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Behavioural insights

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734209/new-insight-into-the-environmental-impact-of-two-imidazolium-ionic-liquids-effects-on-seed-germination-and-soil-microbial-activity
#1
J Salgado, J J Parajó, T Teijeira, O Cruz, J Proupín, M Villanueva, J A Rodríguez-Añón, P V Verdes, O Reyes
The next generation of ionic liquids must be synthetized taking into account structures that guarantee the suitable properties for a defined application as well as ecological data. Thus, searching of the right methodologies to know, quickly and efficiently, the ecological effects of these compounds is a preliminary task. The effects of two imidazolium based ionic liquids with different anions, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C4C1Im][BF4], and 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C3C1Im][NTf2], on seedling emergence of six tree species and on the microbial behaviour of two soils were determined in this work...
July 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731509/keeping-safe-continuous-glucose-monitoring-cgm-in-persons-with-type-1-diabetes-and-impaired-awareness-of-hypoglycaemia-a-qualitative-study
#2
A F Vloemans, C A J van Beers, M de Wit, W Cleijne, S M Rondags, P H Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, M H H Kramer, E H Serné, F J Snoek
AIM: To further our understanding of individual use and experience of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in adults with Type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia, we conducted a qualitative study supplementary to a randomized controlled trial, using semi-structured interviews. METHODS: Twenty-three participants of the IN CONTROL trial were interviewed within 4 weeks after the last study visit. The interview centred around experiences of CGM, taking into account the person's expectations prior to the trial...
July 21, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731086/microfluidic-and-nanofluidic-phase-behaviour-characterization-for-industrial-co2-oil-and-gas
#3
REVIEW
Bo Bao, Jason Riordon, Farshid Mostowfi, David Sinton
Microfluidic systems that leverage unique micro-scale phenomena have been developed to provide rapid, accurate and robust analysis, predominantly for biomedical applications. These attributes, in addition to the ability to access high temperatures and pressures, have motivated recent expanded applications in phase measurements relevant to industrial CO2, oil and gas applications. We here present a comprehensive review of this exciting new field, separating microfluidic and nanofluidic approaches. Microfluidics is practical, and provides similar phase properties analysis to established bulk methods with advantages in speed, control and sample size...
July 21, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729681/multiomics-analysis-of-the-giant-triton-snail-salivary-gland-a-crown-of-thorns-starfish-predator
#4
U Bose, T Wang, M Zhao, C A Motti, M R Hall, S F Cummins
The giant triton snail (Charonia tritonis) is one of the few natural predators of the adult Crown-of-Thorns starfish (COTS), a corallivore that has been damaging to many reefs in the Indo-Pacific. Charonia species have large salivary glands (SGs) that are suspected to produce either a venom and/or sulphuric acid which can immobilize their prey and neutralize the intrinsic toxic properties of COTS. To date, there is little information on the types of toxins produced by tritons. In this paper, the predatory behaviour of the C...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728569/parents-and-caregivers-experiences-and-behaviours-when-eating-out-with-children-with-a-food-hypersensitivity
#5
Fiona M Begen, Julie Barnett, Miriam Barber, Ros Payne, M Hazel Gowland, Jane S Lucas
BACKGROUND: For parents and caregivers of food hypersensitive (FH) children, accommodating their child's dietary needs when eating out can be a challenging experience. This study explored caregivers' experiences and behaviours when eating out with their FH child in order to gain insights into how they support and prepare their child in negotiating safe eating out experiences. METHODS: A cross-sectional, qualitative design was used. In depth, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 caregivers of children with FH...
July 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725285/free-will-black-swans-and-addiction
#6
Ted Fenton, Reinout W Wiers
The current dominant perspective on addiction as a brain disease has been challenged recently by Marc Lewis, who argued that the brain-changes related to addiction are similar to everyday changes of the brain. From this alternative perspective, addictions are bad habits that can be broken, provided that people are motivated to change. In that case, autonomous choice or "free will" can overcome bad influences from genes and or environments and brain-changes related to addiction. Even though we concur with Lewis that there are issues with the brain disease perspective, we also argue that pointing to black swans can be important, that is: there can be severe cases where addiction indeed tips over into the category of brain disease, but obviously that does not prove that every case of addiction falls into the disease category, that all swans are black...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724628/stiffness-distribution-in-insect-cuticle-a-continuous-or-a-discontinuous-profile
#7
H Rajabi, M Jafarpour, A Darvizeh, J-H Dirks, S N Gorb
Insect cuticle is a biological composite with a high degree of complexity in terms of both architecture and material composition. Given the complex morphology of many insect body parts, finite-element (FE) models play an important role in the analysis and interpretation of biomechanical measurements, taken by either macroscopic or nanoscopic techniques. Many previous studies show that the interpretation of nanoindentation measurements of this layered composite material is very challenging. To develop accurate FE models, it is of particular interest to understand more about the variations in the stiffness through the thickness of the cuticle...
