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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319187/the-impact-of-high-grade-glial-neoplasms-on-human-cortical-electrophysiology
#1
S Kathleen Bandt, Jarod L Roland, Mrinal Pahwa, Carl D Hacker, David T Bundy, Jonathan D Breshears, Mohit Sharma, Joshua S Shimony, Eric C Leuthardt
OBJECTIVE: The brain's functional architecture of interconnected network-related oscillatory patterns in discrete cortical regions has been well established with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies or direct cortical electrophysiology from electrodes placed on the surface of the brain, or electrocorticography (ECoG). These resting state networks exhibit a robust functional architecture that persists through all stages of sleep and under anesthesia. While the stability of these networks provides a fundamental understanding of the organization of the brain, understanding how these regions can be perturbed is also critical in defining the brain's ability to adapt while learning and recovering from injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317921/self-renewal-and-phenotypic-conversion-are-the-main-physiological-responses-of-macrophages-to-the-endogenous-estrogen-surge
#2
Giovanna Pepe, Daniele Braga, Tiziana A Renzi, Alessandro Villa, Chiara Bolego, Francesca D'Avila, Cristina Barlassina, Adriana Maggi, Massimo Locati, Elisabetta Vegeto
Beyond the physiology of reproduction, estrogen controls the homeostasis of several tissues. Although macrophages play a key role in tissue remodeling, the interplay with estrogen is still ill defined. Using a transcriptomic approach we first obtained a comprehensive list of genes that are differentially expressed in peritoneal macrophages in response to physiological levels of 17β-estradiol (E2) injected in intact female mice. Our data also showed the dynamic nature of the macrophage response to E2 and pointed to specific biological programs induced by the hormone, with cell proliferation, immune response and wound healing being the most prominent functional categories...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317895/upregulation-of-skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-through-the-elevation-of-cyclic-amp-levels-by-cyanidin-3-glucoside-enhances-exercise-performance
#3
Toshiya Matsukawa, Hideko Motojima, Yuki Sato, Shinya Takahashi, Myra O Villareal, Hiroko Isoda
Regular exercise and physical training enhance physiological capacity and improve metabolic diseases. Skeletal muscles require peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the process of their adaptation to exercise owing to PGC-1α's ability to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G) is a natural polyphenol and a nutraceutical factor, which has several beneficial effects on human health. Here, the effect of Cy3G on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms involved were investigated...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317121/divergence-in-physiological-factors-affecting-swimming-performance-between-anadromous-and-resident-populations-of-brook-charr-salvelinus-fontinalis
#4
A Crespel, A Dupont-Prinet, L Bernatchez, G Claireaux, R Tremblay, C Audet
In this study, an anadromous strain (L) and a freshwater-resident (R) strain of brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis as well as their reciprocal hybrids, were reared in a common environment and submitted to swimming tests combined with salinity challenges. The critical swimming speeds (Ucrit ) of the different crosses were measured in both fresh (FW) and salt water (SW) and the variations in several physiological traits (osmotic, energetic and metabolic capacities) that are predicted to influence swimming performance were documented...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316329/xerotolerant-bacteria-surviving-through-a-dry-spell
#5
REVIEW
Pedro H Lebre, Pieter De Maayer, Don A Cowan
Water is vital for many biological processes and is essential for all living organisms. However, numerous macroorganisms and microorganisms have adapted to survive in environments in which water is scarce; such organisms are collectively termed xerotolerant. With increasing global desertification due to climate change and human-driven desertification processes, it is becoming ever more important to understand how xerotolerant organisms cope with a lack of water. In this Review, we discuss the environmental, physiological and molecular adaptations that enable xerotolerant bacteria to survive in environments in which water is scarce and highlight insights from modern 'omics' technologies...
