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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803113/how-a-decreased-fibrillar-interconnectivity-influences-stiffness-and-swelling-properties-during-early-cartilage-degeneration
#1
Mieke Nickien, Ashvin Thambyah, Neil D Broom
OBJECTIVE: The functional coupling between the fibrillar network and the high-swelling proteoglycans largely determines the mechanical properties of the articular cartilage matrix. The objective of this new study was to show specifically how changes in fibrillar interconnectivity arising from early cartilage degeneration influence transverse stiffness and swelling properties at the tissue level. DESIGN: Radial zone transverse layers of cartilage matrix were obtained from intact and mildly degenerate bovine patellae...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800439/a-simplified-parametrised-model-for-lung-microstructures-capable-of-mimicking-realistic-geometrical-and-mechanical-properties
#2
Christian J Roth, Lena Yoshihara, Wolfgang A Wall
The respiratory zone of mammalian lungs contains several millions of so-called alveoli. The geometrical and mechanical properties of this microstructure are crucial for respiration and influence the macroscopic behaviour of the entire organ in health and disease. Hence, if computational models are sought to gain more insight into lung behaviour, predict lung states in certain scenarios or suggest better treatment options in early stages of respiratory dysfunction, an adequate representation of this microstructure is essential...
August 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800336/development-of-a-new-self-reporting-instrument-measuring-benefits-and-side-effects-of-corticosteroids-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-report-from-a-pilot-study
#3
Ruben G F Hendriksen, Judith M Lionarons, Jos G M Hendriksen, Johan S H Vles, Laura C McAdam, W Douglas Biggar
BACKGROUND: There is no cure for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD); treatment is symptomatic and corticosteroids slow the progression. Side effects of corticosteroids - especially the physical effects - have been described, however patients' and caregivers perception on chronic corticosteroid treatment and their side effects is less well known, in particular with regards to cognition, behaviour, and emotional functioning. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this pilot study was to (i) construct a self-report questionnaire to assess the perceived benefits and side effects of corticosteroids for patients with DMD and their parents...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799382/kinetics-of-spontaneous-filament-nucleation-via-oligomers-insights-from-theory-and-simulation
#4
Anđela Šarić, Thomas C T Michaels, Alessio Zaccone, Tuomas P J Knowles, Daan Frenkel
Nucleation processes are at the heart of a large number of phenomena, from cloud formation to protein crystallization. A recently emerging area where nucleation is highly relevant is the initiation of filamentous protein self-assembly, a process that has broad implications in many research areas ranging from medicine to nanotechnology. As such, spontaneous nucleation of protein fibrils has received much attention in recent years with many theoretical and experimental studies focussing on the underlying physical principles...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797278/hiv-prevalence-and-high-risk-behaviour-of-young-brothel-and-non-brothel-based-female-sex-workers-in-nigeria
#5
Uchenna Onyekachi Okafor, Rik Crutzen, Okekearu Ifeanyi, Sylvia Adebajo, Hubertus Van den Borne
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) have been identified as a core group in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Young FSWs are particularly more vulnerable to HIV due to the combination of vulnerabilities associated with their youth and the sex work they engage in. This study aims to give more insight into HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviour of young FSWs in Nigeria, by focusing on the differences between BB and NBB young FSWs. METHODS: Data was obtained from the Nigeria Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey (IBBSS) for high-risk groups conducted in 2010...