July 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723467/human-papillomavirus-infection-and-vaccination-in-males
#8
REVIEW
Eugenio Ventimiglia, Simon Horenblas, Asif Muneer, Andrea Salonia
CONTEXT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest sexually transmitted pathogen in humans and is linked to the aetiopathogenesis for both benign and malignant disease in men. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and summarise the evidence for HPV infection and vaccination in men. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A search of Medline, PubMed, and Scopus was performed to identify articles published in English within the last 10 yr addressing HPV epidemiology, the natural history of HPV infection and its long-term consequences, and vaccination in men...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722217/personal-and-situational-predictors-of-everyday-snacking-an-application-of-temporal-self-regulation-theory
#9
Katherine G Elliston, Stuart G Ferguson, Benjamin Schüz
OBJECTIVES: This study aims at testing predictions derived from temporal self-regulation theory (TST) in relation to discretionary food choices (snacks). TST combines a motivational sphere of influence (cognitions and temporal valuations resulting in intentions) with a momentary sphere (encompassing social and physical environmental cues). This dual approach differs from current health behaviour theories, but can potentially improve our understanding of the interplay of personal and environmental factors in health behaviour self-regulation...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719858/interfacial-analysis-of-sirna-complexes-with-poly-ethylenimine-pei-or-pamam-dendrimers-in-gene-delivery
#10
Patrick K C Chang, Clive A Prestidge, Kristen E Bremmell
Solution and interfacial analysis has been employed to gain insight into the complexation of siRNA using either G4 PAMAM dendrimers or 25kDa branched poly-ethylenimine (bPEI). The size, charge and shape/structure of the complexing agents were probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), circular dichroism spectrometry (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and gel electrophoresis (GE). The binding capability of these cationic polymers to the siRNA molecule, subsequently controls the surface/adsorption behaviour of the complexes to a negatively charged surface...
July 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719599/the-smectic-order-of-wrinkles
#11
Hillel Aharoni, Desislava V Todorova, Octavio Albarrán, Lucas Goehring, Randall D Kamien, Eleni Katifori
A thin elastic sheet lying on a soft substrate develops wrinkled patterns when subject to an external forcing or as a result of geometric incompatibility. Thin sheet elasticity and substrate response equip such wrinkles with a global preferred wrinkle spacing length and with resistance to wrinkle curvature. These features are responsible for the liquid crystalline smectic-like behaviour of such systems at intermediate length scales. This insight allows better understanding of the wrinkling patterns seen in such systems, with which we explain pattern breaking into domains, the properties of domain walls and wrinkle undulation...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715989/use-and-effectiveness-of-behavioural-economics-in-interventions-for-lifestyle-risk-factors-of-non-communicable-diseases-a-systematic-review-with-policy-implications
#12
Oana M Blaga, Livia Vasilescu, Razvan M Chereches
AIM: There is limited evidence on what behavioural economics strategies are effective and can be used to inform non-communicable diseases (NCDs) public health policies designed to reduce overeating, excessive drinking, smoking, and physical inactivity. The aim of the review is to examine the evidence on the use and effectiveness of behavioural economics insights on reducing NCDs lifestyle risk factors. METHODS: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and EconLit were searched for studies published between January 2002 and July 2016 and reporting empirical, non-pharmacological, interventional research focusing on reducing at least one NCDs lifestyle risk factor by employing a behavioural economics perspective...
July 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715475/free-ranging-dogs-show-age-related-plasticity-in-their-ability-to-follow-human-pointing
#13
Debottam Bhattacharjee, Nikhil Dev N, Shreya Gupta, Shubhra Sau, Rohan Sarkar, Arpita Biswas, Arunita Banerjee, Daisy Babu, Diksha Mehta, Anindita Bhadra
Differences in pet dogs' and captive wolves' ability to follow human communicative intents have led to the proposition of several hypotheses regarding the possession and development of social cognitive skills in dogs. It is possible that the social cognitive abilities of pet dogs are induced by indirect conditioning through living with humans, and studying free-ranging dogs can provide deeper insights into differentiating between innate abilities and conditioning in dogs. Free-ranging dogs are mostly scavengers, indirectly depending on humans for their sustenance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714258/renal-neuroendocrine-control-of-desiccation-and-cold-tolerance-by-drosophila-suzukii
#14
Selim Terhzaz, Lucy Alford, Joseph G C Yeoh, Richard Marley, Anthony J Dornan, Julian A T Dow, Shireen A Davies
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptides are central to the regulation of physiological, and behavioural processes in insects, directly impacting cold and desiccation survival. However, little is known about the control mechanisms governing these responses in D. suzukii. The close phylogenetic relationship of D. suzukii with D. melanogaster allows, through genomic and functional studies, an insight into the mechanisms directing stress tolerance in D. suzukii. RESULTS: Capa, Leucokinin, DH44 and DH31 neuropeptides demonstrate a high level of conservation between D...
