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monitoring, training response, athlete

E E Koenders, C P G Franken, J D Cotter, S N Thornton, N J Rehrer
Exercise-associated hyponatremia can be life-threatening. Excessive hypotonic fluid ingestion is the primary etiological factor but does not explain all variability. Possible effects of chronic sodium intake are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary sodium affects plasma sodium concentration [Na(+) ] during exercise in the heat, when water intake nearly matches mass loss. Endurance-trained men (n = 9) participated in this crossover experiment. Each followed a low-sodium (lowNa) or high-sodium (highNa) diet for 9 days with 24-h fluid intakes and urine outputs measured before experimental trials (day 10)...
October 7, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Nathan A Lewis, Colin Towey, Georgie Bruinvels, Glyn Howatson, Charles R Pedlar
Exercise causes alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH). Measuring ARH in elite athletes may aid in the identification of training tolerance, fatigued states, and underperformance. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined ARH in elite male and female distance runners at sea level. The monitoring of ARH in athletes is hindered by a lack of reliable and repeatable in-the-field testing tools and by the rapid turnaround of results. We examined the effects of various exercise intensities on ARH in healthy (non-over-reached) elite male and female endurance athletes using clinical point-of-care (POC) redox tests, referred to as the free oxygen radical test (FORT) (pro-oxidant) and the free oxygen radical defence (FORD) (antioxidant)...
October 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Yann Le Meur, Martin Buchheit, Anaël Aubry, Aaron J Coutts, Christophe Hausswirth
PURPOSE: Faster heart rate recovery (HRR) following high-to-maximal exercise (≥90% HRmax) has been reported in athletes suspected of functional overreaching (f-OR). This study investigated whether this response would also occur at lower exercise intensity. METHODS AND RESULTS: HRR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) responses were compared during an incremental intermittent running protocol to exhaustion in twenty experienced male triathletes (8 control and 13 overload subjects led to f-OR) before (Pre), immediately after an overload training period (Mid) and following a 1-week taper (Post)...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Felicity Thomas, Chris G Pretty, Thomas Desaive, J Geoffrey Chase
BACKGROUND: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices, with their 1-5 min measurement interval, allow blood glucose (BG) concentration dynamics to be captured more frequently and less invasively than traditional BG measures. One cohort CGM could provide insight is athletes. This study investigates what impact their heightened energy expenditure and dietary intake may have on their ability to achieve optimal BG. METHODS: Ten subelite athletes (resting HR<60 bpm, training>6 hrs per week) were recruited...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Fabio Y Nakamura, Lucas A Pereira, Felipe N Rabelo, Andrew A Flatt, Michael R Esco, Maurizio Bertollo, Irineu Loturco
This study aimed to compare the weekly natural log of the root-mean-square difference of successive normal inter-beat (RR) intervals (ln RMSSDWeekly) and its coefficient of variation (ln RMSSDCV) in response to 5 weeks of preseason training in professional male futsal players. A secondary aim was to assess the relationship between ln RMSSDWeekly and ln RMSSDCV. The ln RMSSD is a measure of cardiac-vagal activity, and ln RMSSDCV represents the perturbations of cardiac autonomic homeostasis, which may be useful for assessing how athletes are coping with training...
May 23, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Jonathan D Bartlett, Fergus O'Connor, Nathan Pitchford, Lorena Torres-Ronda, Samuel J Robertson
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to quantify and predict relationships between RPE and GPS training load variables in professional Australian Football (AF) players using group and individualised modelling approaches. METHODS: Training load data (GPS and RPE) for 41 professional AF players was obtained over a period of 27 weeks. A total of 2711 training observations were analysed with a total of 66 ±13 sessions per player (range; 39 to 89). Separate generalised estimating equations (GEE) and artificial neural network analyses (ANN) were conducted to determine the ability to predict RPE from training load variables (i...
May 18, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Felipe García-Pinillos, Jose C Cámara-Pérez, Víctor M Soto-Hermoso, Pedro Á Latorre-Román
This study aimed to examine the effect of a five-week HIIT-based running plan on athletic performance, and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into two groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines while the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the intervention period...
May 9, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Franck Brocherie, Grégoire P Millet, Olivier Girard
PURPOSE: We compared psycho-physiological responses to six repeated-sprint sessions in normobaric hypoxia (RSH) and normoxia (RSN) in team-sport athletes during a 2-wk 'live high-train low' training camp. METHODS: While residing under normobaric hypoxia (≥14 h.d-1; FiO2 14.5-14.2%), twenty-three lowland elite field hockey players performed, in addition to their usual training, six sessions (4 × 5 × 5-s maximal sprints; 25 s passive recovery; 5 min rest) under either normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 ~14...
May 3, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Georgia M Black, Tim J Gabbett, Michael H Cole, Geraldine Naughton
BACKGROUND: The ability to monitor training load accurately in professional sports is proving vital for athlete preparedness and injury prevention. While numerous monitoring techniques have been developed to assess the running demands of many team sports, these methods are not well suited to throwing-dominant sports that are infrequently linked to high running volumes. Therefore, other techniques are required to monitor the differing demands of these sports to ensure athletes are adequately prepared for competition...