August 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797137/stay-at-home-strategy-brings-fitness-benefits-to-migrants
#6
James J Gilroy
In Focus: Lok, T., Veldhoen, L., Overdijk, O., Tinbergen, J. M., & Piersma, T. (2017). An age-dependent fitness cost of migration? Old trans-Saharan migrating spoonbills breed later than those staying in Europe, and late breeders have lower recruitment. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 998-1009. In Focus: Grist, H., Daunt, F., Wanless, S., Burthe, S. J., Newell, M. A., Harris, M. P., & Reid, J. M. (2017). Reproductive performance of resident and migrant males, females and pairs in a partially migratory bird. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 1010-1021...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796519/coarse-grained-modelling-of-antibodies-from-small-angle-scattering-profiles
#7
Daniel Corbett, Max Hebditch, Rose Keeling, Peng Ke, Sofia Ekizoglou, Prasad Srinivasan Sarangapani, Jai A Pathak, Christopher F van der Walle, Shahid Uddin, Clair Baldock, Carlos Avendano, Robin A Curtis
Predicting the concentrated solution behaviour for monoclonal antibodies requires developing and using minimal models to describe their shape and interaction potential. Towards this end, the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) profiles for a monoclonal antibody (COE-03) have been measured under solution conditions chosen to produce weak self-association. The experiments are complemented with molecular simulations of a three-bead antibody model with and without inter-bead attraction. The scattering profile is extracted directly from the molecular simulation to avoid using the decoupling approximation...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795867/biophysical-studies-in-polymer-therapeutics-the-interactions-of-anionic-and-cationic-pamam-dendrimers-with-lipid-monolayers
#8
Marleen Wilde, Rebecca J Green, Michael R Sanders, Francesca Greco
Understanding how polymers interact with biological membranes is important for the development of polymer based therapeutics and wider biomedical applications. Here, biophysical methods (surface pressure measurements, external reflection FTIR) have been used to investigate the interaction between PAMAM dendrimers (Generation 5 or 4.5) and anionic (DPPG) or zwitterionic (DPPC) model membranes. We observed a concentration-dependent binding behaviour of both PAMAM species to both model membranes; however, equivalent levels of penetration into DPPC monolayers required approximately 10-fold higher dendrimer concentrations than for penetration into DPPG monolayers...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789529/structure-dynamics-and-electron-transfer-of-azurin-bound-to-gold-electrode
#9
Anna Rita Bizzarri, Chiara Baldacchini, Salvatore Cannistraro
Blue copper redox protein Azurin (AZ) constitutes an ideal active element for building bio-nano-optoelectronic devices based on the intriguing interplay among its electron transfer (ET), vibrational and optical properties. A full comprehension of its dynamical and functional behaviour is required for efficient applications. Here, AZ bound to gold electrode via its disulphide bridge was investigated by a Molecular Dynamics simulation approach taking into account for gold electron polarization which provides a more realistic description of the protein-gold interaction...
August 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780544/using-mixed-methods-to-assess-fidelity-of-delivery-and-its-influencing-factors-in-a-complex-self-management-intervention-for-people-with-osteoarthritis-and-low-back-pain
#10
Elaine Toomey, James Matthews, Deirdre A Hurley
OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of fidelity of delivery within complex behaviour change interventions, it is often poorly assessed. This mixed methods study aimed to establish the fidelity of delivery of a complex self-management intervention and explore the reasons for these findings using a convergent/triangulation design. SETTING: Feasibility trial of the Self-management of Osteoarthritis and Low back pain through Activity and Skills (SOLAS) intervention (ISRCTN49875385), delivered in primary care physiotherapy...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774440/heart-rate-variability-metrics-for-fine-grained-stress-level-assessment
#11
Tânia Pereira, Pedro R Almeida, João P S Cunha, Ana Aguiar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In spite of the existence of a multitude of techniques that allow the estimation of stress from physiological indexes, its fine-grained assessment is still a challenge for biomedical engineering. The short-term assessment of stress condition overcomes the limits to stress characterization with long blocks of time and allows to evaluate the behaviour change in real-world settings and also the stress level dynamics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate time and frequency domain and nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) metrics for stress level assessment using a short-time window...
September 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773821/transverse-crack-detection-in-3d-angle-interlock-glass-fibre-composites-using-acoustic-emission
#12
Matthieu Gresil, Mohamed Nasr Saleh, Constantinos Soutis
In addition to manufacturing cost and production rates, damage resistance has become a major issue for the composites industry. Three-dimensional (3D) woven composites have superior through-thickness properties compared to two-dimensional (2D) laminates, for example, improved impact damage resistance, high interlaminar fracture toughness and reduced notch sensitivity. The performance of 3D woven preforms is dependent on the fabric architecture, which is determined by the binding pattern. For this study, angle interlock (AI) structures with through-thickness binding were manufactured...
August 16, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773808/synthesis-and-mechanical-characterisation-of-an-ultra-fine-grained-ti-mg-composite
#13
Markus Alfreider, Jiwon Jeong, Raphael Esterl, Sang Ho Oh, Daniel Kiener
The importance of lightweight materials such as titanium and magnesium in various technical applications, for example aerospace, medical implants and lightweight construction is well appreciated. The present study is an attempt to combine and improve the mechanical properties of these two materials by forming an ultra-fine grained composite. The material, with a composition of 75 vol% (88.4 wt%) Ti and 25 vol% (11.4 wt%) Mg , was synthesized by powder compression and subsequently deformed by high-pressure torsion...
