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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747094/a-comparison-of-socioeconomic-status-and-mental-health-among-inner-city-aboriginal-and-non-aboriginal-women
#1
Kevin Hamdullahpur, Kahá Wi J Jacobs, Kathryn J Gill
Aboriginal women in urban areas have been reported to experience high rates of poverty, homelessness, interpersonal violence, and health problems. However, there are few prior ethnocultural comparisons of urban women from similar socioeconomic backgrounds. The current study explored the mental and physical health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women accessing social services agencies and shelters. Half of the sample (n=172) was Aboriginal (48.3%). The lifetime rate of physical abuse was significantly higher in Aboriginal women, and they were more likely to have been victims of violence or crime in the past year (A=50...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741331/alignment-of-adherence-and-risk-for-hiv-acquisition-in-a-demonstration-project-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-in-kenya-and-uganda-a-prospective-analysis-of-prevention-effective-adherence
#2
Jessica E Haberer, Lara Kidoguchi, Renee Heffron, Nelly Mugo, Elizabeth Bukusi, Elly Katabira, Stephen Asiimwe, Katherine K Thomas, Connie Celum, Jared M Baeten
INTRODUCTION: Adherence is essential for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to protect against HIV acquisition, but PrEP use need not be life-long. PrEP is most efficient when its use is aligned with periods of risk - a concept termed prevention-effective adherence. The objective of this paper is to describe prevention-effective adherence and predictors of adherence within an open-label delivery project of integrated PrEP and antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda (the Partners Demonstration Project)...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738878/tlr4-response-mediates-ethanol-induced-neurodevelopment-alterations-in-a-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#3
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Sandra Montagud-Romero, Jerónimo Forteza, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, José Miñarro, Consuelo Guerri
BACKGROUND: Inflammation during brain development participates in the pathogenesis of early brain injury and cognitive dysfunctions. Prenatal ethanol exposure affects the developing brain and causes neural impairment, cognitive and behavioral effects, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Our previous studies demonstrate that ethanol activates the innate immune response and TLR4 receptor and causes neuroinflammation, brain damage, and cognitive defects in the developmental brain stage of adolescents...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737591/hiv-incidence-and-predictors-of-hiv-acquisition-from-an-outside-partner-in-serodiscordant-couples-in-lusaka-zambia-1995-2012
#4
Dvora L Joseph Davey, Kristin M Wall, William Kilembe, Htee Khu Naw, Ilene Brill, Bellington Vwalika, Elwyn Chomba, Joseph Mulenga, Amanda Tichacek, Marjan Javanbakt, Pamina Gorbach, Susan Allen
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the incidence and predictors of HIV acquisition from outside partners in serodiscordant couples. METHODS: Demographic, behavioral, and clinical exposures were measured quarterly in a cohort of serodiscordant cohabiting couples in Zambia from 1995-2012 (n=3049). Genetic analysis classified incident infections as those acquired from the study partner (linked) or acquired from an outside partner (unlinked). Factors associated with time to unlinked HIV infection were evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression stratified by gender...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727687/hippocampus-dependent-memory-and-allele-specific-gene-expression-in-adult-offspring-of-alcohol-consuming-dams-after-neonatal-treatment-with-thyroxin-or-metformin
#5
E Tunc-Ozcan, S L Wert, P H Lim, A Ferreira, E E Redei
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), the result of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE), affects 2-11% of children worldwide, with no effective treatments. Hippocampus-based learning and memory deficits are key symptoms of FASD. Our previous studies show hypothyroxinemia and hyperglycemia of the alcohol-consuming pregnant rat, which likely affects fetal neurodevelopment. We administered vehicle, thyroxine (T4) or metformin to neonatal rats post FAE and rats were tested in the hippocampus-dependent contextual fear-conditioning paradigm in adulthood...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722160/placental-proteomics-reveal-insights-into-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#6
Katie L Davis-Anderson, Sebastian Berger, Emilie R Lunde-Young, Vishal D Naik, Heewon Seo, Greg A Johnson, Hanno Steen, Jayanth Ramadoss
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe many of the well-known neurodevelopmental deficits afflicting children exposed to alcohol in utero. The effects of alcohol on the maternal-fetal interface, especially the placenta, have been less explored. We herein hypothesized that chronic binge alcohol exposure during pregnancy significantly alters the placental protein profile in a rat FASD model METHODS: Pregnant rats were orogastrically treated daily with alcohol (4.5 g/kg, gestational day (GD) 5-10; 6...
July 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721648/recall-of-prenatal-counselling-among-obese-and-overweight-women-from-a-canadian-population-a-population-based-study
#7
Angela E Vinturache, Anika Winn, Suzanne C Tough
Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the recall of prenatal counselling received among overweight and obese women in primary care settings. Methods A sample of 1996 women with singleton, term deliveries and pre-pregnancy BMI >18.5 kg/m(2) were identified from the All Our Babies pregnancy cohort. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and women's experiences with prenatal counselling on nutrition, vitamin and mineral supplements, exercise, weight gain, employment, alcohol and drug use, and smoking during pregnancy were collected through questionnaires administered at <25 weeks and 34-36 weeks gestation...
