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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920894/electro-thermal-equivalent-3d-finite-element-model-of-a-single-neuron
#1
I Cinelli, M Destrade, M Duffy, P McHugh
OBJECTIVE: We propose a novel approach for modelling the inter-dependence of electrical and mechanical phenomena in nervous cells, by using electro-thermal equivalences in finite element (FE) analysis so that existing thermo-mechanical tools can be applied. METHODS: First, the equivalence between electrical and thermal properties of the nerve materials is established, and results of a pure heat conduction analysis performed in Abaqus CAE Software 6.13-3 are validated with analytical solutions for a range of steady and transient conditions...
September 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920122/survival-of-verwey-transition-in-gadolinium-doped-ultrasmall-magnetite-nanoparticles
#2
Sunmog Yeo, Hyunkyung Choi, Chul Sung Kim, Gyeong Tae Lee, Jeong Hyun Seo, Hyung Joon Cha, Jeong Chan Park
We have demonstrated that the Verwey transition, which is highly sensitive to impurities, survives in anisotropic Gd-doped magnetite nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the nanoparticles are uniformly distributed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and EDS mapping analysis confirm Gd-doping on the nanoparticles. The Verwey transition of the Gd-doped magnetite nanoparticles is robust and the temperature dependence of the magnetic moment (zero field cooling and field cooling) shows the same behaviour as that of the Verwey transition in bulk magnetite, at a lower transition temperature (∼110 K)...
September 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919119/global-regional-and-national-comparative-risk-assessment-of-84-behavioural-environmental-and-occupational-and-metabolic-risks-or-clusters-of-risks-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#3
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918309/health-and-wellbeing-during-transition-to-adulthood-for-young-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-a-qualitative-study
#4
Genevieve Young-Southward, Sally-Ann Cooper, Christopher Philo
BACKGROUND: Transition to adulthood may have negative consequences for health and wellbeing in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), but this aspect of transition has received little investigation. This qualitative study aimed to explore the transition experiences of individuals with ID from their own perspectives, and from that of their parents, in order to identify health or wellbeing implications of transition. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 young people with mild, moderate and severe ID aged 16-27 years and with 23 parents of young people with mild, moderate, severe and profound ID aged 16-26 years...
September 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917581/an-engineering-insight-into-the-relationship-of-selective-cytoskeletal-impairment-and-biomechanics-of-hela-cells
#5
Daniele Borin, Luca Puzzi, Valentina Martinelli, Matteo Cibinel, Romano Lapasin, Orfeo Sbaizero
It is widely accepted that the pathological state of cells is characterized by a modification of mechanical properties, affecting cellular shape and viscoelasticity as well as adhesion behaviour and motility. Thus, assessing these parameters could represent an interesting tool to monitor disease development and progression, but also the effects of drug treatments. Since biomechanical properties of cells are strongly related to cytoskeletal architecture, in this work we extensively studied the effects of selective impairments of actin microfilaments and microtubules on HeLa cells through force-deformation curves and stress relaxation tests with atomic force microscopy...
September 8, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916282/chlorate-origin-and-fate-in-shallow-groundwater-below-agricultural-landscapes
#6
Micòl Mastrocicco, Dario Di Giuseppe, Fabio Vincenzi, Nicolò Colombani, Giuseppe Castaldelli
In agricultural lowland landscapes, intensive agricultural is accompanied by a wide use of agrochemical application, like pesticides and fertilizers. The latter often causes serious environmental threats such as N compounds leaching and surface water eutrophication; additionally, since perchlorate can be present as impurities in many fertilizers, the potential presence of perchlorates and their by-products like chlorates and chlorites in shallow groundwater could be a reason of concern. In this light, the present manuscript reports the first temporal and spatial variation of chlorates, chlorites and major anions concentrations in the shallow unconfined aquifer belonging to Ferrara province (in the Po River plain)...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915248/invasion-strategy-and-abiotic-activity-triggers-for-non-native-gobiids-of-the-river-rhine
#7
Jan Baer, Frank Hartmann, Alexander Brinker
The 24 hour activity patterns of three non-native gobiids (round goby Neogobius melanostomus, Western tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris and bighead goby Ponticola kessleri) were assessed over 46 consecutive months between 2011 and 2014 from their occurrence in the cooling water intake of a nuclear power plant on the River Rhine, Germany. In total, 117717 gobiids were identified and classified. The occurrence of all three species varied strongly between sampling years, and species-specific activity triggers were identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914737/evidence-of-semantic-processing-impairments-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Katheryn A Q Cousins, Murray Grossman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Category-specific impairments caused by brain damage can provide important insights into how semantic concepts are organized in the brain. Recent research has demonstrated that disease to sensory and motor cortices can impair perceptual feature knowledge important to the representation of semantic concepts. This evidence supports the grounded cognition theory of semantics, the view that lexical knowledge is partially grounded in perceptual experience and that sensory and motor regions support semantic representations...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914297/dispersion-of-ni-2-ions-via-acetate-precursor-in-the-preparation-of-nanipo4-nanoparticles-effect-of-acetate-vs-nitrate-on-the-capacitive-energy-storage-properties
#9
M Minakshi Sundaram, D R G Mitchell
The influence of the precursors on the dispersion of Ni(2+) ions and the presence of several other functional groups was investigated in the preparation of sodium nickel phosphate (NaNiPO4) cathode for a supercapacitor study. The dispersion of nickel phases, in the form of nanosheets, is influenced by the type of precursors used in the synthesis. XPS based spectroscopic information on the surface functional groups on NaNiPO4 show differences between the precursors (i.e.) acetate- and nitrate-derived materials...
