana Tereza R Vasconcelos
The complete mitochondrial genome of Crassostrea gasar was sequenced using the Ion Proton technology in combination with 454 Roche GS-FLX plataform data. We assembled a 17,686 bp complete circular mitochondrial genome, containing 13 protein-coding genes, a major non-coding region (MNR), two ribosomal RNA genes and 24 transfer RNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated amino acid sequences from mitochondria showed monophyletic clades formed with high bootstrap values. This is the first complete mitochondrial sequence of an oyster from South America...
July 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Tanapon Phenrat, Ashijya Otwong, Aphichart Chantharit, Gregory V Lowry
BACKGROUND: Klity Creek has become Thailand's first official remediation ordered by the court in 2013, 15 years after the spill of lead (Pb) contaminated mine tailing into the creek. The Pollution Control Department (PCD) decided to restore the creek through monitored natural recovery (MNR) since 2006 but has not been successful. Interestingly, the most recent remediation plan in 2015 will still apply MNR to five out of the seven portions of the creek, despite no scientific feasibility evaluation of using MNR to restore the creek...
May 8, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
C Hellmuth, O Uhl, F F Kirchberg, U Harder, W Peissner, B Koletzko, P W Nathanielsz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Moderately reduced maternal nutrient availability during pregnancy has adverse effects on the fetuses' growth and metabolism during and after pregnancy. The aim of this study was to explore effects of maternal nutrition restriction (MNR) on key metabolites of the fetal energy metabolism, particularly amino acids (AA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), acylcarnitines and phospholipids. These effects may reflect mechanisms relating MNR to later adverse outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma and liver samples of fetal baboons, whose mothers were fed ad libitum (CTR) or MNR (70% of CTR), were collected at 0...
September 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
A M Swanson, V Mehta, K Ofir, M Rowe, C Rossi, Y Ginsberg, H Griffin, H Barker, T White, M Boyd, A L David
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common and potentially severe pregnancy complication. Currently there is no treatment available. The guinea pig is an attractive model of human pregnancy as placentation is morphologically very similar between the species. Nutrient restriction of the dam creates growth-restricted fetuses while leaving an intact uteroplacental circulation, vital for evaluating novel therapies for FGR. Growth-restricted fetuses were generated by feeding Dunkin Hartley guinea pig dams 70% of ad libitum intake from four weeks before and throughout pregnancy...
April 26, 2016: Laboratory Animals
Yuko Mabuchi, Theresa L Frankel
Racing pigeons are exposed to and act as carriers of diseases. Dietary protein requirement for their maintenance has not been determined experimentally despite their being domesticated for over 7000 years. A maintenance nitrogen (protein) requirement (MNR) for pigeons was determined in a balance study using diets containing 6, 10 and 14% crude protein (CP). Then, the effects of feeding the diets were investigated to determine whether they were adequate to sustain innate and acquired immune functions. Nitrogen intake from the 6% CP diet was sufficient to maintain nitrogen balance and body weight in pigeons...
March 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Santosh M Patil, Avinash Gurujala, Ashok Kumar, Kuthadi Sravan Kumar, Gorre Mithun
INTRODUCTION: Lichtenstein's tension free mesh hernioplasty is the commonly done open technique for inguinal hernias. As our hospital is in rural area, majority of patients are labourers, open hernias are commonly done. The present study was done by comparing Lichtenstein Mesh Repair (LMR) v/s Modified Bassini's repair (MBR) + Lichtenstein mesh repair (LMR) of direct Inguinal Hernias to compare the technique of both surgeries and its outcome like postoperative complications and recurrence rate...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Kwang Yeol Paik, Eung Kook Kim
BACKGROUND: Pathologic response (PR) predicts survival after preoperative chemotherapy and resection of a malignancy. Occasionally, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) may be selected for preoperative management of resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study investigated whether PR to preoperative TACE can predict recurrence after resection for resectable HCC. METHODS: We conducted analysis of 106 HCC patients who underwent TACE followed by liver resection with a curative intent...
April 2016: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Valéria L G Panissa, Cesar C Cal Abad, Ursula F Julio, Leonardo V Andreato, Emerson Franchini
UNLABELLED: Prupose: To investigate the effects of a 5-km high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on heart rate variability (HRV) and subsequent strength performance. METHODS: Nine trained males performed a control session composed of a half-squat strength exercise (4 × 80% of one repetition maximum-1 RM) in isolation and 30-min, 1-, 4-, 8-, and 24-h after an HIIE (1-min at the velocity peak:1-min passive recovery). All experimental sessions were performed on different days...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
John M Findlay, Richard S Gillies, James M Franklin, Eugene J Teoh, Greg E Jones, Sara di Carlo, Fergus V Gleeson, Nicholas D Maynard, Kevin M Bradley, Mark R Middleton
OBJECTIVES: It is unknown whether restaging oesophageal cancer after neoadjuvant therapy with positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT for disease progression. We aimed to determine this and stratify risk. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients staged before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) by (18)F-FDG PET-CT and restaged with CT or PET-CT in a single centre (2006-2014). RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-three patients were restaged (103 CT, 280 PET-CT)...
October 2016: European Radiology
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