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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646131/insights-on-the-drivers-of-genetic-divergence-in-the-european-anchovy
#1
Gaetano Catanese, Romain Watteaux, Iratxe Montes, Marco Barra, Paola Rumolo, Diego Borme, Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli, Vincenzo Botte, Maria Grazia Mazzocchi, Simona Genovese, Iole Di Capua, Mikel Iriondo, Andone Estonba, Paolo Ruggeri, Valentina Tirelli, Vincenzo Caputo-Barucchi, Gualtiero Basilone, Angelo Bonanno, Daniele Iudicone, Gabriele Procaccini
Anchovies represent the largest world's marine fish catches and the current threats on their populations impose a sustainable exploitment based on sound scientific information. In the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), the existence of several populations has been proposed but a global view is missing. Using a multidisciplinary approach, here we assessed the divergence among different ecotypes and its possible causes. SNPs have revealed two functionally distinct ecotypes overlapping in the Central Mediterranean, with one ecotype confined near the river estuaries...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644993/long-term-toxicity-of-surface-charged-polystyrene-nanoplastics-to-marine-planktonic-species-dunaliella-tertiolecta-and-artemia-franciscana
#2
E Bergami, S Pugnalini, M L Vannuccini, L Manfra, C Faleri, F Savorelli, K A Dawson, I Corsi
Plastic pollution has been globally recognized as a critical issue for marine ecosystems and nanoplastics constitute one of the last unexplored areas to understand the magnitude of this threat. However, current difficulties in sampling and identifying nano-sized debris make hard to assess their occurrence in marine environment. Polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) are largely used as nanoplastics in ecotoxicological studies and although acute exposures have been already investigated, long-term toxicity on marine organisms is unknown...
June 15, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643934/comprehensive-insights-into-the-thermal-stability-biodegradability-and-combustion-chemistry-of-pyrrolidinium-based-ionic-liquids
#3
Gebrekidan Gebreselassie Eshetu, Sangsik Jeong, Pascal Pandard, Amandine Lecocq, Guy Marlair, Stefano Passerini
The use of ionic liquids (ILs) as advanced electrolytes components in electrochemical energy storage devices is one of the most appealing and emerging options. However, though ILs are hailed as safer and eco-friendly electrolytes, overcoming the limitations imposed by the highly volatile/combustible carbonate based electrolytes, the full scale and precise appraisal of their overall safety levels under abuse conditions still need to be fully addressed. With the aim of providing the entreated level of information on the thermal and chemical stabilities as well as actual fire hazards, we embarked on a detailed investigation of the short - and long - term thermal stabilities, bio-degradability and combustion behaviour of various pyrrolidinium ([Pyr1A] +)-based ILs, enlisting different alkyl chain lengths, [Pyr1A] + (A=3-10), counter-anions ([TFSI]-/[FSI]-/[BETI]-), cations (Pyr14+/Pyr12O1+) and the effect of doping with Li salts (e...
June 23, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643358/maximizing-functional-axon-repair-in-the-injured-cns-lessons-from-neuronal-development
#4
Andrew Kaplan, Mardja Bueno, Luyang Hua, Alyson E Fournier
The failure of damaged axons to regrow underlies disability in central nervous system injury and disease. Therapies that stimulate axon repair will be critical to restore function. Extensive axon regeneration can be induced by manipulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, however it has been difficult to translate this into functional recovery in models of spinal cord injury. The current challenge is to maximize the functional integration of regenerating axons to recover motor and sensory behaviours. Insights into axonal growth and wiring during nervous system development are helping guide new approaches to boost regeneration and functional connectivity after injury in the mature nervous system...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641601/the-impact-of-traumatic-stress-on-pavlovian-biases
#5
O T Ousdal, Q J Huys, A M Milde, A R Craven, L Ersland, T Endestad, A Melinder, K Hugdahl, R J Dolan
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in Pavlovian valuation systems are reported to follow traumatic stress exposure. However, motivated decisions are also guided by instrumental mechanisms, but to date the effect of traumatic stress on these instrumental systems remain poorly investigated. Here, we examine whether a single episode of severe traumatic stress influences flexible instrumental decisions through an impact on a Pavlovian system. METHODS: Twenty-six survivors of the 2011 Norwegian terror attack and 30 matched control subjects performed an instrumental learning task in which Pavlovian and instrumental associations promoted congruent or conflicting responses...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639631/an-update-on-maldi-mass-spectrometry-based-technology-for-the-analysis-of-fingermarks-stepping-into-operational-deployment
#6
REVIEW
S Francese, R Bradshaw, N Denison
Since 2009, when Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI MSI) was firstly reported for the molecular mapping of latent fingermarks, the range of information and operational capabilities have steadily increased. Pioneering work from our Fingermark Research Group exploited different modalities, including Profiling (MALDI MSP), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and Ion Mobility MS/MS; a number of methodologies were also developed to conquer a main challenge, namely profiling the suspect and their actions prior to or whilst committing the crime...