July 18, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714486/factors-associated-with-smokeless-tobacco-use-among-pregnant-women-in-rural-areas-of-the-southern-terai-nepal
#8
J K Singh, D Acharya, R Kadel, S Adhikari, D Lombard, S Koirala, R Paudel
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use among women during pregnancy leading to poor maternal and child health outcomes has been well documented. However, factors influencing use of smokeless tobacco in Nepal has not yet been well established. This study aims at exploring the factors related to smokeless tobacco use among pregnant women in rural southern Terai of Nepal. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was performed at 52 wards within 6 Village Development Committee in Dhanusha district of Nepal...
January 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708332/oxidative-stress-and-cellular-and-tissue-damage-in-organogenic-outbred-mouse-embryos-after-moderate-perigestational-alcohol-intake
#9
Tamara A Coll, Gabriela Chaufan, Leticia Pérez-Tito, Martín R Ventureira, Cristian M A Sobarzo, María Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, Elisa Cebral
Perigestational alcohol consumption by CF-1 mouse, from before mating up to the period of embryo organogenesis, leads to retarded early embryo development and neural tube defects. Here, we addressed if perigestational alcohol ingestion up to Day 10 of pregnancy induces oxidative stress and changes in macromolecules and organ tissues of early organogenic embryos. Adult CF-1 female mice were administered 10% ethanol in their drinking water for 17 days prior to mating and until Day 10 of gestation, whereas control females were administered ethanol-free water...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707502/appraisal-of-the-psychiatric-diagnostic-screening-questionnaire-in-a-perinatal-cohort-the-apron-study
#10
Brenda Leung, Nicole Letourneau, Katherine Bright, Gerald F Giesbrecht, Henry Ntanda, Lisa Gagnon
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are routinely screened as part of perinatal care. However, other Axis 1 disorders and specific anxiety disorders are less likely to be screened or assessed as part of obstetric care. The objective of this study was to determine whether the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ) is a potentially useful tool to screen for psychiatric conditions in pregnant and postpartum women in a community setting. METHODS: We compared the prevalence of DSM Axis I disorders obtained on the PDSQ with: (1) the prevalence of these disorders reported in previous studies of pregnant and postpartum women, and (2) scores obtained on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R) anxiety scale...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707400/hormone-factors-play-a-favorable-role-in-female-head-and-neck-cancer-risk
#11
Dana Hashim, Samantha Sartori, Carlo La Vecchia, Diego Serraino, Luigino Dal Maso, Eva Negri, Elaine Smith, Fabio Levi, Stefania Boccia, Gabriella Cadoni, Hung N Luu, Yuan-Chin Amy Lee, Mia Hashibe, Paolo Boffetta
Due to lower female incidence, estimates of exogenous and endogenous hormonal factors in head and neck cancers (HNCs, comprising cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx) among women have been inconsistent and unable to account for key HNC risk factors. We pooled data from 11 studies from Europe, North America, and Japan. Analysis included 1572 HNC female cases and 4343 controls. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) estimates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701410/maternal-alcohol-use-disorder-and-child-school-attendance-outcomes-for-non-indigenous-and-indigenous-children-in-western-australia-a-population-cohort-record-linkage-study
#12
Katherine Hafekost, David Lawrence, Colleen O'Leary, Carol Bower, James Semmens, Stephen R Zubrick
OBJECTIVES: Examine the relationship between maternal alcohol use disorder and child school attendance outcomes for non-Indigenous and Indigenous children in Western Australia. DESIGN: Population cohort study. SETTING: Routinely collected linked administrative health, education and child protection data. PARTICIPANTS: Those in-scope for the study were women with a birth recorded on the Western Australian Midwives Notification System (1989-2007)...
July 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698181/risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infection-following-cesarean-delivery-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Felicia Ketcheson, Christy Woolcott, Victoria Allen, Joanne M Langley
BACKGROUND: The rate of cesarean delivery is increasing in North America. Surgical site infection following this operation can make it difficult to recover, care for a baby and return home. We aimed to determine the incidence of surgical site infection to 30 days following cesarean delivery, associated risk factors and whether risk factors differed for predischarge versus postdischarge infection. METHODS: We identified a retrospective cohort in Nova Scotia by linking the provincial perinatal database to hospital admissions and physician billings databases to follow women for 30 days after they had given birth by cesarean delivery between Jan...
