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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774576/spatial-vision-in-older-adults-perceptual-changes-and-neural-bases
#1
REVIEW
Allison M McKendrick, Yu Man Chan, Bao N Nguyen
PURPOSE: The number of older adults is rapidly increasing internationally, leading to a significant increase in research on how healthy ageing impacts vision. Most clinical assessments of spatial vision involve simple detection (letter acuity, grating contrast sensitivity, perimetry). However, most natural visual environments are more spatially complicated, requiring contrast discrimination, and the delineation of object boundaries and contours, which are typically present on non-uniform backgrounds...
May 17, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774025/co-stimulation-impaired-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-prevent-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis-in-mice
#2
Carl Engman, Yesica Garciafigueroa, Brett Eugene Phillips, Massimo Trucco, Nick Giannoukakis
Dendritic cells (DC) are important in the onset and severity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Tolerogenic DC induce T-cells to become therapeutic Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs). We therefore asked if experimental IBD could be prevented by administration of bone marrow-derived DC generated under conventional GM-CSF/IL-4 conditions but in the presence of a mixture of antisense DNA oligonucleotides targeting the primary transcripts of CD40, CD80, and CD86. These cell products (which we call AS-ODN BM-DC) have demonstrated tolerogenic activity in preventing type 1 diabetes and preserving beta cell mass in new-onset type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse strain, in earlier studies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772792/metabolic-regulation-of-hypoxia-inducible-transcription-factors-the-role-of-small-molecule-metabolites-and-iron
#3
REVIEW
Peter S J Bailey, James A Nathan
Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) facilitate cellular adaptations to low-oxygen environments. However, it is increasingly recognised that HIFs may be activated in response to metabolic stimuli, even when oxygen is present. Understanding the mechanisms for the crosstalk that exists between HIF signalling and metabolic pathways is therefore important. This review focuses on the metabolic regulation of HIFs by small molecule metabolites and iron, highlighting the latest studies that explore how tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) and intracellular iron levels influence the HIF response through modulating the activity of prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs)...
May 17, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772493/tissue-physiological-metabolic-adaptability-in-young-and-old-leaves-of-reed-phragmites-communis-in-songnen-grassland
#4
Rui Guo, Zhenzi Bai, Ji Zhou, XiuLi Zhong, FengXue Gu, Qi Liu, HaoRu Li
Common reed (Phragmites communis) is widely distributed as the dominant plant species in the Songnen Plain of China. The aim of this study was to investigate different physiological adaptive mechanisms to salinity tolerance between young and old leaves. The profiles of 68 metabolites were measured and studied in reed leaves by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The nitrogen, carbon, and pigment contents showed stronger growth inhibition for older leaves with salinity stress. In young leaves, high K+ contents not only promoted cell growth, but also prevented influx of superfluous Na+ ions in cells; the Ca2+ accumulation in old leaves implied that Ca2+ triggered the SOS-Na+ exclusion system and reduced Na+ toxicity...
May 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770699/lysine-succinylation-and-acetylation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#5
Charlotte Gaviard, Isabelle Broutin, Pascal Cosette, Emmanuelle De, Thierry Jouenne, Julie Hardouin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Multi-Drug Resistant human opportunistic pathogen largely involved in nosocomial infections. Unfortunately, effective antibacterial agents lacked. Explore its physiology at the post-translational modifications (PTMs) level may contribute to the renewal of combat tactics. Recently, lysine succinylation was discovered in bacteria and seems to be an interesting PTM. Here, we present the first succinylome and acetylome of P. aeruginosa PA14 cultured in the presence of 4 different carbon sources, using a two-dimensional immunoaffinity approach coupled with nano-liquid chromatograpy tandem mass spectrometry...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770270/lighten-up-the-dark-metazoan-parasites-as-indicators-for-the-ecology-of-antarctic-crocodile-icefish-channichthyidae-from-the-north-west-antarctic-peninsula
#6
Thomas Kuhn, Vera M A Zizka, Julian Münster, Regina Klapper, Simonetta Mattiucci, Judith Kochmann, Sven Klimpel
Due to its remote and isolated location, Antarctica is home to a unique diversity of species. The harsh conditions have shaped a primarily highly adapted endemic fauna. This includes the notothenioid family Channichthyidae. Their exceptional physiological adaptations have made this family of icefish the focus of many studies. However, studies on their ecology, especially on their parasite fauna, are comparatively rare. Parasites, directly linked to the food chain, can function as biological indicators and provide valuable information on host ecology (e...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769380/pneumococcal-metabolic-adaptation-and-colonization-are-regulated-by-the-two-component-regulatory-system-08
#7
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Gustavo Gámez, Stephanie Hirschmann, Viktor Kluger, Hermann Rath, Sebastian Böhm, Franziska Voss, Niamatullah Kakar, Lothar Petruschka, Uwe Völker, Reinhold Brückner, Ulrike Mäder, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae two-component regulatory systems (TCS) enable adaptation and ensure its maintenance in host environments. This study deciphers the impact of TCS08 on pneumococcal gene expression and its role in metabolic and pathophysiological processes. Transcriptome analysis and real-time PCR demonstrated a regulatory effect of TCS08 on genes involved mainly in environmental information processing, intermediary metabolism, and colonization by S. pneumoniae D39 and TIGR4. Striking examples are genes for fatty acid biosynthesis, genes of the arginine deiminase system, and the psa operon encoding the manganese ABC transport system...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769316/the-serine-threonine-protein-kinase-endoribonuclease-ire1%C3%AE-protects-the-heart-against-pressure-overload-induced-heart-failure
