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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528079/the-lateral-habenula-and-the-serotonergic-system
#1
REVIEW
Martin Metzger, Debora Bueno, Leandro B Lima
The habenula (Hb) is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). After decades of relative neglect, interest in the Hb resurged when it was demonstrated that LHb neurons play a key role in encoding disappointments and expectation of punishments. Consistent with such a role, the LHb has been implicated in a broad array of functions and pathologic conditions, notably in mechanisms of stress and pain, as well as in the pathophysiology of mood disorders...
May 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376077/maternal-nutrient-restriction-in-guinea-pigs-leads-to-fetal-growth-restriction-with-evidence-for-chronic-hypoxia
#2
Alexander A Elias, Yohei Maki, Brad Matushewski, Karen Nygard, Timothy R H Regnault, Bryan S Richardson
BACKGROUND: We determined if maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in guinea pigs leading to fetal growth restriction (FGR), impacts markers for tissue hypoxia implicating a mechanistic role for chronic hypoxia. METHODS: Guinea pigs were fed ad libitum (Control) or 70% of the control diet pre-pregnant switching to 90% at mid-pregnancy (MNR). Near term, Hypoxyprobe-1 (HP-1), a marker of tissue hypoxia, was injected into pregnant sows. Fetuses were then necropsied and liver, kidney and placental tissues were processed for erythropoietin (EPO), EPO-receptor (EPOR), and VEGF protein levels, and for HP-1 immunoreactivity (IR)...
April 4, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340505/afferent-and-efferent-connections-of-the-interpeduncular-nucleus-with-special-reference-to-circuits-involving-the-habenula-and-raphe-nuclei
#3
Leandro B Lima, Debora Bueno, Fernanda Leite, Stefani Souza, Luciano Gonçalves, Isadora C Furigo, Jose Donato, Martin Metzger
The habenula is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). Recently, MHb together with its primary target, the interpeduncular nucleus (IP), have been identified as major players in mediating the aversive effects of nicotine. However, structures downstream of the MHb-IP axis, including the median (MnR) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), may contribute to the behavioral effects of nicotine. The afferent and efferent connections of the IP have hitherto not been systematically investigated with sensitive tracers...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338365/movement-velocity-as-indicator-of-relative-intensity-and-level-of-effort-attained-during-the-set-in-pull-up-exercise
#4
Miguel Sánchez-Moreno, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Ricardo Mora-Custodio, Juan José González-Badillo
PURPOSE: to analyze the relationship between movement velocity and relative load (%1RM) in the pull-up exercise (PU), and to determine the pattern of repetition velocity loss during a single set to failure in pulling one's own body mass. METHODS: Fifty-two men (age = 26.5 ± 3.9 years, body mass = 74.3 ± 7.2 kg) performed a first evaluation (T1) consisting of an one-repetition maximum test (1RM), and a test of maximum number of repetitions to failure pulling one's own body mass (MNR) in the PU exercise...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282601/isolation-and-characterization-of-bioactive-polyacetylenes-panax-ginseng-meyer-roots
#5
Chia-Rou Yeo, Jin-Jie Yong, David G Popovich
Panax ginseng has been studied for its chemo-preventive properties and pharmaceutical potential. Polyacetylenic compounds isolated from Panax ginseng root typically comprised of non-polar C17 compound have been reported to exhibit bioactive properties. The objective of this project is to extract, isolate, and characterize bioactive polyacetylenes from Panax ginseng root using various extraction and separation methods Ginseng was extracted by reflux using methanol, ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanolic ultrasonication...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212941/injections-of-the-of-the-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-antagonist-prazosin-into-the-median-raphe-nucleus-increase-food-intake-and-fos-expression-in-orexin-neurons-of-free-feeding-rats
#6
Eduardo Simão da Silva, Rafael Appel Flores, Anderson Savaris Ribas, Ana Paula Taschetto, Moacir Serralvo Faria, Leandro Bueno Lima, Martin Metzger, José Donato, Marta Aparecida Paschoalini