July 11, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694200/prevention-and-treatment-of-smoking-and-tobacco-use-during-pregnancy-in-selected-indigenous-communities-in-high-income-countries-of-the-united-states-canada-australia-and-new-zealand-an-evidence-based-review
#14
REVIEW
Gillian S Gould, Ling Li Lim, Joerg Mattes
Tobacco smoking during pregnancy is the most important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term health complications for mother and baby. Tobacco use during pregnancy has decreased in high-income countries but not in indigenous women in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and Canada. This evidence-based review focuses on tobacco use among indigenous pregnant women in high-income countries that share a history of European colonization. Indigenous women are more likely to use tobacco because of socioeconomic disadvantage, social norms, and poor access to culturally appropriate tobacco cessation support...
July 8, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690436/a-rat-model-of-fetal-alcohol-syndrome-a-series-of-undergraduate-laboratory-exercises-for-biopsychology-courses
#15
Ana M H Kehrberg, Jenna N Parrish, Sasha A Eby
Many undergraduate students are aware that consuming alcohol during pregnancy can result in many serious physical and behavioral deficits. Student interest in this clinical syndrome allows instructors to provide engaging laboratory exercises that relate topics covered in most biopsychology courses to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Through this series of experiments, students will use rodents to study the behavioral deficits that can be caused by developmental alcohol exposure, including impaired ultrasonic vocalizations, hyperactivity, balance, and spatial learning...
2017: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686845/metabolomics-and-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-a-mini-review
#16
Erin Goldberg, Michel Aliani
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a major public health issue that encompasses an array of physical, neurological and behavioral effects due to alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Classical biomarkers of FASD that are currently used lack sensitivity and specificity, and as such there is an opportunity through the use of novel metabolomics analysis to identify novel biomarkers to identify those at risk for FASD, which could more effectively aid in early intervention. The focus of this mini-review is to identify current work that has been done in the field of metabolomics in FASD in utero, and to highlight promising metabolites that could act as biomarkers in the future...
July 7, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685855/alcohol-exposure-during-pregnancy-altered-childhood-developmental-trajectories-in-a-rural-south-african-community
#17
Leigh-Anne Davies, Kate Cockcroft, Lynda Olinger, Matthew Chersich, Michael Urban, Candice M Chetty Makkan, Oliver H Turnbull, Leana Olivier, Denis Viljoen
AIM: This study examined the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood development trajectories in a rural South African community between 2003 and 2008. METHODS: We assessed 121 children at 7-12 months (year one) and 5-6 years (year five) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales - Extended Revised, which measures sensorimotor, cognitive and social development, with lower scores indicating developmental delay. We also interviewed their mothers or caregivers...
July 7, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681995/differences-in-neural-crest-sensitivity-to-ethanol-account-for-the-infrequency-of-anterior-segment-defects-in-the-eye-compared-with-craniofacial-anomalies-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-fetal-alcohol-syndrome
#18
Jessica Eason, Antionette L Williams, Bahaar Chawla, Christian Apsey, Brenda L Bohnsack
BACKGROUND: Ethanol (ETOH) exposure during pregnancy is associated with craniofacial and neurologic abnormalities, but infrequently disrupts the anterior segment of the eye. In these studies, we used zebrafish to investigate differences in the teratogenic effect of ETOH on craniofacial, periocular, and ocular neural crest. METHODS: Zebrafish eye and neural crest development was analyzed by means of live imaging, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay, immunostaining, detection of reactive oxygen species, and in situ hybridization...
July 6, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680326/the-effect-of-feeding-mice-during-gestation-and-nursing-with-rhodiola-kirilowii-extracts-or-epigallocatechin-on-cd4-and-cd8-cells-number-and-distribution-in-the-spleen-of-their-progeny
#19
Sławomir Lewicki, Piotr Orłowski, Małgorzata Krzyżowska, Anna Kiepura, Ewa Skopińska-Różewska, Robert Zdanowski
Rhodiola kirilowii, a member of Crassulaceae family, grows wildly in Asiatic mountains and is also cultivated in some European countries. Its underground parts traditionally are used for enhance physical and mental performance of the body. In our previous papers we reported immuno- and angio-modulatory effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of radix and rhizome of this plant in mice. In the present work we evaluated the effect of Rhodiola kirilowii water- (RKW) or hydro-alcoholic (RKW-A) extracts and epigallocatechin (one of the polyphenols present in these extracts) given to mice, during pregnancy and nursing period, on the number and localization of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleens of adult progeny mice...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678641/smoking-and-alcohol-use-among-women-in-russia-dual-risk-for-prenatal-exposure
#20
Tatiana Balachova, Ryan Zander, Barbara Bonner, Galina Isurina, Kathy Kyler, Larissa Tsvetkova, Elena Volkova
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can produce adverse outcomes; maternal smoking compounds this risk. We examined prevalence of smoking and associations between smoking and alcohol use in Russian women of childbearing age (N = 648). Smoking was reported by 35% of nonpregnant and 14% of pregnant women. Smoking prevalence was higher (45%) among at-risk drinkers and those at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP). In a multivariate model, smoking status and city of residence significantly predicted AEP risk...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
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