August 11, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773030/new-insights-in-the-long-term-atmospheric-corrosion-mechanisms-of-low-alloy-steel-reinforcements-of-cultural-heritage-buildings
#14
Marie Bouchar, Philippe Dillmann, Delphine Neff
Reinforcing clamps made of low alloy steel from the Metz cathedral and corroded outdoors during 500 years were studied by OM, FESEM/EDS, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The corrosion product layer is constituted of a dual structure. The outer layer is mainly constituted of goethite and lepidocrocite embedding exogenous elements such as Ca and P. The inner layer is mainly constituted of ferrihydrite. The behaviour of the inner layer under conditions simulating the wetting stage of the RH wet/dry atmospheric corrosion cycle was observed by in situ micro-Raman spectroscopy...
June 19, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772021/self-regulated-and-temporal-control-of-a-breathing-microgel-mediated-by-enzymatic-reaction
#15
Jan van Hest, Hailong Che, Bastiaan Buddingh'
Naturally occurring systems have the ability to self-regulate, which plays a key role in their structural and functional adaption. The autonomous behaviour in living systems is biocatalytically controlled by the continuous consumption of energy to remain in a non-equilibrium condition. In this work, we show the construction of a self-regulated "breathing" microgel that uses chemical fuels to keep the system in the out-of-equilibrium state. The enzyme urease is utilized to programme a feedback-induced pH change which in turn tunes the size switch and fluorescence intensity of the microgel...
August 3, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770933/exploring-catalyst-passivation-with-nmr-relaxation
#16
Neil Robinson, Lynn F Gladden, Carmine D'Agostino
NMR relaxation has recently emerged as a novel and non-invasive tool for probing the surface dynamics of adsorbate molecules within liquid-saturated mesoporous catalysts. The elucidation of such dynamics is of particular relevance to the study and development of solvated green catalytic processes, such as the production of chemicals and fuels from bio-resources. In this paper we develop and implement a protocol using high field (1)H NMR spin-lattice relaxation as a probe of the reorientational dynamics of liquids imbibed within mesoporous oxide materials...
August 3, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768797/has-snake-fang-evolution-lost-its-bite-new-insights-from-a-structural-mechanics-viewpoint
#17
Chris Broeckhoven, Anton du Plessis
Venomous snakes-the pinnacle of snake evolution-are characterized by their possession of venom-conducting fangs ranging from grooved phenotypes characterizing multiple lineages of rear-fanged taxa to tubular phenotypes present in elapids, viperids and atractaspidines. Despite extensive research, controversy still exists on the selective pressures involved in fang phenotype diversification. Here, we test the hypothesis that larger fangs and consequently a shift to an anterior position in the maxilla evolved to compensate for the costs of structural changes, i...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767670/comparing-tms-perturbations-to-occipital-and-parietal-cortices-in-concurrent-tms-fmri-studies-methodological-considerations
#18
Joana Leitão, Axel Thielscher, Johannes Tuennerhoff, Uta Noppeney
Neglect and hemianopia are two neuropsychological syndromes that are associated with reduced awareness for visual signals in patients' contralesional hemifield. They offer the unique possibility to dissociate the contributions of retino-geniculate and retino-colliculo circuitries in visual perception. Yet, insights from patient fMRI studies are limited by heterogeneity in lesion location and extent, long-term functional reorganization and behavioural compensation after stroke. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has therefore been proposed as a complementary method to investigate the effect of transient perturbations on functional brain organization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764599/evolutionary-learning-processes-as-the-foundation-for-behaviour-change
#19
Rik Crutzen, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram Peters
We argue that the active ingredients of behaviour change interventions, often called behaviour change methods or techniques (BCTs), can usefully be placed on a dimension of psychological aggregation. We introduce evolutionary learning processes (ELPs) as fundamental building blocks that are on a lower level of psychological aggregation than behaviour change methods. A better understanding of ELPs is useful to select the appropriate behaviour change methods to target determinants of behaviour, or vice versa, to identify potential determinants targeted by a given behaviour change method (or technique), and to optimally translate behaviour change methods into practical applications...
August 1, 2017: Health Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763964/relationships-between-surface-energy-analysis-and-functional-characteristics-of-dairy-powders
#20
Anett Kondor, Sean A Hogan
Surface energetics of demineralised whey (DMW), skimmed milk (SMP), phosphocasein (PCN) and infant milk formula (IMF) powders were determined by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). All four milk powders were amphoteric in nature with the dispersive (apolar) component of surface energy dominating the specific (polar) contribution. PCN and IMF had the highest and lowest extent of surface heterogeneity, respectively. PCN also demonstrated the poorest functional properties of the powders examined. In contrast, IMF had excellent flow and rehydration properties...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
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