Previously, we showed that the blockade of α1-adrenoreceptors in the median raphe nucleus (MnR) increased food intake in free-feeding rats, indicating that adrenergic mechanisms in the MnR participate in the regulation of food intake. However, the impact of such a pharmacological manipulation on other neural circuits related to food intake remains unknown. In the current study, we sought to identify forebrain regions which are responsive to α1-adrenergic receptor blockade and presumably involved in the modulation of the feeding response...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197551/ephrina5-signaling-is-required-for-the-distinctive-targeting-of-raphe-serotonin-neurons-in-the-forebrain
#7
Teng Teng, Afsaneh Gaillard, Aude Muzerelle, Patricia Gaspar
Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission in the brain relies on a widespread axon terminal network originating from the hindbrain raphe nuclei. These projections are topographically organized such that the dorsal (DR), and median raphe (MnR) nuclei have different brain targets. However, the guidance molecules involved in this selective targeting in development are unknown. Here, we show the implication of ephrinA5 signaling in this process. We find that the EphA5 gene is selectively expressed in a subset of 5-HT neurons during embryonic and postnatal development...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192832/velocity-loss-as-a-variable-for-monitoring-resistance-exercise
#8
Juan José González-Badillo, Juan Manuel Yañez-García, Ricardo Mora-Custodio, David Rodríguez-Rosell
This study aimed to analyze: 1) the pattern of repetition velocity decline during a single set to failure against different submaximal loads (50-85% 1RM) in the bench press exercise; and 2) the reliability of the percentage of performed repetitions, with respect to the maximum possible number that can be completed, when different magnitudes of velocity loss have been reached within each set. Twenty-two men performed 8 tests of maximum number of repetitions (MNR) against loads of 50-55-60-65-70-75-80-85% 1RM, in random order, every 6-7 days...
March 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120242/improvement-of-ad-biosynthesis-response-to-enhanced-oxygen-transfer-by-oxygen-vectors-in-mycobacterium-neoaurum-tccc-11979
#9
Liqiu Su, Yanbing Shen, Tian Gao, Jianmei Luo, Min Wang
In steroid biotransformation, soybean oil can improve the productivity of steroids by increasing substrate solubility and strengthen the cell membrane permeability. However, little is known of its role as oxygen carrier and its mechanism of promoting the steroid biotransformation. In this work, soybean oil used as oxygen vector for the enhancement of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) production by Mycobacterium neoaurum TCCC 11979 (MNR) was investigated. Upon the addition of 16% (v/v) soybean oil, the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (K L a) value increased by 44%, and the peak molar yield of AD (55...
January 24, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093719/metabolic-nodal-response-as-a-prognostic-marker-after-neoadjuvant-therapy-for-oesophageal-cancer
#10
J M Findlay, K M Bradley, L M Wang, J M Franklin, E J Teoh, F V Gleeson, N D Maynard, R S Gillies, M R Middleton
BACKGROUND: The ability to predict recurrence and survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and surgery for oesophageal cancer remains elusive. This study evaluated the role of [(18) F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT in assessing tumour and nodal response as a prognostic marker. METHODS: This was a single-centre UK cohort study. From 2006 to 2014, patients with oesophageal cancer staged with PET-CT before NAC, and restaged by CT or PET-CT before resection, were included...
March 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907910/a-mononucleotide-repeat-in-prrt2-is-an-important-frequent-target-of-mismatch-repair-deficiency-in-cancer
#11
Inês Teles Alves, David Cano, René Böttcher, Hetty van der Korput, Winand Dinjens, Guido Jenster, Jan Trapman
The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system corrects DNA replication mismatches thereby contributing to the maintenance of genomic stability. MMR deficiency has been observed in prostate cancer but its impact on the genomic landscape of these tumours is not known. In order to identify MMR associated mutations in prostate cancer we have performed whole genome sequencing of the MMR deficient PC346C prostate cancer cell line. We detected a total of 1196 mutations in PC346C which was 1.5-fold higher compared to a MMR proficient prostate cancer sample (G089)...
