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International health AND pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702308/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-implementation-in-middle-income-countries
#1
REVIEW
Serena Tricarico, Hannah C McNeil, David W Cleary, Michael G Head, Victor Lim, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Chong Chun Wie, Cheng Siang Tan, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Ismail Aziah, Eddy Seong Guan Cheah, Saul N Faust, Johanna M C Jefferies, Paul J Roderick, Michael Moore, Ho Ming Yuen, Marie-Louise Newell, Nuala McGrath, C Patrick Doncaster, Alex R Kraaijeveld, Jeremy S Webb, Stuart C Clarke
BACKGROUND: Since 2000, the widespread adoption of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has had a major impact in the prevention of pneumonia. Limited access to international financial support means some middle-income countries (MICs) are trailing in the widespread use of PCVs. We review the status of PCV implementation, and discuss any needs and gaps related to low levels of PCV implementation in MICs, with analysis of possible solutions to strengthen the PCV implementation process in MICs...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692139/the-health-threats-to-people-with-asthma-through-asthma-associated-infectious-disease-comorbidities-are-largely-under-recognized
#2
Young J Juhn
In this issue of Journal of Internal Medicine, Helby et al reported that compared to individuals without asthma or other atopic conditions, non-smokers with early asthma (<50 years of age) defined by self-report had increased risk of any infections (hazard ratio (HR) of 1.65, 95%CI: 1.40-1.94), pneumonia (HR of 2.44, 95%CI: 1.92-3.11), and non-respiratory tract infections (HR: 1.36, 95%CI: 1.11-1.67) defined by ICD codes in their large-scale prospective cohort study which followed 105,519 individuals from the general population of the City of Copenhagen, Denmark, for a median duration of 6 years(1) ...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673835/when-should-parapneumonic-pleural-effusions-be-drained-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Gilberto Bueno Fischer, Helena Teresinha Mocelin, Cistiano Feijó Andrade, Edgar E Sarria
Pneumonia is an important health problem in children, and parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE) is a frequent complication. There is no standard strategy for treating PPE, reflected in the few international guidelines that have been published on the issue. Compared to adults, there is no consensus on the utility of pleural fluid analysis in paediatric PPE. This is because of the lack of good evidence either in favour or against it and the risks of procedural sedation for acquiring pleural fluid for analysis to guide management...
June 1, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672017/the-association-between-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-and-speech-and-language-impairment-a-nationwide-population-based-study-in-taiwan
#4
Ching-Shu Tsai, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Yao-Hsu Yang, Tai-Hsin Hung, Mong-Liang Lu, Kuo-You Huang, Michael Gossop
Manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection can range from self-limiting upper respiratory symptoms to various neurological complications, including speech and language impairment. But an association between Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and speech and language impairment has not been sufficiently explored. In this study, we aim to investigate the association between Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and subsequent speech and language impairment in a nationwide population-based sample using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662167/prediction-of-pneumonia-hospitalization-in-adults-using-health-checkup-data
#5
Hironori Uematsu, Kazuto Yamashita, Susumu Kunisawa, Tetsuya Otsubo, Yuichi Imanaka
OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired pneumonia is a common cause of hospitalization, and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended for high-risk individuals. Although risk factors for pneumonia have been identified, there are currently no pneumonia hospitalization prediction models based on the risk profiles of healthy subjects. This study aimed to develop a predictive model for pneumonia hospitalization in adults to accurately identify high-risk individuals to facilitate the efficient prevention of pneumonia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631310/zinc-supplementation-for-the-treatment-of-measles-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Ajibola A Awotiwon, Olabisi Oduwole, Anju Sinha, Charles I Okwundu
BACKGROUND: Measles is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite increasing vaccine coverage. Zinc plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal immunological functions, therefore supplements given to zinc-deficient children will increase the availability of zinc and could reduce measles-related morbidity and mortality. This is an update of a review first published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of zinc supplementation in reducing morbidity and mortality in children with measles...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622786/dairy-cow-disability-weights
#7
Craig S McConnel, Ashleigh A McNeil, Joleen C Hadrich, Jason E Lombard, Franklyn B Garry, Jane Heller
Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612844/nlrp3-inflammasome-pathway-has-a-critical-role-in-the-host-immunity-against-clinically-relevant-acinetobacter-baumannii-pulmonary-infection
#8
N Dikshit, S D Kale, H J Khameneh, V Balamuralidhar, C Y Tang, P Kumar, T P Lim, T T Tan, A L Kwa, A Mortellaro, B Sukumaran
The opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) is a leading cause of life-threatening nosocomial pneumonia. Outbreaks of multidrug resistant (MDR)-AB belonging to international clones (ICs) I and II with limited treatment options are major global health threats. However, the pathogenesis mechanisms of various AB clonal groups are understudied. Although inflammation-associated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels and IL-1 receptor antagonist polymorphisms were previously implicated in MDR-AB-related pneumonia in patients, whether inflammasomes has any role in the host defense and/or pathogenesis of clinically relevant A...
