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sensitive detection

Rodolfo Patussi Correia, Laiz Cameirão Bento, Ana Carolina Apelle Bortolucci, Anderson Marega Alexandre, Andressa da Costa Vaz, Daniela Schimidell, Eduardo de Carvalho Pedro, Fabricio Simões Perin, Sonia Tsukasa Nozawa, Cláudio Ernesto Albers Mendes, Rodrigo de Souza Barroso, Nydia Strachman Bacal
Objective: To discuss the implementation of technical advances in laboratory diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria for validation of high-sensitivity flow cytometry protocols. Methods: A retrospective study based on analysis of laboratory data from 745 patient samples submitted to flow cytometry for diagnosis and/or monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Results: Implementation of technical advances reduced test costs and improved flow cytometry resolution for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone detection...
July 2016: Einstein
Vânia Ames Schommer, Airton Tetelbom Stein, Aline Marcadenti, Estefania Inez Wittke, André Luís Câmara Galvão, Guido Bernardo Aranha Rosito
Objective: To evaluate the association between obesity and levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with heart failure admitted to a tertiary hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a consecutive sampling of hospitalized patients with heart failure. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, and the nutritional status was assessed through indicators such as body mass index (in kg/m2), waist circumference (in cm), waist-hip ratio, triceps skinfold (in mm) and subscapularis skinfold (in mm)...
July 2016: Einstein
Mehran Peyvasteh, Shahnam Askarpour, Nasrollah Ostadian, Mohammad-Reza Moghimi, Hazhir Javaherizadeh
Background: Hirschsprung's disease is the most common cause of pediatric intestinal obstruction. Contrast enema is used for evaluation of the patients with its diagnosis. Aim: To evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of radiologic findings for diagnosis of Hirschsprung in patients underwent barium enema. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in Imam Khomeini Hospital for one year starting from 2012, April...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Li Lu, Menglin Wu, Longhao Sun, Weidong Li, Weihua Fu, Xuening Zhang, Tong Liu
BACKGROUND: In recent years, CD44 and CD133 have been identified as 2 common used cancer stem cell (CSC) markers in gastric cancer. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic value of these markers in gastric cancer remains controversial; moreover, there is lack of comparison of these 2 markers' roles in clinical applications. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate these markers' clinicopathological features and association with prognosis in patients with gastric cancer...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jun Ho Kim, Kyung Hee Lee, Kyoung-Tae Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Hyeong Sik Ahn, Yeo Ju Kim, Ha Young Lee, Yong Sun Jeon
OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) to that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary nodules by meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant original studies from January 1, 1976 to August 31, 2016. The quality of included studies was assessed by quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2). Per-patient data were used to calculate the sensitivity and specificity and per-lesion data were used to calculate the detection rate...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Musfiqur Rahman, A M Abd El-Aty, Sung-Woo Kim, Sung Chul Shin, Ho-Chul Shin, Jae-Han Shim
In pesticide residue analysis, relatively low-sensitivity traditional detectors, such as UV, diode array, electron-capture, flame photometric, and nitrogen-phosphorus detectors, have been used following classical sample preparation (liquid-liquid extraction and open glass column cleanup); however, the extraction method is laborious, time-consuming, and requires large volumes of toxic organic solvents. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method was introduced in 2003 and coupled with selective and sensitive mass detectors to overcome the aforementioned drawbacks...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Marika Rai, David Spratt, Paola R Gomez-Pereira, Jay Patel, Sean P Nair
