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Behavioural insights

Marco Bonetti, Jean-Marc Zanotti
Nanometric confinement of fluids in porous media is a classical way to stabilize metastable states. Calorimetric studies give insight on the behavior of confined liquids compared to bulk liquids. We have developed and built a simple quasi-adiabatic AC calorimeter for heat capacity measurement of confined liquids in porous media in a temperature range between 150 K and 360 K. Taking the fully hydrated porous medium as a reference, we address the thermal behavior of water as a monolayer on the surface of a porous silica glass (Vycor)...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
D Michieletto
One of the most challenging problems in polymer physics is providing a theoretical description for the behaviour of rings in dense solutions and melts. Although it is nowadays well established that the overall size of a ring in these conditions scales like that of a collapsed globule, there is compelling evidence that rings may exhibit ramified and tree-like conformations. In this work I show how to characterise these local tree-like structures by measuring the local writhing of the rings' segments and by identifying the patterns of intra-chain contacts...
October 26, 2016: Soft Matter
Phillip Ertel, Burkay Adalig, Ipek Demircan, Belinda Lartey, Michael J Manyak
AIM: To assess attitudes and beliefs towards benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)/ lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and its treatment among patients and physicians in Latin America, Asia Pacific and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). METHODS: Cross-sectional, quantitative study conducted between December 2014 and September 2015. Separate questionnaires were administered to BPH/LUTS patients receiving drug treatment for their condition and to practising physicians who treat patients with BPH/LUTS...
October 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Minoo Heidari Kani, Eng-Cheng Chan, Roger C Young, Trent Butler, Roger Smith, Jonathan W Paul
Research insights into uterine function and the mechanisms of labour have been hindered by the lack of suitable animal and cellular models. The use of traditional culturing methods limits the exploration of complex uterine functions, such as cell interactions, connectivity and contractile behaviour, as it fails to mimic the three-dimensional (3D) nature of uterine cell interactions in vivo. Animal models are an option, however, use of these models is constrained by ethical considerations as well as translational limitations to humans...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Gregory F Funston, Philip J Currie, David A Eberth, Michael J Ryan, Tsogtbaatar Chinzorig, Demchig Badamgarav, Nicholas R Longrich
A monodominant bonebed of Avimimus from the Nemegt Formation of Mongolia is the first oviraptorosaur bonebed described and the only recorded maniraptoran bonebed from the Late Cretaceous. Cranial elements recovered from the bonebed provide insights on the anatomy of the facial region, which was formerly unknown in Avimimus. Both adult and subadult material was recovered from the bonebed, but small juveniles are underrepresented. The taphonomic and sedimentological evidence suggests that the Avimimus bonebed represents a perimortem gregarious assemblage...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lawrence T Lam, Mary K Lam
Excessive use of the Internet is considered a problematic behaviour by clinicians and researchers. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been advocated for a long time as a treatment approach and has been extended to include family therapy in the recent years. As eTherapy (eHealth) has become an important component in the treatment of many mental health problems, it is prudent to explore the current status of the eHealth approach as an intervention option for this problem. This systematic review aims to examine the current development of online intervention programmes for this particular condition...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Meng-Juan Zhang, Hong-Xi Li, Hai-Yan Li, Jian-Ping Lang
Solvothermal reactions of 5-phenylpyrimidine-2-thiol (5-phpymtH) with equimolar CuBr afforded one hexanuclear cluster [Cu6(μ3-5-phpymt)6] (1) along with a tetranuclear by-product [{(Cu2Br)(μ-5-phpymtH)}(μ3-5-phpymt)]2 (2). A two dimensional (2D) polymer [Cu4(μ5-5-phpymt)2(μ-Br)2]n (3) was isolated from the reaction of 5-phpymtH with two equiv. of CuBr. Analogous reactions of 5-phpymtH with one or four equiv. of CuI produced one tetranuclear cluster [{Cu2(μ-5-phpymtH)(μ-5-phpymt)}(μ3-I)]2 (4) and one 2D polymer [Cu6I2(μ4-I)2(μ4-5-phpymt)2]n (5)...
October 21, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Seth Bybee, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar, M Catherine Duryea, Ryo Futahashi, Bengt Hansson, M Olalla Lorenzo-Carballa, Ruud Schilder, Robby Stoks, Anton Suvorov, Erik I Svensson, Janne Swaegers, Yuma Takahashi, Phillip C Watts, Maren Wellenreuther
Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) present an unparalleled insect model to integrate evolutionary genomics with ecology for the study of insect evolution. Key features of Odonata include their ancient phylogenetic position, extensive phenotypic and ecological diversity, several unique evolutionary innovations, ease of study in the wild and usefulness as bioindicators for freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In this review, we synthesize studies on the evolution, ecology and physiology of odonates, highlighting those areas where the integration of ecology with genomics would yield significant insights into the evolutionary processes that would not be gained easily by working on other animal groups...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
Anthea Burnett, Aryati Yashadhana, Maria Cabrera Aguas, Yvonne Hanni, Mitasha Yu
INTRODUCTION: A person's capability to access services and achieve good eye health is influenced by their behaviours, perceptions, beliefs and experiences. As evidence from Papua New Guinea (PNG) about people's lived experience with vision impairment is limited, the purpose of the present study was to better understand the beliefs, perceptions and emotional responses to vision impairment in PNG. METHODS: A qualitative study, using both purposive and convenience sampling, was undertaken to explore common beliefs and perceptions about vision impairment, as well as the emotional responses to vision impairment...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Robert P Ellis, Mauricio A Urbina, Rod W Wilson
Exponentially rising CO2 (currently ~400 μatm) is driving climate change and causing acidification of both marine and freshwater environments. Physiologists have long known that CO2 directly affects acid-base and ion regulation, respiratory function and aerobic performance in aquatic animals. More recently, many studies have demonstrated that elevated CO2 projected for end of this century (e.g. 800-1000 μatm) can also impact physiology, and have substantial effects on behaviours linked to sensory stimuli (smell, hearing and vision) both having negative implications for fitness and survival...