September 15, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912275/nmr-reveals-the-intrinsically-disordered-domain-2-of-ns5a-protein-as-an-allosteric-regulator-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-rna-polymerase-ns5b
#10
Luiza M Bessa, Hélène Launay, Marie Dujardin, François-Xavier Cantrelle, Guy Lippens, Isabelle Landrieu, Robert Schneider, Xavier Hanoulle
Non-structural protein 5B (NS5B) is the RNAdependent RNA polymerase that catalyses replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome, and so is central for its life cycle. NS5B interacts with the intrinsically disordered domain 2 of NS5A (NS5A-D2), another essential multifunctional HCV protein that is required for RNA replication. As a result, these two proteins represent important targets for anti-HCV chemotherapies. Despite this importance and the existence of NS5B crystal structures, our understanding of the conformational and dynamic behaviour of NS5B in solution and its relationship with NS5A-D2 remain incomplete...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911240/understanding-the-prevalence-and-correlates-of-implicit-theories-of-weight-in-the-united-states-insights-from-a-nationally-representative-sample
#11
Lisa A Auster-Gussman, Alexander J Rothman
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this research is to understand how mindsets about weight controllability in the United States relate to population health. We examined the distribution of people's implicit theories of weight, from an incremental (controllable) to an entity (not controllable) mindset, in a nationally representative sample, as well as their relation to: sociodemographic factors, beliefs about behaviour and genetics as causes of obesity and engagement in weight management-relevant behaviours...
September 15, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910284/caretakers-perspectives-of-paediatric-tb-and-implications-for-care-seeking-behaviours-in-southern-mozambique
#12
Carolina Mindu, Elisa López-Varela, Yara Alonso-Menendez, Yolanda Mausse, Orvalho Joaquim Augusto, Kizito Gondo, Jose Múñoz, Jahit Sacarlal, Alberto L García-Basteiro, Pedro L Alonso, Khátia Munguambe
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important public health concern, especially in poorly resourced settings. TB diagnosis is challenging, particularly for children, who are the most vulnerable to its' impacts. Lack of knowledge and awareness of the disease compromises prompt diagnosis and treatment compliance. OBJECTIVE: To gain insights regarding caretakers' knowledge of the aetiology and prevention of paediatric TB in southern Mozambique, to describe their care-seeking behaviours and to assess the acceptability of diagnostic procedures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904347/oscillatory-dynamics-of-p38-activity-with-transcriptional-and-translational-time-delays
#13
Yuan Zhang, Haihong Liu, Fang Yan, Jin Zhou
Recent experimental evidence reports that oscillations of p38 MAPK (p38) activity would efficiently induce pro-inflammatory gene expression, which might be deleterious to immune systems and may even cause cellular damage and apoptosis. It is widely accepted now that transcriptional and translational delays are ubiquitous in gene expression, which can typically result in oscillatory responses of gene regulations. Consequently, delay-driven sustained oscillations in p38 activity (p38*) could in principle be commonplace...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901723/the-arms-race-between-heliconiine-butterflies-and-passiflora-plants-new-insights-on-an-ancient-subject
#14
Érika C P de Castro, Mika Zagrobelny, Márcio Z Cardoso, Søren Bak
Heliconiines are called passion vine butterflies because they feed exclusively on Passiflora plants during the larval stage. Many features of Passiflora and heliconiines indicate that they have radiated and speciated in association with each other, and therefore this model system was one of the first examples used to exemplify coevolution theory. Three major adaptations of Passiflora plants supported arguments in favour of their coevolution with heliconiines: unusual variation of leaf shape within the genus; the occurrence of yellow structures mimicking heliconiine eggs; and their extensive diversity of defence compounds called cyanogenic glucosides...
