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sensitive detection

Yifei Wang, Md Azahar Ali, Edmond K C Chow, Liang Dong, Meng Lu
The rapid growth of point-of-care tests demands for biosensors with high sensitivity and small size. This paper demonstrates an optofluidic metasurface that combines silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanophotonics and nanofluidics to realize a high-performance, lateral flow-through biosensor. The metasurface is made of a periodic array of silicon nanoposts on an SOI substrate, and functionalized with specific receptor molecules. Bonding of a polydimethylsiloxane slab directly onto the surface results in an ultracompact biosensor, where analyte solutions are restricted to flow only in the space between the nanoposts...
February 17, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Baocun Zhu, Liu Wu, Meng Zhang, Yawei Wang, Caiyun Liu, Zuokai Wang, Qingxia Duan, Pan Jia
The development of highly specific and ultrasensitive fluorescent probes for tracking basal mitochondrial hypochlorite is very important to unravel its diverse cellular functions in the mitochondria of living cells. In this paper, we have developed a water-soluble, mitochondria-targeted near-infrared fluorescent probe NB-OCl for selectively measuring OCl- in the presence of higher concentration (500 μM) other biologically important substances. Surprisingly, the obtained results demonstrated that probe NB-OCl could sensitively determine OCl- in the range of 0-200 pM with the detection limit of 10...
February 9, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Karianne S Enerstvedt, Magne O Sydnes, Eivind Larssen, Daniela M Pampanin
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well known contaminants, ubiquitously present in the habitat and spawning areas for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The Atlantic cod is a key species and a globally important food source, thus continuous monitoring of PAHs is considered highly valuable to ensure ecosystem sustainability and human food safety. PAH adducts to plasma proteins are applied as sensitive biomarkers of PAH exposure in humans and other species, thus the presence of PAH protein adducts in Atlantic cod plasma was investigated to identify PAH protein adduct biomarker candidates of exposure to PAHs...
February 16, 2018: Chemosphere
Manuel Mauricio Goez, Maria Constanza Torres-Madroñero, Sarah Röthlisberger, Edilson Delgado-Trejos
Various methods and specialized software programs are available for processing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) images. However, due to the anomalies present in these images, a reliable, automated, and highly reproducible system for 2-DGE image analysis has still not been achieved. The most common anomalies found in 2-DGE images include vertical and horizontal streaking, fuzzy spots, and background noise, which greatly complicate computational analysis. In this paper, we review the preprocessing techniques applied to 2-DGE images for noise reduction, intensity normalization, and background correction...
February 20, 2018: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Nadia Heydari, Novin Nikbakhsh, Farzin Sadeghi, Nazila Farnoush, Soraya Khafri, Milad Bastami, Hadi Parsian
AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate microRNA-140-3p expression level in breast cancer patients in comparison to healthy controls. PATIENTS & METHODS: Serum microRNA-140-3p level was quantified by realtime quantitative reverse transcription PCR in 40 women with breast cancer and 40 healthy subjects. RESULTS: Serum microRNA-140-3p level in patients compared to healthy subjects was significantly up-regulated (P = 0...
February 20, 2018: Gene
Ashkan Mortezavi, Olivia Märzendorfer, Olivio F Donati, Gianluca Rizzi, Niels J Rupp, Marian S Wettstein, Oliver Gross, Tullio Sulser, Thomas Hermanns, Daniel Eberli
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of mpMRI and mpMRI / transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion-guided targeted biopsy (FTB) against transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy (TTSPB) for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 415 men consecutively presenting for prostate biopsy between 11/2014 and 9/2016 at our tertiary care centre. MpMRI (3-Tesla, without endorectal coil) was performed followed by TTSPB with the BiopSee® fusion system...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Urology
Nalini Raghunathan, Rajvardhan M Kapshikar, Jakku K Leela, Jillella Mallikarjun, Philippe Bouloc, Jayaraman Gowrishankar
Transcription termination by Rho is essential for viability in various bacteria, including some major pathogens. Since Rho acts by targeting nascent RNAs that are not simultaneously translated, it also regulates antisense transcription. Here we show that RNase H-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli exhibit heightened sensitivity to the Rho inhibitor bicyclomycin, and that Rho deficiency provokes increased formation of RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops) which is ameliorated by expression of the phage T4-derived R-loop helicase UvsW...
