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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149347/application-of-a-physiological-strain-index-in-evaluating-responses-to-exercise-stress-a-comparison-between-endurance-and-high-intensity-intermittent-trained-athletes
#1
Ilona Pokora, Aleksandra Żebrowska
The study evaluated differences in response to exercise stress between endurance and high-intensity intermittent trained athletes in a thermoneutral environment using a physiological strain index (PSI). Thirty-two subjects participated in a running exercise under normal (23°C, 50% RH) conditions. The group included nine endurance trained athletes (middle-distance runners - MD), twelve high-intensity intermittent trained athletes (soccer players - HIIT) and eleven students who constituted a control group. The exercise started at a speed of 4 km·h(-1) which was increased every 3 min by 2 km·h(-1) to volitional exhaustion...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121796/sil-6r-is-related-to-weekly-training-mileage-and-psychological-well-being-in-athletes
#2
Tom Cullen, Andrew W Thomas, Richard Webb, Thom Phillips, Michael G Hughes
INTRODUCTION: IL-6 has been ascribed both positive and negative roles in the context of exercise and training. The dichotomous nature of IL-6 signalling appears to be determined by the respective concentration of its receptors (both membrane-bound (IL-6R) and soluble (sIL-6R) forms). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the response of sIL-6R to long-term training, and to investigate the relationship between sIL-6R, self-reported measures of wellbeing, and upper respiratory illness symptoms (URS) in highly-trained endurance athletes...
January 24, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121198/supercompensation-kinetics-of-physical-qualities-during-a-taper-in-team-sport-athletes
#3
Bruno Marrier, Julien Robineau, Julien Piscione, Mathieu Lacome, Alexis Peeters, Christophe Hausswirth, Jean-Benoît Morin, Yann Le Meur
PURPOSE: Peaking for major competition is considered critical for maximizing team sports performance. However, there is little scientific information available to guide coaches in prescribing efficient tapering strategies for team sports players. The aim of this study was to monitor the changes in physical performance in elite team sports players during a 3-week taper following a pre-season training camp. METHODS: Ten male international rugby sevens players were tested before (Pre) and after (Post) a 4-week pre-season training camp focusing on high-intensity training and strength training with moderate loads, and once each week during a subsequent 3-week taper (T1, T2, T3)...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051335/managing-the-training-load-in-adolescent-athletes
#4
Andrew Murray
While historically adolescents were removed from their parents to prepare to become warriors, this process repeats itself in modern times but with the outcome being athletic performance. This review considers the process of developing athletes and managing load against the backdrop of differing approaches of conserving and maximizing the talent available. It acknowledges the typical training 'dose' that adolescent athletes receive across a number of sports and the typical 'response' when it is excessive or not managed appropriately...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018192/differences-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-young-adult-endurance-athletes-and-healthy-controls
#5
David A Raichlen, Pradyumna K Bharadwaj, Megan C Fitzhugh, Kari A Haws, Gabrielle-Ann Torre, Theodore P Trouard, Gene E Alexander
Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991484/relationship-between-the-handball-specific-complex-test-and-intermittent-field-test-performance-in-elite-professional-handball-players
#6
René Schwesig, Souhail Hermassi, Birgit Hoffmeyer, Lars Irlenbusch, Georg Fieseler, Frank Noack, Karl S Delank, Tim J Gabbett, Mohamed S Chelly
BACKGROUND: We investigated the relationship between the handball complex-test (HBCT) and two selected field tests in elite handball players. METHODS: Twenty one handball players (age: 25.2 ± 5.1 years) from the First Professional German League completed; the HBCT performed twice, total distance (TD) covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and repeated shuttle sprint ability (RSA) (6 x (15 + 15 m)) starting every 20 s. RSA results were evaluated in three ways: best time (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and decrement (RSAdec)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958445/thermography-for-skin-temperature-evaluation-during-dynamic-exercise-a-case-study-on-an-incremental-maximal-test-in-elite-male-cyclists
#7
Nicola Ludwig, Athos Trecroci, Marco Gargano, Damiano Formenti, Andrea Bosio, Ermanno Rampinini, Giampietro Alberti
The use of thermal imaging in monitoring the dynamic of skin temperature during prolonged physical exercise is central to assess athletes' ability to dissipate heat from the skin surface to the environment. In this study, seven elite cyclists completed an incremental maximal cycling test to evaluate their skin temperature response under controlled-environment conditions. Thermal images have been analyzed using a method based on maxima detection (T<sub>max</sub>). Data confirmed a reduction in skin temperature due to vasoconstriction during the exercise, followed by a temperature increment after exhaustion...