June 22, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638903/adsorption-versus-aggregation-of-nipam-nanogels-new-insight-into-their-behaviour-at-the-air-water-interface-as-a-function-of-concentration
#7
Katarzyna Zielińska, Richard A Campbell, Ali Zarbakhsh, Marina Resmini
We have used neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements in combination with dynamic light scattering (DLS), surface tension and ellipsometry, to study the adsorption behaviour at the air/water interface of N-isopropylacrylamide-based nanogels as a function of concentration. The data provide clear evidence that the nanogels are adsorbed at the interface in a strongly deformed shape and forming a multi-layer where the thickness increases with nanogel concentration in the bulk. The combination of surface characterisation techniques and bulk studies indicate that interfacial film formation is preferred over bulk aggregation...
June 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637519/gender-associated-developmental-trajectories-of-sdq-dysregulation-profile-and-its-predictors-in-children
#8
B Kunze, B Wang, C Isensee, R Schlack, U Ravens-Sieberer, F Klasen, A Rothenberger, A Becker
BACKGROUND: Severe mood dysregulation is common in childhood and can be highly impairing. The Dysregulation Profile (DP) can be considered as a broader phenotype of emotional dysregulation, including affect, cognition and behaviour. Since mood dysregulation may persist, but differently in boys and girls, the gender associated course needs to be considered longitudinally to gain a better insight in order to support the children more adequately. This study is focusing on gender associated subgroup trajectories of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Dysregulation Profile (SDQ-DP) in middle childhood (9-13 years of age) and includes the potential impact of clinical and psychosocial characteristics...
June 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637183/nuclitrack-an-integrated-nuclei-tracking-application
#9
Sam Cooper, Alexis R Barr, Robert Glen, Chris Bakal
Summary: Live imaging studies give unparalleled insight into dynamic single cell behaviours and fate decisions. However, the challenge of reliably tracking single cells over long periods of time limits both the throughput and ease with which such studies can be performed. Here, we present NucliTrack, a cross platform solution for automatically segmenting, tracking and extracting features from fluorescently-labelled nuclei. NucliTrack performs similarly to other state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms, but NucliTrack's interactive, graphical interface makes it significantly more user friendly...
June 20, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636040/tamoxifen-like-metallocifens-target-the-thioredoxin-system-determining-mitochondrial-impairment-leading-to-apoptosis-in-jurkat-cells
#10
Valeria Scalcon, Michèle Salmain, Alessandra Folda, Siden Top, Pascal Pigeon, Hui Zhi Shirley Lee, Gérard Jaouen, Alberto Bindoli, Anne Vessières, Maria Pia Rigobello
Tamoxifen-like metallocifens (TLMs) of the group-8 metals (Fe, Ru, and Os) show strong anti-proliferative activity on cancer cell lines resistant to apoptosis, owing to their unique redox properties. In contrast, the thioredoxin system, which is involved in cellular redox balance, is often overexpressed in cancer cells, especially in tumour types resistant to standard chemotherapies. Therefore, we investigated the effect of these three TLMs on the thioredoxin system and evaluated the input of the metallocene unit in comparison with structurally related organic tamoxifens...
June 21, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635480/leadership-styles-in-nursing
#11
Vicki Cope, Melanie Murray
Nurses are often asked to think about leadership, particularly in times of rapid change in healthcare, and where questions have been raised about whether leaders and managers have adequate insight into the requirements of care. This article discusses several leadership styles relevant to contemporary healthcare and nursing practice. Nurses who are aware of leadership styles may find this knowledge useful in maintaining a cohesive working environment. Leadership knowledge and skills can be improved through training, where, rather than having to undertake formal leadership roles without adequate preparation, nurses are able to learn, nurture, model and develop effective leadership behaviours, ultimately improving nursing staff retention and enhancing the delivery of safe and effective care...
June 21, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633194/moving-forward-in-circles-challenges-and-opportunities-in-modelling-population-cycles
#12
REVIEW
Frédéric Barraquand, Stilianos Louca, Karen C Abbott, Christina A Cobbold, Flora Cordoleani, Donald L DeAngelis, Bret D Elderd, Jeremy W Fox, Priscilla Greenwood, Frank M Hilker, Dennis L Murray, Christopher R Stieha, Rachel A Taylor, Kelsey Vitense, Gail S K Wolkowicz, Rebecca C Tyson
Population cycling is a widespread phenomenon, observed across a multitude of taxa in both laboratory and natural conditions. Historically, the theory associated with population cycles was tightly linked to pairwise consumer-resource interactions and studied via deterministic models, but current empirical and theoretical research reveals a much richer basis for ecological cycles. Stochasticity and seasonality can modulate or create cyclic behaviour in non-intuitive ways, the high-dimensionality in ecological systems can profoundly influence cycling, and so can demographic structure and eco-evolutionary dynamics...