October 2016: Sports Medicine
José P Morgado, Cristina P Monteiro, Júlia Teles, Joana F Reis, Catarina Matias, Maria T Seixas, Marta G Alvim, Mafalda Bourbon, Maria J Laires, Francisco Alves
Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session...
May 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Andrew A Flatt, Michael R Esco, Fabio Y Nakamura, Daniel J Plews
BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective physiological marker that may be useful for monitoring training status in athletes. However, research aiming to interpret daily HRV changes in female athletes is limited. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess daily HRV (i.e., log-transformed root mean square of successive R-R interval differences, lnRMSSD) trends both as a team and intra-individually in response to varying training load (TL) and (2) to determine relationships between lnRMSSD fluctuation (coefficient of variation, lnRMSSDcv) and psychometric and fitness parameters in collegiate female soccer players (n=10)...
March 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Nicole Nelson, Chad A Asplund
There are different modalities of exercise testing that can provide valuable information to physicians about patient and athlete fitness and cardiopulmonary status. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is a form of exercise testing that measures ventilatory and gas exchange, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and blood pressures to provide detailed information on the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and muscular systems. This testing allows an accurate quantification of functional capacity/measure of exercise tolerance, diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disease, disease-progression monitoring or response to intervention, and the prescription of exercise and training...
March 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Clint R Bellenger, Joel T Fuller, Rebecca L Thomson, Kade Davison, Eileen Y Robertson, Jonathan D Buckley
BACKGROUND: Autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR) as an indicator of the body's ability to adapt to an exercise stimulus has been evaluated in many studies through HR variability (HRV) and post-exercise HR recovery (HRR). Recently, HR acceleration has also been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of negative adaptations to endurance training (i.e., a period of overreaching leading to attenuated performance) and positive adaptations (i...
October 2016: Sports Medicine
Tim J Gabbett
BACKGROUND: There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury...
March 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Laurent Schmitt, Jacques Regnard, Grégoire P Millet
Among the tools proposed to assess the athlete's "fatigue," the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) provides an indirect evaluation of the settings of autonomic control of heart activity. HRV analysis is performed through assessment of time-domain indices, the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals (RMSSD) measured during short (5 min) recordings in supine position upon awakening in the morning and particularly the logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD) has been proposed as the most useful resting HRV indicator...
2015: Frontiers in Physiology
Maree Gleeson, David B Pyne
Upper respiratory illness is the most common reason for non-injury-related presentation to a sports medicine clinic, accounting for 35-65% of illness presentations. Recurrent or persistent respiratory illness can have a negative impact on health and performance of athletes undertaking high levels of strenuous exercise. The cause of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in athletes can be uncertain but the majority of cases are related to common respiratory viruses, viral reactivation, allergic responses to aeroallergens and exercise-related trauma to the integrity of respiratory epithelial membranes...
February 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
Matthew A Wyon, Roger Wolman, Alan M Nevill, Ross Cloak, George S Metsios, Douglas Gould, Andrew Ingham, Yiannis Koutedakis
OBJECTIVE: Indoor athletes have been shown to be prone to vitamin D3 deficiency. The aim of the study was to examine the acute effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle function using isokinetic dynamometry. DESIGN: Randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind study. SETTING: Institutional. PARTICIPANTS: Adult male white national level judoka athletes (n = 22) who were involved in full-time training. Exclusion criteria were vitamin supplementation, overseas travel to sunny climes, and/or an injury incurred during the last 3 months before testing...
July 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Ian McKeown, Dale W Chapman, Kristie Lee Taylor, Nick B Ball
We describe the time course of adaptation to structured resistance training on entering a full-time high-performance sport program. Twelve international caliber female netballers (aged 19.9 ± 0.4 years) were monitored for 18 weeks with countermovement (CMJ: performed with body weight and 15 kg) and drop jumps (0.35-m box at body weight) at the start of each training week. Performance did not improve linearly or concurrently with loaded CMJ power improving 11% by Week 5 (effect size [ES] 0.93 ± 0.72) in contrast, substantial positive changes were observed for unloaded CMJ power (12%; ES 0...
May 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Anna E Saw, Luana C Main, Paul B Gastin
BACKGROUND: Monitoring athlete well-being is essential to guide training and to detect any progression towards negative health outcomes and associated poor performance. Objective (performance, physiological, biochemical) and subjective measures are all options for athlete monitoring. OBJECTIVE: We systematically reviewed objective and subjective measures of athlete well-being. Objective measures, including those taken at rest (eg, blood markers, heart rate) and during exercise (eg, oxygen consumption, heart rate response), were compared against subjective measures (eg, mood, perceived stress)...
March 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Maria L Nibali, Tom Tombleson, Philip H Brady, Phillip Wagner
Understanding typical variation of vertical jump (VJ) performance and confounding sources of its typical variability (i.e., familiarization and competitive level) is pertinent in the routine monitoring of athletes. We evaluated the presence of systematic error (learning effect) and nonuniformity of error (heteroscedasticity) across VJ performances of athletes that differ in competitive level and quantified the reliability of VJ kinetic and kinematic variables relative to the smallest worthwhile change (SWC)...
October 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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