June 14, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608496/stress-ulcer-prophylaxis-in-the-intensive-care-unit-trial-detailed-statistical-analysis-plan
#9
M Krag, A Perner, J Wetterslev, T Lange, M P Wise, M Borthwick, S Bendel, P Pelosi, F Keus, A B Guttormsen, J C Schefold, T S Meyhoff, S Marker, M H Møller
BACKGROUND: In this statistical analysis plan, we aim to provide details of the pre-defined statistical analyses of the Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Intensive Care Unit (SUP-ICU) trial. The aim of the SUP-ICU trial is to assess benefits and harms of stress ulcer prophylaxis with a proton pump inhibitor in adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: The SUP-ICU trial is an investigator-initiated, international, multicentre, randomised, blinded, parallel-group trial of intravenously pantoprazole 40 mg once daily vs...
June 12, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607674/gender-bias-in-careseeking-practices-in-57-low-and-middle-income-countries
#10
Janaína Calu Costa, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Aluísio Jd Barros, Cesar G Victora
BACKGROUND: Preventive and curative medical interventions can reduce child mortality. It is important to assess whether there is gender bias in access to these interventions, which can lead to preferential treatment of children of a given sex. METHODS: Data from Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in 57 low- and middle-income countries were used. The outcome variable was a composite careseeking indicator, which represents the proportion of children with common childhood symptoms or illnesses (diarrhea, fever, or suspected pneumonia) who were taken to an appropriate provider...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595293/examination-of-cause-of-death-data-quality-among-nyc-deaths-due-to-cancer-pneumonia-or-diabetes-from-2010-to-2014
#11
Laura Falci, Erica J Lee Argov, Gretchen Van Wye, Madia Plitt, Antonio Soto, Mary Huynh
The cause-of-death (COD) statement reported on the death certificate is a valuable tool for public health practice, but its utility is impaired by reporting inaccuracies. To assess the quality of the COD reported in New York City, we developed and applied a quality measure to three leading causes of death: cancer, pneumonia, and diabetes. The COD quality measure characterized five common issues with COD completion: non-specific conditions as the underlying COD (UCOD); UCOD discrepancies; one informative cause in the entire certificate; competing causes listed together on one line; and clinically improbable sequences...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575358/standardization-of-laboratory-methods-for-the-perch-study
#12
Amanda J Driscoll, Ruth A Karron, Susan C Morpeth, Niranjan Bhat, Orin S Levine, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Laura L Hammitt, Stephen R C Howie, Maria Deloria Knoll, Karen L Kotloff, Shabir A Madhi, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Peter V Adrian, Dilruba Ahmed, Muntasir Alam, Trevor P Anderson, Martin Antonio, Vicky L Baillie, Michel Dione, Hubert P Endtz, Caroline Gitahi, Angela Karani, Geoffrey Kwenda, Abdoul Aziz Maiga, Jessica McClellan, Joanne L Mitchell, Palesa Morailane, Daisy Mugo, John Mwaba, James Mwansa, Salim Mwarumba, Sammy Nyongesa, Sandra Panchalingam, Mustafizur Rahman, Pongpun Sawatwong, Boubou Tamboura, Aliou Toure, Toni Whistler, Katherine L O'Brien, David R Murdoch
The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study was conducted across 7 diverse research sites and relied on standardized clinical and laboratory methods for the accurate and meaningful interpretation of pneumonia etiology data. Blood, respiratory specimens, and urine were collected from children aged 1-59 months hospitalized with severe or very severe pneumonia and community controls of the same age without severe pneumonia and were tested with an extensive array of laboratory diagnostic tests. A standardized testing algorithm and standard operating procedures were applied across all study sites...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575357/data-management-and-data-quality-in-perch-a-large-international-case-control-study-of-severe-childhood-pneumonia
#13
Nora L Watson, Christine Prosperi, Amanda J Driscoll, Melissa M Higdon, Daniel E Park, Megan Sanza, Andrea N DeLuca, Juliet O Awori, Doli Goswami, Emily Hammond, Lokman Hossain, Catherine Johnson, Alice Kamau, Locadiah Kuwanda, David P Moore, Omid Neyzari, Uma Onwuchekwa, David Parker, Patranuch Sapchookul, Phil Seidenberg, Arifin Shamsul, Kazungu Siazeele, Prasong Srisaengchai, Mamadou Sylla, Orin S Levine, David R Murdoch, Katherine L O'Brien, Mark Wolff, Maria Deloria Knoll
The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study is the largest multicountry etiology study of pediatric pneumonia undertaken in the past 3 decades. The study enrolled 4232 hospitalized cases and 5325 controls over 2 years across 9 research sites in 7 countries in Africa and Asia. The volume and complexity of data collection in PERCH presented considerable logistical and technical challenges. The project chose an internet-based data entry system to allow real-time access to the data, enabling the project to monitor and clean incoming data and perform preliminary analyses throughout the study...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562611/direct-estimates-of-cause-specific-mortality-fractions-and-rates-of-under-five-deaths-in-the-northern-and-southern-regions-of-nigeria-by-verbal-autopsy-interview