June 20, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632035/a-comprehensive-study-of-worldwide-selfie-related-accidental-mortality-a-growing-problem-of-the-modern-society
#13
Mohit J Jain, Kinjal J Mavani
Since Oxford dictionary has described 'Selfie', selfie deaths have received a fair amount of coverage but the extent of the problem and the data behind it have not been appropriately explored. The aim of our study is to obtain epidemiological characteristics of selfie-related mortality worldwide with the objective of providing an insight to 'Why selfie', 'Why risky', 'Psychological basis' and 'measures of control.' Despite thousands of web pages, very few scientific articles are available in medical journals...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629470/policy-lessons-from-health-taxes-a-systematic-review-of-empirical-studies
#14
Alexandra Wright, Katherine E Smith, Mark Hellowell
BACKGROUND: Taxes on alcohol and tobacco have long been an important means of raising revenues for public spending in many countries but there is increasing interest in using taxes on these, and other unhealthy products, to achieve public health goals. We present a systematic review of the research on health taxes, and aim to generate insights into how such taxes can: (i) reduce consumption of targeted products and related harms; (ii) generate revenues for health objectives and distribute the tax burden across income groups in an efficient and equitable manner; and (iii) be made politically sustainable...
June 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628898/-talking-about-child-sexual-abuse-would-have-helped-me-young-people-who-sexually-abused-reflect-on-preventing-harmful-sexual-behavior
#15
Gemma McKibbin, Cathy Humphreys, Bridget Hamilton
Harmful sexual behavior carried out by children and young people accounts for about half of all child sexual abuse perpetration. The aim of this study was to draw on the insights of young people who had been sexually abusive to enhance the current prevention agenda. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 14 young people and six treatment-providing workers. Sampling was purposive and the young people had previously completed a treatment program for harmful sexual behaviour in Victoria, Australia...
June 16, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628640/birds-of-a-feather-flock-together-insights-into-starling-murmuration-behaviour-revealed-using-citizen-science
#16
Anne E Goodenough, Natasha Little, William S Carpenter, Adam G Hart
Pre-roost murmuration displays by European starlings Sturnus vulgaris are a spectacular example of collective animal behaviour. To date, empirical research has focussed largely on flock movement and biomechanics whereas research on possible causal mechanisms that affect flock size and murmuration duration has been limited and restricted to a small number of sites. Possible explanations for this behaviour include reducing predation through the dilution, detection or predator confusion effects (the "safer together" hypotheses) or recruiting more birds to create larger (warmer) roosts (the "warmer together" hypothesis)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624949/designing-more-engaging-computer-tailored-physical-activity-behaviour-change-interventions-for-breast-cancer-survivors-lessons-from-the-imove-more-for-life-study
#17
C E Short, E L James, A L Rebar, M J Duncan, K S Courneya, R C Plotnikoff, R Crutzen, N Bidargaddi, C Vandelanotte
BACKGROUND: Participating in regular physical activity is a recommended cancer recovery strategy for breast cancer survivors. However, tailored support services are not widely available and most survivors are insufficiently active to obtain health benefits. Delivering tailored programs via the Internet offers one promising approach. However, recent evaluations of such programs suggest that major improvements are needed to ensure programs meet the needs of users and are delivered in an engaging way...
June 17, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624850/the-plant-lim-proteins-unlocking-the-hidden-attractions
#18
REVIEW
Vikas Srivastava, Praveen Kumar Verma
The plant LIMs comprise two sub-families with one (DA1/DAR) and two (2LIM) LIM domains. This review comprehensively discussed the structure and potential role of this protein family in diverse area of plant biology. The description of first eukaryote lineage-specific plant LIM domain (LIN11, ISL1, and MEC3) proteins was observed in Helianthus long back. The successive study of LIM proteins in diverse plants has shown its vital relation to development, metabolism and defence. This nascent gene family has been worked out for their role in actin dynamics, organ size determination and transcription regulation...
June 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620959/parental-disease-prevention-health-beliefs-and-triggers-for-keeping-children-home-from-childcare-a-qualitative-study-in-sydney-australia
#19
C L King, J Leask
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases cause considerable morbidity and mortality in children less than 5 years of age. Children attending childcare centres are at increased risk of contracting infections. It is of public health interest to understand what triggers and underpins parental decisions to send an unwell child to childcare, with the obvious attendant risks to other children and childcare staff as well as the affected child. This study aimed to examine parents' disease prevention health beliefs and practices with a particular focus on how these factors influence childcare attendance decisions...
June 15, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617587/variable-regions-of-antibodies-and-t-cell-receptors-may-not-be-sufficient-in-molecular-simulations-investigating-binding
#20
Bernhard Knapp, James Dunbar, Marta Alcalà, Charlotte M Deane
Antibodies and T-cell receptors are important proteins of the immune system that share similar structures. Both contain variable and constant regions. Insight into the dynamics of their binding can be provided by computational simulations. For these simulations the constant regions are often removed to save runtime as binding occurs in the variable regions. Here we present the first study to investigate the effect of removing the constant regions from antibodies and T-cell receptors on such simulations. We performed simulations of an antibody/antigen and T-cell receptor/MHC system with and without constant regions using 10 replicas of 100 ns of each of the four setups...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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