December 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937967/tensiomyographical-responses-to-accelerometer-loads-in-female-collegiate-basketball-players
#8
Kyle D Peterson, Gabriela T Quiggle
The purpose of the present study was to characterise the relationship between relative versus absolute internal and external loads in collegiate basketball players throughout the course of a season. Five Division I basketball players wore triaxial accelerometers throughout the 2015-2016 season and were tensiomyographically assessed weekly. One-way repeated-measure analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) with least-significant-difference (LSD) pairwise comparisons was used to determine which absolute weekly loads were different across the season...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918666/quantification-of-training-and-competition-loads-in-endurance-sports-methods-and-applications
#9
Iñigo Mujika
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895662/muscle-enriched-micrornas-isolated-from-whole-blood-are-regulated-by-exercise-and-are-potential-biomarkers-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness
#10
Joshua Denham, Priscilla R Prestes
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Evidence indicating miRNAs influence exercise-induced health and performance adaptations is mounting. Circulating miRNAs are responsible for intercellular communication and could serve as biomarkers for disease and exercise-related traits. Such biomarkers would contribute to exercise screening, monitoring, and the development of personalized exercise prescription. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of long-term strenuous aerobic exercise training and a single bout of maximal aerobic exercise on five muscle-enriched miRNAs implicated in exercise adaptations (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-181a, miR-486, and miR-494)...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857951/validation-of-an-ingestible-temperature-data-logging-and-telemetry-system-during-exercise-in-the-heat
#11
Gavin J S Travers, David S Nichols, Abdulaziz Farooq, Sébastien Racinais, Julien D Périard
Aim: Intestinal temperature telemetry systems are promising monitoring and research tools in athletes. However, the additional equipment that must be carried to continuously record temperature data limits their use to training. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a new gastrointestinal temperature data logging and telemetry system (e-Celsius™) during water bath experimentation and exercise trials. Materials and Methods: Temperature readings of 23 pairs of e-Celsius (TeC) and VitalSense (TVS) ingestible capsules were compared to rectal thermistor responses (Trec) at 35, 38...
April 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797733/german-translation-and-content-validation-of-the-ostrc-questionnaire-on-overuse-injuries-and-health-problems
#12
A Hirschmüller, K Steffen, K Fassbender, B Clarsen, R Leonhard, L Konstantinidis, N P Südkamp, E J Kubosch
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) Questionnaire on Health Problems into the German context. METHODS: A slightly modified back-translation method was used to translate the questionnaire. Validation was done in 24 high-level Paralympic athletes followed over 20 consecutive weeks. RESULTS: The translated version of the questionnaire showed a very high internal consistency and good test-retest reliability (Cronbach's α 0...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782053/circulating-micrornas-as-potential-biomarkers-of-exercise-response
#13
REVIEW
Mája Polakovičová, Peter Musil, Eugen Laczo, Dušan Hamar, Ján Kyselovič
Systematic physical activity increases physical fitness and exercise capacity that lead to the improvement of health status and athletic performance. Considerable effort is devoted to identifying new biomarkers capable of evaluating exercise performance capacity and progress in training, early detection of overtraining, and monitoring health-related adaptation changes. Recent advances in OMICS technologies have opened new opportunities in the detection of genetic, epigenetic and transcriptomic biomarkers. Very promising are mainly small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs)...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714955/restricting-dietary-sodium-reduces-plasma-sodium-response-to-exercise-in-the-heat
#14
E E Koenders, C P G Franken, J D Cotter, S N Thornton, N J Rehrer
Exercise-associated hyponatremia can be life-threatening. Excessive hypotonic fluid ingestion is the primary etiological factor but does not explain all variability. Possible effects of chronic sodium intake are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary sodium affects plasma sodium concentration [Na(+) ] during exercise in the heat, when water intake nearly matches mass loss. Endurance-trained men (n = 9) participated in this crossover experiment. Each followed a low-sodium (lowNa) or high-sodium (highNa) diet for 9 days with 24-h fluid intakes and urine outputs measured before experimental trials (day 10)...