February 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Ivo M Wagensveld, Britt M Blokker, Andrea Pezzato, Piotr A Wielopolski, Nomdo S Renken, Jan H von der Thüsen, Gabriel P Krestin, M G Myriam Hunink, J Wolter Oosterhuis, Annick C Weustink
Aims: The autopsy rate worldwide is alarmingly low (0-15%). Mortality statistics are important, and it is, therefore, essential to perform autopsies in a sufficient proportion of deaths. The imaging autopsy, non-invasive, or minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) can be used as an alternative to the conventional autopsy in an attempt to improve postmortem diagnostics by increasing the number of postmortem procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and CT-guided biopsy for the detection of acute and chronic myocardial ischaemia...
February 20, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
R Siva Kumar, K V Sravan Kumar, L Kondareddy, K R Yogeshwara, Gangrade Manish, Jayachandran Jeenet, Kanyawar Nitesh
A new sensitive and stability indicating reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the quantitative determination of potential impurities of Ledipasvir, active pharmaceutical ingredient. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on waters × select column contains C18 stationary phase in gradient mode, quantitation at wavelength of 325 nm and mobile phase A is 50 mM ammonium formate pH 3.5 and mobile phase B is acetonitrile with flow rate 1.2 mL. The method was validated according to International Council for Hormonisation guideline, linearity studies has shown correlation coefficient value greater than 0...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Chengyu Li, Jianbo Jiang, Kanghyun Kim, Bradley A Otto, Alexander A Farag, Beverly J Cowart, Edmund A Pribitkin, Pamela Dalton, Kai Zhao
Nasal airflow that effectively transports ambient odors to the olfactory receptors is important for human olfaction. Yet, the impact of nasal anatomical variations on airflow pattern and olfactory function are not fully understood. In this study, 22 healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent CT scans for computational simulations of nasal airflow patterns. Unilateral odor detection thresholds (ODT) to l-Carvone, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and d-Limonene were also obtained for all participants. Significant normative variations in both nasal anatomy and aerodynamics were found...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Senses
Cristina Ramos Hernández, Marta Núñez Fernández, Abel Pallares Sanmartín, Cecilia Mouronte Roibas, Luz Cerdeira Domínguez, Maria Isabel Botana Rial, Nagore Blanco Cid, Alberto Fernández Villar
BACKGROUND: The Air-Smart Spirometer is the first portable device accepted by the European Community (EC) that performs spirometric measurements by a turbine mechanism and displays the results on a smartphone or a tablet. METHODS: In this multicenter, descriptive and cross-sectional prospective study carried out in 2 hospital centers, we compare FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio measured with the Air Smart-Spirometer device and a conventional spirometer, and analyze the ability of this new portable device to detect obstructions...
2018: PloS One
Harini Ravi, Gabriel McNeill, Shruti Goel, Steven D Meltzer, Nathan Hunkapiller, Allison Ryan, Brynn Levy, Zachary P Demko
INTRODUCTION: Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidy using cell-free DNA in maternal plasma has been widely adopted. Recently, NIPT coverage has expanded to detect subchromosomal abnormalities including the 22q11.2 deletion. Validation of a SNP-based NIPT for detection of 22q11.2 deletions demonstrating a high sensitivity (97.8%) and specificity (99.75%) has been reported. We sought to further demonstrate the performance of a revised version of the test in a larger set of pregnancy plasma samples...
2018: PloS One
Muhammed Majeed, Shaheen Majeed, Kalyanam Nagabhushanam, Ardra Punnapuzha, Sheena Philip, Lakshmi Mundkur
Accurate enumeration of bacterial count in probiotic formulation is imperative to ensure that the product adheres to regulatory standards and citation in consumer product label. Standard methods like plate count, can enumerate only replicating bacterial population under selected culture conditions. Viable but non culturable bacteria (VBNC) retain characteristics of living cells and can regain cultivability by a process known as resuscitation. This is a protective mechanism adapted by bacteria to evade stressful environmental conditions...