January 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867274/pharmacognostical-analysis-and-protective-effect-of-standardized-extract-and-rizonic-acid-from-erythrina-velutina-against-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-neurotoxicity-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#12
Aline H Silva, Francisco Noé Fonseca, Antônia T A Pimenta, MaryAnne S Lima, Edilberto Rocha Silveira, Glauce S B Viana, Silvânia M M Vasconcelos, Luzia Kalyne A M Leal
BACKGROUND: Erythrina velutina is a tree common in the northeast of Brazil extensively used by traditional medicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. OBJECTIVE: To develop a standardized ethanol extract of E. velutina (EEEV) and to investigate the neuroprotective potential of the extract and rizonic acid (RA) from E. velutina on neuronal cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The plant drug of E. velutina previously characterized was used for the production of EEEV...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801598/eccentric-resistance-training-increases-and-retains-maximal-strength-muscle-endurance-and-hypertrophy-in-trained-men
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Giuseppe Coratella, Federico Schena
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different resistance training protocols on muscle strength, endurance, and hypertrophy after training and detraining. Thirty-four resistance-trained males were randomized in concentric-only (CONC), eccentric-only (ECC), traditional concentric-eccentric (TRAD) bench press resistance training or control group. The training volume was equalized among the intervention groups. Bench press of 1-repetition maximum (1RM)/body mass, maximum number of repetitions (MNR), and chest circumference were evaluated at the baseline, after 6 weeks of training, and after 6 weeks of detraining...
November 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757384/effects-of-creatine-monohydrate-supplementation-and-exercise-on-depression-like-behaviors-and-raphe-5-ht-neurons-in-mice
#14
Na-Ri Ahn, Yea-Hyun Leem, Morimasa Kato, Hyuk-ki Chang
PURPOSE: The effects of creatine and exercise on chronic stress-induced depression are unclear. In the present study, we identified the effects of 4-week supplementation of creatine monohydrate and/or exercise on antidepressant behavior and raphe 5-HT expression in a chronic mild stress-induced depressed mouse model. METHODS: Seven-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (n=48) were divided randomly into 5 groups: (1) non-stress control (CON, n=10), (2) stress control (ST-CON, n=10), (3) stress and creatine intake (ST-Cr, n=10), (4) stress and exercise (ST-Ex, n=9), and (5) combined stress, exercise, and creatine intake (ST-Cr+Ex, n=9)...
2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705746/a-multi-protein-receptor-ligand-complex-underlies-combinatorial-dendrite-guidance-choices-in-c-elegans
#15
Wei Zou, Ao Shen, Xintong Dong, Madina Tugizova, Yang K Xiang, Kang Shen
Ligand receptor interactions instruct axon guidance during development. How dendrites are guided to specific targets is less understood. The C. elegans PVD sensory neuron innervates muscle-skin interface with its elaborate dendritic branches. Here, we found that LECT-2, the ortholog of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2), is secreted from the muscles and required for muscle innervation by PVD. Mosaic analyses showed that LECT-2 acted locally to guide the growth of terminal branches. Ectopic expression of LECT-2 from seam cells is sufficient to redirect the PVD dendrites onto seam cells...
October 5, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635027/predicting-pathologic-response-of-esophageal-cancer-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-the-implications-of-metabolic-nodal-response-for-personalized-therapy
#16
John M Findlay, Kevin M Bradley, Lai Mun Wang, James M Franklin, Eugene J Teoh, Fergus V Gleeson, Nicholas D Maynard, Richard S Gillies, Mark R Middleton
Only a minority of esophageal cancers demonstrates a pathologic tumor response (pTR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). (18)F-FDG PET/CT is often used for restaging after NAC and to assess response. Increasingly, it is used during therapy to identify unresponsive tumors and predict pTR, using avidity of the primary tumor alone. However, definitions of such metabolic tumor response (mTR) vary. We aimed to comprehensively reevaluate metabolic response assessment using accepted parameters, as well as novel concepts of metabolic nodal stage (mN) and metabolic nodal response (mNR)...