October 20, 2016: Global Change Biology
Oat Peltoniemi, S Björkman, C Oliviero
In this review, we address significant characteristics of parturition in the pig and their connection to post-partum reproductive health and fertility. We discuss the normal physiology and behaviour around parturition and the effect of the second phase (expulsion of foetuses) on the third phase of parturition (expulsion of foetal membranes). In addition, we intend to cover retained placenta, and the connection to post-partum uterine health and fertility in the contemporary prolific sow. We also explore factors that support successful parturition or can cause potential problems...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Simon Sawyer, Jan Coles, Angela Williams, Brett Williams
CONTEXT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. Numerous health organisations have called for increased education for health care practitioners who encounter IPV patients and the first clinical guidelines for health services responding to IPV were recently published. This renewed focus has created a need to examine the current evidence for IPV education so that it may inform the next generation of educational interventions...
November 2016: Medical Education
Amy Blake, Bryan T Carroll
OBJECTIVE: This paper analyses how game theory can provide a framework for understanding the strategic decision-making that occurs in everyday scenarios in medical training and practice, and ultimately serves as a tool for improving the work environment and patient care. Game theory has been applied to a variety of fields outside of its native economics, but has not been thoroughly studied in the context of health care provision. METHODS: The paper discusses four of the most common 'games' and applies each to a scenario in medicine to provide new insight on the incentives and drivers for certain types of behaviour and a deeper understanding of why certain results are valued more strongly than others...
November 2016: Medical Education
Tiffany H Kung, Eugene T Richardson, Tarub S Mabud, Catherine A Heaney, Evaleen Jones, Jessica Evert
CONTEXT: High-income country (HIC) trainees are undertaking global health experiences in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) host communities in increasing numbers. Although the benefits for HIC trainees are well described, the benefits and drawbacks for LMIC host communities are not well captured. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the perspectives of supervising physicians and local programme coordinators from LMIC host communities who engaged with HIC trainees in the context of the latter's short-term experiences in global health...
November 2016: Medical Education
Rachelle N Binny, Alex James, Michael J Plank
Collective cell migration and proliferation are integral to tissue repair, embryonic development, the immune response and cancer. Central to collective cell migration and proliferation are interactions among neighbouring cells, such as volume exclusion, contact inhibition and adhesion. These individual-level processes can have important effects on population-level outcomes, such as growth rate and equilibrium density. We develop an individual-based model of cell migration and proliferation that includes these interactions...
October 19, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Angeline Traynor, Eimear Morrissey, Jonathan Egan, Brian E McGuire
BACKGROUND: Resource and geographic barriers are the commonly cited constraints preventing the uptake of psychological treatment for chronic pain management. For adults, there is some evidence to support the use of information and communication technology (ICT) as a mode of treatment delivery. However, mixed findings have been reported for the effectiveness and acceptability of psychological interventions delivered using information and communication technology for children and adolescents...
October 18, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Yuan Ma, Xiangxian Feng, Jing Zhang, Haijun Wang, Jianhui Yuan, Zhifang Li, Yanbo Han, Jianbin Zhang, Feng J He, Graham MacGregor, Yangfeng Wu
OBJECTIVE: To identify the social determinants shaping children's behaviour on salt reduction from a network perspective. DESIGN AND METHOD: School-EduSalt is a cluster-randomized controlled trial carried out in 28 primary schools in northern China involving 279 families (279 children aged 10.1 ± 0.5yrs and 553 adults). A 3.5-month education on salt reduction was delivered to the 14 schools (classes) in the intervention group, of which children and their families achieved a significant reduction in salt intake as measured by 24-hour urine sodium...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Matthias Oelke, Peter Anderson, Robert Wood, Tove Holm-Larsen
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality and timing of the diagnosis and treatment of nocturia in real-life practice in European and US-American patients to obtain better insights into the management of nocturia in different Western healthcare systems. METHODS: Data were drawn from the "LUTS Disease Specific Programme," a real-life survey of physicians and patients in France, Germany, Spain, UK and the USA. Physicians completed a patient record form for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) patients...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Linde Boekhoudt, Elisa S Voets, Jacques P Flores-Dourojeanni, Mieneke Cm Luijendijk, Louk Jmj Vanderschuren, Roger Ah Adan
Attentional impairments and exaggerated impulsivity are key features of psychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. These deficits in attentional performance and impulsive behaviours have been associated with aberrant dopamine (DA) signalling, but it remains unknown whether these deficits result from enhanced DA neuronal activity in the midbrain. Here, we took a novel approach by testing the impact of chemogenetically activating DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) on attention and impulsivity in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) in rats...
October 17, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Thiago Lopes Rocha, Nélia C Mestre, Simone Maria Teixeira Sabóia-Morais, Maria João Bebianno
Despite the wide application of quantum dots (QDs) in electronics, pharmacy and nanomedicine, limited data is available on their environmental health risk. To advance our current understanding of the environmental impact of these engineered nanomaterials, the aim of this review is to give a detailed insight on the existing information concerning the behaviour, transformation and fate of QDs in the aquatic environment, as well as on its mode of action (MoA), ecotoxicity, trophic transfer and biomagnification at various trophic levels (micro-organisms, aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates)...
October 13, 2016: Environment International
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