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Ethanol pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888055/dietary-choline-levels-modify-the-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#1
Nirelia M Idrus, Kristen R Breit, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor...
November 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862017/the-effects-of-ethanol-exposure-during-distinct-periods-of-brain-development-on-oxidative-stress-in-the-adult-rat-brain
#2
Patricia S Brocardo, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Ryan Wortman, Athena Noonan, Eric McGinnis, Anna R Patten, Brian R Christie
BACKGROUND: The consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can result in abnormal fetal development and impaired brain function in humans and experimental animal models. Depending on the pattern of consumption, the dose, and the period of exposure to ethanol (EtOH), a variety of structural and functional brain deficits can be observed. METHODS: This study compared the effects of EtOH exposure during distinct periods of brain development on oxidative damage and endogenous antioxidant status in various brain regions of adult female and male Sprague Dawley rats...
November 11, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812507/gene-expression-in-the-mouse-brain-following-early-pregnancy-exposure-to-ethanol
#3
Christine R Zhang, Suyinn Chong
Exposure to alcohol during early embryonic or fetal development has been linked with a variety of adverse outcomes, the most common of which are structural and functional abnormalities of the central nervous system [1]. Behavioural and cognitive deficits reported in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero include intellectual impairment, learning and memory difficulties, diminished executive functioning, attention problems, poor motor function and hyperactivity [2]. The economic and social costs of these outcomes are substantial and profound [3], [4]...
December 2016: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788773/maternal-choline-supplementation-in-a-sheep-model-of-first-trimester-binge-alcohol-fails-to-protect-against-brain-volume-reductions-in-peripubertal-lambs
#4
Sharla M Birch, Mark W Lenox, Joe N Kornegay, Beatriz Paniagua, Martin A Styner, Charles R Goodlett, Tim A Cudd, Shannon E Washburn
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading potentially preventable birth defect. Poor nutrition may contribute to adverse developmental outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure, and supplementation of essential micronutrients such as choline has shown benefit in rodent models. The sheep model of first-trimester binge alcohol exposure was used in this study to model the dose of maternal choline supplementation used in an ongoing prospective clinical trial involving pregnancies at risk for FASD. Primary outcome measures including volumetrics of the whole brain, cerebellum, and pituitary derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 6-month-old lambs, testing the hypothesis that alcohol-exposed lambs would have brain volume reductions that would be ameliorated by maternal choline supplementation...
September 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697226/alcohol-exposure-impairs-trophoblast-survival-and-alters-subtype-specific-gene-expression-in%C3%A2-vitro
#5
J I Kalisch-Smith, J E Outhwaite, D G Simmons, M Pantaleon, K M Moritz
Maternal alcohol consumption is common prior to pregnancy recognition and in the rat results in altered placental development and fetal growth restriction. To assess the effect of ethanol (EtOH) exposure on the differentiation of trophoblast stem (TS) cells, mouse TS lines were differentiated in vitro for 6 days in 0%, 0.2% or 1% EtOH. This reduced both trophoblast survival and expression of labyrinth and junctional zone trophoblast subtype-specific genes. This suggests that fetal growth restriction and altered placental development associated with maternal alcohol consumption in the periconceptional period could be mediated in part by direct effects on trophoblast development...
October 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565755/did-you-drink-alcohol-during-pregnancy-inaccuracy-and-discontinuity-of-women-s-self-reports-on-the-way-to-establish-meconium-ethyl-glucuronide-etg-as-a-biomarker-for-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy
#6
Anna Eichler, Juliane Grunitz, Jennifer Grimm, Lisa Walz, Eva Raabe, Tamme W Goecke, Matthias W Beckmann, Oliver Kratz, Hartmut Heinrich, Gunther H Moll, Peter A Fasching, Johannes Kornhuber
Consuming alcohol during pregnancy is one of the most verified prenatal risk factors for impaired child development. Information about the amount of alcohol consumed prenatally is needed to anticipate negative effects and to offer timely support. Women's self-reports are not reliable, often influenced by social stigmas and retrospective recall bias, causing biomarkers of intrauterine ethanol exposure to become more and more relevant. The present study compares both women's gestational and retrospective self-reports of prenatal alcohol consumption with levels of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium...