Oral malodour is a common condition which affects a large proportion of the population, resulting in social, emotional and psychological stress. Certain oral bacteria form a coating called a biofilm on the tongue dorsum and degrade organic compounds releasing volatile sulfur compounds that are malodourous. Current chemical treatments for oral malodour such as mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine or essential oils, are not sufficiently effective at reducing the bacterial load on the tongue. One potential alternative to current chemical treatments for oral malodour is the use of light activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs), which display no toxicity or antimicrobial activity in the dark, but when exposed to light of a specific wavelength produce reactive oxygen species which induce damage to target cells in a process known as photodynamic inactivation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Courtney M Peterson, John W Apolzan, Courtney Wright, Corby K Martin
We conducted two studies to test the validity, reliability, feasibility and acceptability of using video chat technology to quantify dietary and pill-taking (i.e. supplement and medication) adherence. In study 1, we investigated whether video chat technology can accurately quantify adherence to dietary and pill-taking interventions. Mock study participants ate food items and swallowed pills, while performing randomised scripted 'cheating' behaviours to mimic non-adherence. Monitoring was conducted in a cross-over design, with two monitors watching in-person and two watching remotely by Skype on a smartphone...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Fatemeh Nooshabadi, Hee-Jeong Yang, Yunfeng Cheng, Madeleine S Durkee, Hexin Xie, Jianghong Rao, Jeffrey D Cirillo, Kristen C Maitland
Tuberculosis is a pulmonary disease with an especially high mortality rate in immuno-compromised populations, specifically children and HIV positive individuals. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a very slow growing and difficult organism to work with, making both diagnosis and development of effective treatments cumbersome. We utilize a fiber-optic fluorescence microendoscope integrated with a whole-body imaging system for in vivo Mtb detection. The system exploits an endogenous enzyme of Mtb (β-lactamase, or BlaC) using a BlaC-specific NIR fluorogenic substrate...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Jianmin Cao, Na Sun, Weisong Yu, Xueli Pang, Yingnan Lin, Fanyu Kong, Jun Qiu
A sensitive and robust multiresidue method for the simultaneous analysis of 114 pesticides in tobacco was developed based on solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. In this strategy, tobacco samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up with a multilayer solid-phase extraction cartridge Cleanert TPT using acetonitrile/toluene (3:1) as the elution solvent. Two internal standards of different polarity were used to meet simultaneous pesticides quantification demands in the tobacco matrix...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Timo J Autio, Timo Koskenkorva, Tuomo K Leino, Petri Koivunen, Olli-Pekka Alho
OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the pathophysiology of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) with sequential monitoring of inflammatory biomarkers during an ARS episode and to clarify their diagnostic usability in bacterial ARS. STUDY DESIGN: Inception cohort study with 50 conscripts with ARS. METHODS: We collected peripheral blood high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), white blood cell (WBC), procalcitonin, and nasal nitric oxide (nNO) counts at 2 to 3 and 9 to 10 days of symptoms during an ARS episode...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
Hagit Shoffel-Havakuk, Yonatan Lahav, Barak Meidan, Yaara Haimovich, Meir Warman, Moshe Hain, Yaniv Hamzany, Alexander Brodsky, Tali Landau-Zemer, Doron Halperin
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The primary suspicion for glottic malignancy during office laryngoendoscopy is based on lesion appearance. Previous studies investigating laryngeal use of narrow band imaging (NBI) are mostly descriptive. The additive value of NBI relative to white light (WL) requires further investigation. STUDY DESIGN: Observational matched study. METHODS: NBI was compared with WL images of 45 vocal fold lesions suspected for malignancy (21 carcinoma, 22 dysplasia, two benign)...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
Johannes Fredebohm, Daniel H Mehnert, Ann-Kathrin Löber, Frank Holtrup, Vanessa van Rahden, Philipp Angenendt, Frank Diehl
We have designed a highly sensitive assay based on the Safe-SeqS technology to detect de novo mutations in the KIT gene and tested its performance. This assay was applied to plasma samples of GIST patients before and after treatment with regorafenib (GRID III trial) and mutations at known and novel sites of potential secondary resistance were identified.