March 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303275/modeling-pathological-hemodynamic-responses-to-the-valsalva-maneuver
#6
Leszek Pstras, Karl Thomaseth, Jacek Waniewski, Italo Balzani, Federico Bellavere
The Valsalva maneuver consisting in a forced expiration against closed airways is one of the most popular clinical tests of the autonomic nervous system function. When properly performed by a healthy subject, it features four characteristic phases of arterial blood pressure and heart rate variations, based on the magnitude of which the autonomic function may be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. In patients with some disorders or in healthy patients subject to specific conditions, the pattern of blood pressure and heart rate changes during the execution of the Valsalva maneuver may, however, differ from the typical sinusoidal-like pattern...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303185/long-term-acclimation-to-reciprocal-light-conditions-suggests-depth-related-selection-in-the-marine-foundation-species-posidonia-oceanica
#7
Emanuela Dattolo, Lazaro Marín-Guirao, Juan M Ruiz, Gabriele Procaccini
Phenotypic differences among populations of the same species reflect selective responses to ecological gradients produced by variations in abiotic and biotic factors. Moreover, they can also originate from genetic differences among populations, due to a reduced gene flow. In this study, we examined the extent of differences in photo-acclimative traits of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile clones collected above and below the summer thermocline (i.e., -5 and -25 m) in a continuous population extending along the water depth gradient...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303151/the-combination-of-trichoderma-harzianum-and-chemical-fertilization-leads-to-the-deregulation-of-phytohormone-networking-preventing-the-adaptive-responses-of-tomato-plants-to-salt-stress
#8
M B Rubio, Rosa Hermosa, Rubén Vicente, Fabio A Gómez-Acosta, Rosa Morcuende, Enrique Monte, Wagner Bettiol
Plants have evolved effective mechanisms to avoid or reduce the potential damage caused by abiotic stresses. In addition to biocontrol abilities, Trichoderma genus fungi promote growth and alleviate the adverse effects caused by saline stress in plants. Morphological, physiological, and molecular changes were analyzed in salt-stressed tomato plants grown under greenhouse conditions in order to investigate the effects of chemical and biological fertilizations. The application of Trichoderma harzianum T34 to tomato seeds had very positive effects on plant growth, independently of chemical fertilization...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303146/an-assessment-of-genetic-diversity-and-drought-tolerance-in-argan-tree-argania-spinosa-populations-potential-for-the-development-of-improved-drought-tolerance
#9
Abdelghani Chakhchar, Matthew Haworth, Cherkaoui El Modafar, Marco Lauteri, Claudia Mattioni, Said Wahbi, Mauro Centritto
The argan tree (Argania spinosa) occurs in a restricted area of Southwestern Morocco characterized by low water availability and high evapotranspirative demand. Despite the adaptation of the argan tree to drought stress, the extent of the argan forest has declined markedly due to increased aridity, land use changes and the expansion of olive cultivation. The oil of the argan seed is used for cooking and as the basis for numerous cosmetics. The identification of argan tree varieties with enhanced drought tolerance may minimize the economic losses associated with the decline of the argan forest and constrain the spread of desertification...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303116/comparative-physiology-of-energy-metabolism-fishing-for-endocrine-signals-in-the-early-vertebrate-pool
#10
REVIEW
Iris van de Pol, Gert Flik, Marnix Gorissen
Energy is the common currency of life. To guarantee a homeostatic supply of energy, multiple neuro-endocrine systems have evolved in vertebrates; systems that regulate food intake, metabolism, and distribution of energy. Even subtle (lasting) dysregulation of the delicate balance of energy intake and expenditure may result in severe pathologies. Feeding-related pathologies have fueled research on mammals, including of course the human species. The mechanisms regulating food intake and body mass are well-characterized in these vertebrates...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302998/distribution-and-diversity-of-enzymes-for-polysaccharide-degradation-in-fungi
#11
Renaud Berlemont
Fungi are important polysaccharide degraders in the environment and for biotechnology. Here, the increasing number of sequenced fungal genomes allowed for systematic identification of genes and proteins involved in polysaccharide degradation in 218 fungi. Globally, 9,003 sequences for glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases targeting cellulose, xylan, and chitin, were identified. Although abundant in most lineages, the distribution of these enzymes is variable even between organisms from the same genus...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301476/classification-and-adaptive-behavior-prediction-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-based-upon-multivariate-data-analysis-of-markers-of-oxidative-stress-and-dna-methylation
#12
Daniel P Howsmon, Uwe Kruger, Stepan Melnyk, S Jill James, Juergen Hahn
The number of diagnosed cases of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased dramatically over the last four decades; however, there is still considerable debate regarding the underlying pathophysiology of ASD. This lack of biological knowledge restricts diagnoses to be made based on behavioral observations and psychometric tools. However, physiological measurements should support these behavioral diagnoses in the future in order to enable earlier and more accurate diagnoses. Stepping towards this goal of incorporating biochemical data into ASD diagnosis, this paper analyzes measurements of metabolite concentrations of the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism and transulfuration pathways taken from blood samples of 83 participants with ASD and 76 age-matched neurotypical peers...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300562/hypoxia-and-b-cells
#13
Natalie Burrows, Patrick Henry Maxwell
The ability of cells to sense and adapt to changes in oxygen is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Immune cells function in physiologically complex and varying environments whereby oxygen, pH, nutrients, metabolites and cytokines are continuously fluctuating. HIF is well known to play an important role in coordinating the adaptation and function of both innate immune cells and T cells in these complex environments. This review summarises recent discoveries concerning how hypoxia and HIF control B cell behaviour, and regulate antibody quality and decisions concerning tolerance...