February 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605346/down-regulation-of-placental-transport-of-amino-acids-precedes-the-development-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-maternal-nutrient-restricted-baboons
#17
Priyadarshini Pantham, Fredrick J Rosario, Susan T Weintraub, Peter W Nathanielsz, Theresa L Powell, Cun Li, Thomas Jansson
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an important risk factor for perinatal complications and adult disease. IUGR is associated with down-regulation of placental amino acid transporter expression and activity at birth. It is unknown whether these changes are a cause or a consequence of human IUGR. We hypothesized that placental amino acid transport capacity is reduced prior to onset of reduced fetal growth in baboons with maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Pregnant baboons were fed either a control (n = 8) or MNR diet (70% of control diet, n = 9) from Gestational Day 30...
November 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451901/muscle-and-skin-derived-cues-jointly-orchestrate-patterning-of-somatosensory-dendrites
#18
Carlos A Díaz-Balzac, Maisha Rahman, María I Lázaro-Peña, Lourdes A Martin Hernandez, Yehuda Salzberg, Cristina Aguirre-Chen, Zaven Kaprielian, Hannes E Bülow
Sensory dendrite arbors are patterned through cell-autonomously and non-cell-autonomously functioning factors [1-3]. Yet, only a few non-cell-autonomously acting proteins have been identified, including semaphorins [4, 5], brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNFs) [6], UNC-6/Netrin [7], and the conserved MNR-1/Menorin-SAX-7/L1CAM cell adhesion complex [8, 9]. This complex acts from the skin to pattern the stereotypic dendritic arbors of PVD and FLP somatosensory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans through the leucine-rich transmembrane receptor DMA-1/LRR-TM expressed on PVD neurons [8, 9]...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364433/effects-of-perinatal-protein-malnutrition-and-fenfluramine-action-on-food-intake-and-neuronal-activation-in-the-hypothalamus-and-raphe-nuclei-of-neonate-rats
#19
Taisy Cinthia Ferro Cavalcante, Amanda Alves Marcelino da Silva, Larissa Cavalcanti do Amaral Almeida, Gabriel Araújo Tavares, Renata Cristinny de Farias Campina, Elizabeth do Nascimento, Sandra Lopes de Souza
In neonatal rats, hunger and satiety responses occur particularly via dehydration and gastric distention, respectively. The control of food intake in newborns is yet to be fully consolidated, particularly with respect to the participation of the hypothalamic nuclei and their relationship with the serotonergic pathway. Moreover, it is unclear how the environmental stressors in early life, like undernutrition, interfere in these events. Therefore, this study examined the serotonin-system's impact on food intake in rat neonates at postnatal day (P) 10 and P18 and the manner in which protein undernutrition during pregnancy and lactation interferes in this behavior...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312417/double-double-cation-order-in-the-high-pressure-perovskites-mnrmnsbo6
#20
Elena Solana-Madruga, Ángel M Arévalo-López, Antonio J Dos Santos-García, Esteban Urones-Garrote, David Ávila-Brande, Regino Sáez-Puche, J Paul Attfield
Cation ordering in ABO3 perovskites adds to their chemical variety and can lead to properties such as ferrimagnetism and magnetoresistance in Sr2 FeMoO6 . Through high-pressure and high-temperature synthesis, a new type of "double double perovskite" structure has been discovered in the family MnRMnSbO6 (R=La, Pr, Nd, Sm). This tetragonal structure has a 1:1 order of cations on both A and B sites, with A-site Mn(2+) and R(3+) cations ordered in columns and Mn(2+) and Sb(5+) having rock salt order on the B sites...
August 1, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
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