2018: PloS One
Mark P Nicol, Lesley Workman, Margaretha Prins, Lindy Bateman, Yonas Ghebrekristos, Silindile Mbhele, Claudia M Denkinger, Heather J Zar
We determined the accuracy of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children, using banked induced sputum. Sensitivity and specificity were 75.3% and 96.9% compared with a culture result from the same specimen. Of those children with microbiologically confirmed TB (positive culture, Xpert or Ultra), Xpert detected 63.2%, Ultra 73.7% and culture 82.9.
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Samantha J Van Nest, Leah M Nicholson, Lindsay DeVorkin, Alexandre G Brolo, Julian J Lum, Andrew Jirasek
Radiation therapy plays a crucial role in the management of breast cancer. However, current standards of care have yet to accommodate patient-specific radiation sensitivity. Raman spectroscopy is promising for applications in radiobiological studies and as a technique for personalized radiation oncology, since it can detect spectral changes in irradiated tissues. In this study, we used established Raman spectroscopic approaches to investigate the biochemical nature and temporal evolution of spectral changes in human breast adenocarcinoma xenografts after in vivo irradiation...
February 23, 2018: Radiation Research
Zhenfang Cheng, Fuyou Du, Qun Qin, Lingshun Sun, Qiulian Zeng, Guihua Ruan, Jianping Li
In this work, an easy, effective and sensitive method, based on graphene oxide@silica@magnetite composites as adsorbent of magnetic solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, was established and validated for the trace analysis of cytokinins in different plants. The prepared magnetic composite was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and magnetic hysteresis. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities in the range of 0...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Tianshuang Wang, Qi Yu, Sufang Zhang, Xueying Kou, Peng Sun, Geyu Lu
The lower gas sensitivity, humidity dependence of the gas sensing properties, and long recovery times of room-temperature gas sensors severely limit their applications. Herein, to address these issues, a series of 3D inverse opal (IO) In2 O3 -ZnO heterogeneous composite microspheres (HCMs) are fabricated by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) employing self-assembled sulfonated polystyrene (S-PS) spheres as a sacrificial template. The 3D IO In2 O3 -ZnO HCMs possess highly ordered 3D inverse opal structures and bimodal (meso-scale and macro-scale) pores, which can provide large accessible surface areas and rapid mass transfer, resulting in enhanced gas sensing characteristics...
February 23, 2018: Nanoscale
Jiajia Wang, Zhenhong Jia
A porous silicon microcavity (PSiMC) with resonant peak wavelength of 635 nm was fabricated by electrochemical etching. Metal nanoparticles (NPs)/PSiMC enhanced fluorescence substrates were prepared by the electrostatic adherence of Au NPs that were distributed in PSiMC. The Au NPs/PSiMC device was used to characterize the target DNA immobilization and hybridization with its complementary DNA sequences marked with Rhodamine red (RRA). Fluorescence enhancement was observed on the Au NPs/PSiMC device substrate; and the minimum detection concentration of DNA ran up to 10 pM...
February 23, 2018: Sensors
Yan Peng, Maomao Wang, Xiaoxia Wu, Fu Wang, Lang Liu
Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have been considered as novel heavy metal ions sensors due to their ultrafine size, photo-stability and excellent fluorescent properties. In this study, a green and facile method was developed for the preparation of fluorescent water-soluble gold nanoclusters with methionine as a stabilizer. The nanoclusters emit orange fluorescence with excitation/emission peaks at 420/565 nm and a quantum yield of about 1.46%. The fluorescence of the Au NCs is selectively and sensitively enhanced by addition of Cd(II) ions attributed to the Cd(II) ion-induced aggregation of nanoclusters...
February 23, 2018: Sensors
Yanju Wu, Anxing Zhou, Huimin Yang, Fei Wang, Kui Lu
In this work, a three dimensional (3D) graphene-nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (G-NCNTs) network was successfully fabricated on the surface of a glassy carbon (GC) electrode using the pulse potential method (PPM) in a graphene oxide-nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (GO-NCNTs) dispersion. The morphological and characteristics of GO-NCNTs and G-NCNTs nanocomposites were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrochemical experiments...
February 23, 2018: Materials
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