August 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565750/effect-of-prenatal-ethanol-exposure-on-sexual-motivation-in-adult-rats
#7
Mara Aparecida P Ávila, Gabriela Cristina P Marthos, Liliane Gibram M Oliveira, Eduardo Costa Figueiredo, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva, Fabiana Cardoso Vilela
Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy adversely affects prenatal and postnatal growth and increases the risk of behavioral deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to a moderate dose of alcohol on sexual motivation during adulthood. Rats were prenatally exposed to ethanol by feeding pregnant dams a liquid diet containing 25% ethanol-derived calories on days 6 through 19 of gestation. The controls consisted of pair-fed dams (receiving an isocaloric liquid diet containing 0% ethanol-derived calories) and dams with ad libitum access to a liquid control diet...
August 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537918/ethanol-induced-neurodegeneration-and-glial-activation-in-the-developing-brain
#8
REVIEW
Mariko Saito, Goutam Chakraborty, Maria Hui, Kurt Masiello, Mitsuo Saito
Ethanol induces neurodegeneration in the developing brain, which may partially explain the long-lasting adverse effects of prenatal ethanol exposure in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While animal models of FASD show that ethanol-induced neurodegeneration is associated with glial activation, the relationship between glial activation and neurodegeneration has not been clarified. This review focuses on the roles of activated microglia and astrocytes in neurodegeneration triggered by ethanol in rodents during the early postnatal period (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy)...
August 16, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462100/inflammatory-responses-to-alcohol-in-the-cns-nuclear-receptors-as-potential-therapeutics-for-alcohol-induced-neuropathologies
#9
REVIEW
Cynthia J M Kane, Paul D Drew
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), which results from ethanol exposure during pregnancy, and alcohol use disorder (AUD), which includes both binge and chronic alcohol abuse, are strikingly common and costly at personal and societal levels. These disorders are associated with significant pathology, including that observed in the CNS. It is now appreciated in both humans and animal models that ethanol can induce inflammation in the CNS. Neuroinflammation is hypothesized to contribute to the neuropathologic and behavioral consequences in FASD and AUD...
November 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458336/genetic-syndromes-maternal-diseases-and-antenatal-factors-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-asd
#10
REVIEW
Asher Ornoy, Liza Weinstein-Fudim, Zivanit Ergaz
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affecting about 1% of all children is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal etiologies. In addition, ASD is often an important clinical presentation of some well-known genetic syndromes in human. We discuss these syndromes as well as the role of the more important prenatal factors affecting the fetus throughout pregnancy which may also be associated with ASD. Among the genetic disorders we find Fragile X, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Timothy syndrome, Phelan-McDermid syndrome, Hamartoma tumor syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, and a few others...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437703/is-breast-cancer-risk-associated-with-alcohol-intake-before-first-full-term-pregnancy
#11
Harindra Jayasekara, Robert J MacInnis, Allison M Hodge, Robin Room, Roger L Milne, John L Hopper, Graham G Giles, Dallas R English
PURPOSE: It is plausible that breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens, including ethanol, between menarche and the first full-term pregnancy ("first pregnancy"). There is some epidemiological evidence that intake before the first pregnancy is more closely associated with risk of breast cancer than is intake thereafter. We examined this association using lifetime alcohol consumption data from a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We calculated usual alcohol intake for age periods 15-19 years and for 10-year period from age 20 to current age (in grams per day) using recalled frequency and quantity of beverage-specific consumption for 13,630 parous women who had their first pregnancy at age 20 years or later, had no cancer history and were aged 40-69 years at enrollment...
September 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422904/alcohol-exposure-leads-to-unrecoverable-cardiovascular-defects-along-with-edema-and-motor-function-changes-in-developing-zebrafish-larvae
#12
Xu Li, Aiai Gao, Yanan Wang, Man Chen, Jun Peng, Huaying Yan, Xin Zhao, Xizeng Feng, Dongyan Chen
Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome). In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium...
2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375424/third-trimester-equivalent-alcohol-exposure-reduces-modulation-of-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-by-5-ht1a-receptors-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca3-region
#13
Russell A Morton, C Fernando Valenzuela
Fetal alcohol exposure has been associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders that have been linked to altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) signaling, including depression and anxiety. During the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy) 5-HT neurons undergo significant functional maturation and their axons reach target regions in the forebrain (e.g., cortex and hippocampus). The objective of this study was to identify the effects of third trimester ethanol (EtOH) exposure on hippocampal 5-HT signaling...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330832/study-of-the-effects-of-diazinon-on-fetal-liver-in-balb-c-mice
#14
Fatemeh Saraei, Mehrangiz Sadoughi, Gholamreza Kaka, Seyed Homayoon Sadraie, Mohsen Foaddodini
BACKGROUND: Diazinon is an organophosphate that is broadly used as a pesticide to control insects and environmental pollutions. This toxic material is absorbed via inhalation, contact, or digestion and affects different tissues. OBJECTIVES: This research was a histomorphometric and immunohistochemical study of the fetal liver of mice after exposure to Diazinon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five pregnant BALB/c mice (25 - 30 gr) were divided into five equal groups in the animal lab of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran...