March 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300162/platform-for-combined-analysis-of-functional-and-biomolecular-phenotypes-of-the-same-cell
#14
L Kelbauskas, S Ashili, J Zeng, A Rezaie, K Lee, D Derkach, B Ueberroth, W Gao, T Paulson, H Wang, Y Tian, D Smith, B Reid, Deirdre R Meldrum
Functional and molecular cell-to-cell variability is pivotal at the cellular, tissue and whole-organism levels. Yet, the ultimate goal of directly correlating the function of the individual cell with its biomolecular profile remains elusive. We present a platform for integrated analysis of functional and transcriptional phenotypes in the same single cells. We investigated changes in the cellular respiration and gene expression diversity resulting from adaptation to repeated episodes of acute hypoxia in a premalignant progression model...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300110/the-plant-perceptron-connects-environment-to-development
#15
Ben Scheres, Wim H van der Putten
Plants cope with the environment in a variety of ways, and ecological analyses attempt to capture this through life-history strategies or trait-based categorization. These approaches are limited because they treat the trade-off mechanisms that underlie plant responses as a black box. Approaches that involve the molecular or physiological analysis of plant responses to the environment have elucidated intricate connections between developmental and environmental signals, but in only a few well-studied model species...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299798/sterol-glycosyltransferases-required-for-adaptation-of-withania-somnifera-at-high-temperature
#16
Gaurav Singh, Manish Tiwari, Surendra Pratap Singh, Ruchi Singh, Surendra Singh, Pramod Arvind Shirke, Prabodh K Trivedi, Pratibha Misra
Heat is a major environmental stress factor that confines growth, productivity, and metabolism of plants. Plants respond to such unfavorable conditions through changes in their physiological, biochemical and developmental processes. Withania somnifera, an important medicinal plant, grows in hot and dry conditions, however, molecular mechanisms related to such adaptive properties are not known. Here, we elucidated that members of the SGT gene family play important roles in the survival of W. somnifera under adverse conditions through maintaining the integrity of the membrane...
March 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299749/osmotic-stress-in-colony-and-planktonic-cells-of-pseudomonas-putida-mt-2-revealed-significant-differences-in-adaptive-response-mechanisms
#17
Nancy Hachicho, Astrid Birnbaum, Hermann J Heipieper
Planktonic cells and those grown on surfaces (or as colony biofilm) are known to show significant differences regarding growth behavior, cell physiology, gene expression and stress tolerance. In order to compare stress behavior of different growth forms, shake cultures for planktonic growth and agar plate cultivation for colony growth, were carried out with the well investigated model organism, Pseudomonas putida mt-2. Cells were exposed to sodium chloride to cause osmotic stress as one main environmental stressor bacteria have to cope with when growing in soil...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299744/a-simple-adaptable-blood-brain-barrier-cell-model-for-screening-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitor-functionality
#18
Jennifer S Myers, Joan Hare, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang
The blood-brain barrier is a multicellular and basement membrane unit that regulates molecular transport between the blood and central nervous system. Many cerebral pathologies, such as acute stroke and chronic vascular dementia, result in a disrupted blood-brain barrier, increasing its permeability and allowing the entry of potentially neurotoxic molecules. The activation of matrix metalloproteinases mediates further blood-brain barrier damage. The inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases is a potential strategy for stroke therapy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299699/synthetic-cell-based-sensors-with-programmed-selectivity-and-sensitivity
#19
Elvis Bernard, Baojun Wang
Bacteria live in an ever changing environment and, to adapt their physiology, they have to sense the changes. Our current understanding of the mechanisms and elements involved in the detection and processing of these environmental signals grant us access to an array of genetic components able to process such information. As engineers can use different electronic components to build a circuit, we can rewire the cellular components to create digital logic and analogue gene circuits that will program cell behaviour in a designed manner in response to a specific stimulus...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299282/extracellular-proton-concentrations-impacts-ln229-glioblastoma-tumor-cell-fate-via-differential-modulation-of-surface-lipids
#20
Sebastian John, K C Sivakumar, Rashmi Mishra
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive form of brain cancer with marginal survival rates. GBM extracellular acidosis can profoundly impact its cell fate heterogeneities and progression. However, the molecules and mechanisms that enable GBM tumor cells acid adaptation and consequent cell fate competencies are weakly understood. Since extracellular proton concentrations (pHe) directly intercept the tumor cell plasma membrane, surface lipids must play a crucial role in pHe-dependent tumor cell fate dynamics...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
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