October 7, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625070/effects-of-exercise-on-alterations-in-redox-homeostasis-in-elite-male-and-female-endurance-athletes-using-a-clinical-point-of-care-test
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Nathan A Lewis, Colin Towey, Georgie Bruinvels, Glyn Howatson, Charles R Pedlar
Exercise causes alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH). Measuring ARH in elite athletes may aid in the identification of training tolerance, fatigued states, and underperformance. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined ARH in elite male and female distance runners at sea level. The monitoring of ARH in athletes is hindered by a lack of reliable and repeatable in-the-field testing tools and by the rapid turnaround of results. We examined the effects of various exercise intensities on ARH in healthy (non-over-reached) elite male and female endurance athletes using clinical point-of-care (POC) redox tests, referred to as the free oxygen radical test (FORT) (pro-oxidant) and the free oxygen radical defence (FORD) (antioxidant)...
October 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617566/assessing-overreaching-with-hrr-what-is-the-minimal-exercise-intensity-required
#16
Yann Le Meur, Martin Buchheit, Anaël Aubry, Aaron J Coutts, Christophe Hausswirth
PURPOSE: Faster heart rate recovery (HRR) following high-to-maximal exercise (≥90% HRmax) has been reported in athletes suspected of functional overreaching (f-OR). This study investigated whether this response would also occur at lower exercise intensity. METHODS AND RESULTS: HRR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) responses were compared during an incremental intermittent running protocol to exhaustion in twenty experienced male triathletes (8 control and 13 overload subjects led to f-OR) before (Pre), immediately after an overload training period (Mid) and following a 1-week taper (Post)...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301981/blood-glucose-levels-of-subelite-athletes-during-6-days-of-free-living
#17
Felicity Thomas, Chris G Pretty, Thomas Desaive, J Geoffrey Chase
BACKGROUND: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices, with their 1-5 min measurement interval, allow blood glucose (BG) concentration dynamics to be captured more frequently and less invasively than traditional BG measures. One cohort CGM could provide insight is athletes. This study investigates what impact their heightened energy expenditure and dietary intake may have on their ability to achieve optimal BG. METHODS: Ten subelite athletes (resting HR<60 bpm, training>6 hrs per week) were recruited...
November 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214584/monitoring-weekly-heart-rate-variability-in-futsal-players-during-the-preseason-the-importance-of-maintaining-high-vagal-activity
#18
Fabio Y Nakamura, Lucas A Pereira, Felipe N Rabelo, Andrew A Flatt, Michael R Esco, Maurizio Bertollo, Irineu Loturco
This study aimed to compare the weekly natural log of the root-mean-square difference of successive normal inter-beat (RR) intervals (ln RMSSDWeekly) and its coefficient of variation (ln RMSSDCV) in response to 5 weeks of preseason training in professional male futsal players. A secondary aim was to assess the relationship between ln RMSSDWeekly and ln RMSSDCV. The ln RMSSD is a measure of cardiac-vagal activity, and ln RMSSDCV represents the perturbations of cardiac autonomic homeostasis, which may be useful for assessing how athletes are coping with training...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194668/relationships-between-internal-and-external-training-load-in-team-sport-athletes-evidence-for-an-individualised-approach
#19
Jonathan D Bartlett, Fergus O'Connor, Nathan Pitchford, Lorena Torres-Ronda, Samuel J Robertson
Purpose The aim of this study was to quantify and predict relationships between RPE and GPS training load variables in professional Australian Football (AF) players using group and individualised modelling approaches. Methods Training load data (GPS and RPE) for 41 professional AF players was obtained over a period of 27 weeks. A total of 2711 training observations were analysed with a total of 66 ±13 sessions per player (range; 39 to 89). Separate generalised estimating equations (GEE) and artificial neural network analyses (ANN) were conducted to determine the ability to predict RPE from training load variables (i...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27172268/a-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-based-running-plan-improves-athletic-performance-by-improving-muscle-power
#20
Felipe García-Pinillos, Jose C Cámara-Pérez, Víctor M Soto-Hermoso, Pedro Á Latorre-Román
García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG)...
January 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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