April 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299903/prevalence-of-ethanol-use-among-pregnant-women-in-southwestern-uganda
#15
L L English, G Mugyenyi, I Nightingale, G Kiwanuka, J Ngonzi, B E Grunau, S MacLeod, G Koren, K Delano, J Kabakyenga, M O Wiens
Introduction The prevalence of ethanol use in many Sub-Saharan African countries is high, but little research exists on use during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of ethanol use among pregnant women in Southwestern Uganda. Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in the maternity ward at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH). All pregnant women giving birth at MRRH between September 23, 2013 and November 23, 2013 were eligible for enrollment...
October 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296969/consequences-of-low-or-moderate-prenatal-ethanol-exposures-during-gastrulation-or-neurulation-for-open-field-activity-and-emotionality-in-mice
#16
Uta B Schambra, Kevin Nunley, Theresa A Harrison, C Nicole Lewis
In a previous study we used a mouse model for ethanol exposure during gastrulation or neurulation to investigate the effects of modest and occasional human drinking during the 3rd or 4th week of pregnancy (Schambra et al., 2015). Pregnant C57Bl/6J mice were treated by gavage during gastrulation on gestational day (GD) 7 or neurulation on GD8 with 2 doses 4h apart of either 2.4 or 2.9g ethanol/kg body weight, resulting in peak blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) of 104 and 177mg/dl, respectively. We found that mice exposed to the low dose on either day were significantly delayed in their neonatal sensorimotor development...
June 10, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265477/ethanol-impedes-embryo-transport-and-impairs-oviduct-epithelium
#17
Tonghui Xu, Qiuhong Yang, Ruoxi Liu, Wenfu Wang, Shuanglian Wang, Chuanyong Liu, Jingxin Li
Most studies have demonstrated that alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol on pre-implantation embryo transport and/or early embryo development in the oviduct. We reported here that ethanol concentration-dependently suppressed the spontaneous motility of isolated human oviduct strips (EC50 50±6mM), which was largely attenuated in the present of L-NAME, a classical nitric oxide synthase(NOS) competitive inhibitor. Notably, either acute or chronic alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the mouse oviduct, which was largely rescued by co-administration of L-NAME in a acute alcohol intake group but not in chronic alcohol intake group...
May 16, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234800/clinical-issues-june-2016
#18
Amber Wood, Mary J Ogg, Kerrie Chambers
Use of alcohol (ethanol)-based hand rubs (ABHRs) during pregnancy Key words: alcohol, ethanol, hand rub, ABHR, hand sanitizer. Working when experiencing a shingles infection Key words: shingles, varicella, zoster, employee health. Cleaning rigid containers Key words: rigid container, container, instrument pan.
June 2016: AORN Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167915/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-american-college-of-endocrinology-and-associazione-medici-endocrinologi-medical-guidelines-for-clinical-practice-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-thyroid-nodules-2016-update
#19
Hossein Gharib, Enrico Papini, Jeffrey R Garber, Daniel S Duick, R Mack Harrell, Laszlo Hegedüs, Ralf Paschke, Roberto Valcavi, Paolo Vitti
Thyroid nodules are detected in up to 50 to 60% of healthy subjects. Most nodules do not cause clinically significant symptoms, and as a result, the main challenge in their management is to rule out malignancy, with ultrasonography (US) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy serving as diagnostic cornerstones. The key issues discussed in these guidelines are as follows: (1) US-based categorization of the malignancy risk and indications for US-guided FNA (henceforth, FNA), (2) cytologic classification of FNA samples, (3) the roles of immunocytochemistry and molecular testing applied to thyroid FNA, (4) therapeutic options, and (5) follow-up strategy...
May 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148536/consumption-of-substances-of-abuse-during-pregnancy-increases-consumption-in-offspring-possible-underlying-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Kinning Poon, Sarah F Leibowitz
Correlative human observational studies on substances of abuse have been highly dependent on the use of rodent models to determine the neuronal and molecular mechanisms that control behavioral outcomes. This is particularly true for gestational exposure to non-illicit substances of abuse, such as excessive dietary fat, ethanol, and nicotine, which are commonly consumed in our society. Exposure to these substances during the prenatal period has been shown in offspring to increase their intake of these substances, induce other behavioral changes, and affect neurochemical systems in several brain areas that are known to control behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
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