July 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712552/insights-into-head-column-field-amplified-sample-stacking-part-ii-study-of-the-behavior-of-the-electrophoretic-system-after-electrokinetic-injection-of-cationic-compounds-across-a-short-water-plug
#15
Jozef Šesták, Wolfgang Thormann
Part I on head-column field-amplified sample stacking comprised a detailed study of the electrokinetic injection of a weak base across a short water plug into a phosphate buffer at low pH. The water plug is converted into a low conductive acidic zone and cationic analytes become stacked at the interface between this and a newly formed phosphoric acid zone. The fundamentals of electrokinetic processes occurring thereafter were studied experimentally and with computer simulation and are presented as part II. The configuration analyzed represents a discontinuous buffer system...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711233/review-of-sleep-eeg-in-preterm-and-term-neonates
#16
Anneleen Dereymaeker, Kirubin Pillay, Jan Vervisch, Maarten De Vos, Sabine Van Huffel, Katrien Jansen, Gunnar Naulaers
Neonatal sleep is a crucial state that involves endogenous driven brain activity, important for neuronal survival and guidance of brain networks. Sequential EEG-sleep analysis in preterm infants provides insights into functional brain integrity and can document deviations of the biologically pre-programmed process of sleep ontogenesis during the neonatal period. Visual assessment of neonatal sleep-EEG, with integration of both cerebral and non-cerebral measures to better define neonatal state, is still considered the gold standard...
July 12, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708114/one-size-does-not-fit-all-contextualising-family-physical-activity-using-a-write-draw-show-and-tell-approach
#17
Robert J Noonan, Stuart J Fairclough, Zoe R Knowles, Lynne M Boddy
Understanding family physical activity (PA) behaviour is essential for designing effective family-based PA interventions. However, effective approaches to capture the perceptions and "lived experiences" of families are not yet well established. The aims of the study were to: (1) demonstrate how a "write, draw, show and tell" (WDST) methodological approach can be appropriate to family-based PA research, and (2) present two distinct family case studies to provide insights into the habitual PA behaviour and experiences of a nuclear and single-parent family...
July 14, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705236/youth-drinking-and-acute-harm-a-perspective-from-the-uk-on-effective-engagement-opportunities
#18
John Larsen
ᅟ: Youth drinking is linked with acute harms and Emergency Departments (ED) are places where some of these harms become apparent. This commentary argues that there is a clear case for routinely monitoring alcohol harm at ED and delivering brief interventions to engage with people at a time when they may be more likely to consider lifestyle behaviour change. Based on insights from the UK, it is suggested that young people may not always easily be engaged through messages that focus directly on alcohol harm, and efforts to engage them through issues that matter to them (such as sexual harassment) might add to the effectiveness...
July 13, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704206/an-autonomous-robot-inspired-by-insect-neurophysiology-pursues-moving-features-in-natural-environments
#19
Zahra M Bagheri, Benjamin S Cazzolato, Steven Grainger, David C O'Carroll, Steven D Wiederman
OBJECTIVE: Many computer vision and robotic applications require the implementation of robust and efficient target-tracking algorithms on a moving platform. However, deployment of a real-time system is challenging, even with the computational power of modern hardware. Lightweight and low-powered flying insects, such as dragonflies, track prey or conspecifics within cluttered natural environments, illustrating an efficient biological solution to the target-tracking problem. APPROACH: We used our recent recordings from 'small target motion detector' neurons in the dragonfly brain to inspire the development of a closed-loop target detection and tracking algorithm...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702592/inhibition-of-gnnqqny-prion-peptide-aggregation-by-trehalose-a-mechanistic-view
#20
Nidhi Katyal, Shashank Deep
Deposition of amyloid fibrils is the seminal event in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. The formation of this amyloid assembly is the manifestation of a cascade of structural transitions including toxic oligomer formation in the early stages of aggregation. Thus a viable therapeutic strategy involves the use of small molecular ligands to interfere with this assembly. In this perspective, we have explored the kinetics of aggregate formation of the fibril forming GNNQQNY peptide fragment from the yeast prion protein SUP35 using multiple all atom MD simulations with explicit solvent and provided mechanistic insights into the way trehalose, an experimentally known aggregation inhibitor, modulates the aggregation pathway...
July 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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