September 13, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901011/persistent-aberrant-cortical-phase-amplitude-coupling-following-seizure-treatment-in-absence-epilepsy-models
#15
Atul Maheshwari, Abraham Akbar, Mai Wang, Rachel Marks, Katherine Yu, Suhyeorn Park, Brett L Foster, Jeffrey L Noebels
In childhood absence epilepsy, cortical seizures are brief and intermittent; however there are extended periods without behavioural or electrographic ictal events. This genetic disorder is associated with variable degrees of cognitive dysfunction, but no consistent functional biomarkers that might provide insight into interictal cortical function have been described. Previous work in monogenic mouse models of absence epilepsy have shown that the interictal EEG displays augmented beta/gamma power in homozygous stargazer (stg/stg) mice bearing a presynaptic AMPA receptor defect, but not homozygous tottering (tg/tg) mice with a P/Q type calcium channel mutation...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900303/exploring-priming-responses-involved-in-peach-fruit-acclimation-to-cold-stress
#16
Georgia Tanou, Ioannis S Minas, Federico Scossa, Maya Belghazi, Aliki Xanthopoulou, Ioannis Ganopoulos, Panagiotis Madesis, Alisdair Fernie, Athanassios Molassiotis
Cold storage of fruit may induce the physiological disorder chilling injury (CI); however, the molecular basis of CI development remains largely unexplored. Simulated conditions of CI priming and suppression provided an interesting experimental system to study cold response in fruit. Peaches (cv. June Gold) at the commercial harvest (CH) or tree-ripe (TR) stages were immediately exposed to cold treatment (40 d, 0 °C) and an additional group of CH fruits were pre-conditioned 48 h at 20 °C prior to low-temperature exposure (pre-conditioning, PC)...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900167/unexpected-viscoelastic-deformation-of-tight-sandstone-insights-and-predictions-from-the-fractional-maxwell-model
#17
Xiang Ding, Guangqing Zhang, Bo Zhao, Yan Wang
Tight gas is one important unconventional hydrocarbon resource that is stored in tight sandstone, whose mechanical property greatly influences the tight gas production process and is commonly believed to be simply elastic when designing the stimulation plan. However, the experimental evidence provided in this work surprisingly shows that tight sandstone can deform in a viscoelastic way. Such an unexpected observation poses a challenge in accurately modelling the deformation process. We solve this problem by adopting the fractional Maxwell model to successfully derive the constitutive equation of tight sandstone, based on which not only all the experimental data can be interpreted quantitatively, but also reasonable and consistent predictions as to tight sandstone's long-term deformation behaviour can be made...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899935/macrophage-dysfunction-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-asthma
#18
Michael Fricker, Peter G Gibson
Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition frequently associated with aberrant airway and systemic inflammation. Various inflammatory phenotypes in asthmatic airways have been described that relate to clinical phenotypes and impact on responses to conventional and novel asthma therapies. Macrophages are abundant immunocytes in the lung, capable of mounting diverse responses required for homeostasis and defence against pathogens.Here, we summarise the clinical evidence regarding macrophage dysfunction in asthma...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899756/stability-based-sorting-the-forgotten-process-behind-not-only-biological-evolution
#19
Jan Toman, Jaroslav Flegr
Natural selection is considered to be the main process that drives biological evolution. It requires selected entities to originate dependent upon one another by the means of reproduction or copying, and for the progeny to inherit the qualities of their ancestors. However, natural selection is a manifestation of a more general persistence principle, whose temporal consequences we propose to name "stability-based sorting" (SBS). Sorting based on static stability, i.e., SBS in its strict sense and usual conception, favours characters that increase the persistence of their holders and act on all material and immaterial entities...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899581/deconstructing-superorganisms-and-societies-to-address-big-questions-in-biology
#20
REVIEW
Patrick Kennedy, Gemma Baron, Bitao Qiu, Dalial Freitak, Heikki Helanterä, Edmund R Hunt, Fabio Manfredini, Thomas O'Shea-Wheller, Solenn Patalano, Christopher D Pull, Takao Sasaki, Daisy Taylor, Christopher D R Wyatt, Seirian Sumner
Social insect societies are long-standing models for understanding social behaviour and evolution. Unlike other advanced biological societies (such as the multicellular body), the component parts of social insect societies can be easily deconstructed and manipulated. Recent methodological and theoretical innovations have exploited this trait to address an expanded range of biological questions. We illustrate the broadening range of biological insight coming from social insect biology with four examples. These new frontiers promote open-minded, interdisciplinary exploration of one of the richest and most complex of biological phenomena: sociality...
September 9, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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