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hideharu Kimura, Shingo Nishikawa, Hayato Koba, Taro Yoneda, Takashi Sone, Kazuo Kasahara
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation is associated with resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors' (EGFR-TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aims of this study are to develop a blood-based, non-invasive approach to detecting the EGFR T790M mutation in advanced NSCLC patients, using PointMan™ EGFR DNA Enrichment Kit which is a novel method for selective amplification of genotype specific sequences.Pairs of blood samples and tumor tissues were collected from NSCLC patients with an EGFR activating mutation and who were resistant to EGFR-TKI treatment...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hongdo Do, Daniel Cameron, Ramyar Molania, Bibhusal Thapa, Gareth Rivalland, Paul L Mitchell, Carmel Murone, Thomas John, Anthony Papenfuss, Alexander Dobrovic
Identifying circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) for monitoring of cancer therapy is dependent on the development of readily designed, sensitive cancer-specific DNA markers. Genomic rearrangements that are present in the vast majority of cancers provide such markers.Tumour DNA isolated from two fresh-frozen lung tumours underwent whole genome sequencing. Genomic rearrangements were detected using a new computational algorithm, GRIDSS. Four genomic rearrangements from each tumour were chosen for further study using rearrangement-specific primers...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Stefan Holdenrieder
Liquid profiling is a traditional concept in laboratory diagnostics using patterns of blood-derived biochemical molecules for disease detection and characterization. Beyond protein and cellular parameters, molecular biomarkers at the DNA, RNA and miRNA level have been developed as promising diagnostic tools in metabolic and malignant diseases as new technologies for ultrasensitive profiling of nucleic acids in blood and body fluids became available. In cancer disease, they are successfully applied for the stratification of patients for individually tailored therapies, treatment monitoring and the sensitive detection of minimal residual disease...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Fiona Taylor, James Bradford, Penella J Woll, Dawn Teare, Angela Cox
Molecular profiling using low coverage whole genome sequencing of cell free DNA (cfDNA) represents a non-targeted approach to identify multiple somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) across different lung cancer subtypes. We aim to establish that SCNA can be detected in cfDNA of lung cancer cases.Standard protocols were followed to process matched cfDNA, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumour and lymphocyte DNA. Copy number profiles for cfDNA or FFPE DNA were normalised to profiles from matched lymphocyte DNA with the software CNAnorm...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xiaodan Meng, Volkmar Müller, Karin Milde-Langosch, Fabian Trillsch, Klaus Pantel, Heidi Schwarzenbach
In the present study, we investigated whether circulating cell-free microRNAs serve as potential biomarkers in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Circulating miR-373, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c were quantified in a cohort of 60 EOC patients, 20 patients with benign ovarian diseases and 32 healthy women using quantitative TaqMan MicroRNA assays. The serum concentrations of cell-free miR-373, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c were significantly higher in EOC patients than in healthy women (p = 0.0001)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ricarda A L Menke, Federica Agosta, Julian Grosskreutz, Massimo Filippi, Martin R Turner
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative, clinically heterogeneous syndrome pathologically overlapping with frontotemporal dementia. To date, therapeutic trials in animal models have not been able to predict treatment response in humans, and the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale, which is based on coarse disability measures, remains the gold-standard measure of disease progression. Advances in neuroimaging have enabled mapping of functional, structural, and molecular aspects of ALS pathology, and these objective measures may be uniquely sensitive to the detection of propagation of pathology in vivo...
October 17, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Gulgun Cetintas Afsar, Ozlem Oruc, Sema Sarac, Özgür Bilgin Topçuoğlu, Cuneyt Salturk, Fatma Merve Tepetam, Ismet Bulut
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep disorder affecting 2-4 % of the adult population. In addition to several potential mechanisms, inflammation is one of the suggested etiological factors in OSA. Fractalkine/CX3CL1 which is detected in activated or stressed endothelium, smooth muscle cells, skeletal muscle cells, macrophages, neurons, and hepatocytes is an inflammatory marker and attracts attention of sleep specialists in OSA pathogenesis. In this study, we had two goals...
October 17, 2016: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
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