#14
Adeyinka Adewemimo, Henry D Kalter, Jamie Perin, Alain K Koffi, John Quinley, Robert E Black
Nigeria's under-five mortality rate is the eighth highest in the world. Identifying the causes of under-five deaths is crucial to achieving Sustainable Development Goal 3 by 2030 and improving child survival. National and international bodies collaborated in this study to provide the first ever direct estimates of the causes of under-five mortality in Nigeria. Verbal autopsy interviews were conducted of a representative sample of 986 neonatal and 2,268 1-59 month old deaths from 2008 to 2013 identified by the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487456/deriving-literature-based-benchmarks-for-surgical-complications-in-high-income-countries-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Mary E Brindle, Derek J Roberts, Oluwatomilayo Daodu, Alex Bernard Haynes, Christy Cauley, Elijah Dixon, Claude La Flamme, Paul Bain, William Berry
INTRODUCTION: To improve surgical safety, health systems must identify preventable adverse outcomes and measure changes in these outcomes in response to quality improvement initiatives. This requires understanding of the scope and limitations of available population-level data. To derive literature-based summary estimates of benchmarks of care, we will systematically review and meta-analyse rates of postoperative complications associated with several common and/or high-risk operations performed in five high-income countries (HICs)...
May 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482830/comparing-national-infectious-disease-surveillance-systems-china-and-the-netherlands
#16
Willemijn L Vlieg, Ewout B Fanoy, Liselotte van Asten, Xiaobo Liu, Jun Yang, Eva Pilot, Paul Bijkerk, Wim van der Hoek, Thomas Krafft, Marianne A van der Sande, Qi-Yong Liu
BACKGROUND: Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of arboviral disease and unexplained pneumonia were analysed to gain a better understanding of the RAEW mode of operation. This study may be used to explore options for further strengthening of global collaboration and timely detection and surveillance of infectious disease outbreaks...
May 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473487/disease-surveillance-in-england-and-wales-april-2017
#17
(no author information available yet)
▪ Current and emerging issues: update on Schmallenberg virus▪ Highlights from the scanning surveillance network▪ Update on international disease threats▪ Focus on Klebsiella pneumoniae septicaemia in preweaned pigsThese are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for April 2017.
May 6, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458208/international-high-risk-clones-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-kpc-2-cc258-and-escherichia-coli-ctx-m-15-cc10-in-urban-lake-waters
#18
Tatiane Nascimento, Rodrigo Cantamessa, Luana Melo, Miriam R Fernandes, Edmir Fraga, Milena Dropa, Maria I Z Sato, Louise Cerdeira, Nilton Lincopan
The emergence of high-risk clones of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in aquatic environments has generated an important public health problem, creating an urgent need to strengthen surveillance. This study reports the occurrence of clinically significant MDR Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative bacteria carrying carbapenemases (KPC-2), extended-spectrum β-lactamases (CTX-M) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in urban lakes and reservoirs, in Southeastern Brazil. In this regard, the detection of hospital-associated lineages of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae belonging to the international clonal complex CC258 (ST11) and CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli belonging to the international CC10 (ST617), in an urban lake, is reported for the first time...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414415/ultrasonography-for-confirmation-of-gastric-tube-placement
#19
REVIEW
Hiraku Tsujimoto, Yasushi Tsujimoto, Yukihiko Nakata, Mai Akazawa, Yuki Kataoka
BACKGROUND: Gastric tubes are commonly used for the administration of drugs and tube feeding for people who are unable to swallow. Feeding via a tube misplaced in the trachea can result in severe pneumonia. Therefore, the confirmation of tube placement in the stomach after tube insertion is important. Recent studies have reported that ultrasonography provides good diagnostic accuracy estimates in the confirmation of appropriate tube placement. Hence, ultrasound could provide a promising alternative to X-rays in the confirmation of tube placement, especially in settings where X-ray facilities are unavailable or difficult to access...
April 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385463/clinical-and-social-barriers-to-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-pulmonary-medicine-a-qualitative-study
#20
Jennifer K Broom, Alex F Broom, Emma R Kirby, Alexandra F Gibson, Jeffrey J Post
BACKGROUND: The treatment of pulmonary infections is one of the largest indications for antibiotics in human health care, offering significant potential for antibiotic optimization internationally. This study explores the perspectives of pulmonary clinicians on antibiotic use in hospital pulmonary infections. METHODS: Twenty-eight pulmonary doctors and nurses from 2 hospitals participated in semi-structured interviews focusing on their experiences of antibiotic use...
April 3, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
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