#8
DeAnna Steiger, Tomohiro Yokota, Jin Li, Shuxun Ren, Susumu Minamisawa, Yibin Wang
Heart failure is associated with induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). The serine/threonine protein kinase/endoribonuclease IRE1α is a key protein in ER stress signal transduction. IRE1α activity can induce both protective UPR and apoptotic downstream signaling events, but the specific role for IRE1α activity in the heart is unknown. A major aim of this study was to characterize the specific contribution of IRE1α in cardiac physiology and pathogenesis. We used both cultured myocytes and a transgenic mouse line with inducible and cardiomyocyte-specific IRE1α overexpression as experimental models to achieve targeted IRE1α activation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769098/wing-morphometrics-of-aedes-ochlerotatus-albifasciatus-macquart-1838-diptera-culicidae-from-different-climatic-regions-of-argentina
#9
Maximiliano J Garzón, Nicolás Schweigmann
BACKGROUND: Gene flow restrictions between populations of Aedes albifasciatus, the vector of Western equine encephalitis and Dirophilaria immitis, have been described in the central region of Argentina. Genetic and eco-physiological variations usually result in local forms reflecting the climatic regions. Mosquito wings and their different parts have ecological functions in flight and communication. Therefore, wing shape could be considered an aspect of sexual dimorphism, and its eco-physiological responses can be expressed as morphological changes induced by the environment...
May 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768919/molecular-mechanism-of-modified-clay-controlling-the-brown-tide-organism-aureococcus-anophagefferens-revealed-by-transcriptome-analysis
#10
Jianan Zhu, Zhiming Yu, Liyan He, Xihua Cao, Shuya Liu, Xiuxian Song
The data and experiences in mitigating harmful algal blooms (HABs) by modified clay (MC) show that a bloom does not continue after the dispersal of the MC, even though the density of the residual cells in the water is still high, at 20-30% of the initial cell density. This interesting phenomenon indicates that in addition to flocculation, MC has an additional control mechanism. Here, transcriptome sequencing technology was used to study the molecular mechanism of MC in controlling HABs. In residual cells treated with MC, the photosynthetic light reaction was the most affected physiological process...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767758/turgor-maintenance-by-osmotic-adjustment-40-years-of-progress
#11
Neil C Turner
Osmotic adjustment (OA), the accumulation of solutes in higher plant cells in response to water deficits, was first reported more than four decades ago. Since then, variation in OA among genotypes/cultivars in response to drought has been reported in many crop plants, but its role in maintaining growth and yield in water-limited environments has been questioned. The role of OA in the physiological and agronomic adaptation to water stress of crops, the methods of reliably measuring the degree of OA among genotypes or species, the range of OA in many studies and its impact on grain yield in water-limited environments are reviewed...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767509/proton-transfer-hydrogels-versatility-and-applications
#12
JiHyeon Hwang, Dong G Lee, Hyunki Yeo, Jingyi Rao, Zhiyuan Zhu, Jawon Shin, Keunsoo Jeong, Sehoon Kim, Hyun Wook Jung, Anzar Khan
Proton transfer polymerization between thiol and epoxide groups is shown to be an adaptable and utilitarian method for the synthesis of hydrogels. For instance, the polymerization catalyst can be organic or inorganic, and the polymerization medium can be pure water, buffer solutions, or organic solvents. The gelation mechanism can be triggered at ambient conditions, at a physiological temperature of 37 °C, or through using light as an external stimulus. The ambient and photochemical methods both allow for nanoimprint lithography to produce freestanding patterned thick films...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767465/salt-inflammation-il-17-and-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Ulrich O Wenzel, Marlies Bode, Christian Kurts, Heimo Ehmke
Traditionally, arterial hypertension and subsequent end-organ damage have been attributed to hemodynamic factors, but increasing evidence indicates that inflammation also contributes to the deleterious consequences of this disease. The immune system has evolved to prevent invasion of foreign microorganisms and to promote tissue healing after injury. However, this beneficial activity comes at a cost of collateral damage when the immune system overreacts to internal injury, such as prehypertension. Over the last years important findings have revolutionized hypertension research...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766802/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-related-molecular-mechanisms-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#14
Lifeng Wang, Jun Ren
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a common public health problem and a common cause of chronic liver diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to the development and progression of NAFLD remain elusive. Accumulating evidence has depicted an essential role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the development of steatosis and later progression into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocarcinoma. With the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, ER stress is provoked to turn on the unfolded protein response (UPR)...
May 16, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765663/categorizing-experience-based-foraging-plasticity-in-mites-age-dependency-primacy-effects-and-memory-persistence
#15
Peter Schausberger, Undarmaa Davaasambuu, Stéphanie Saussure, Inga C Christiansen
Behavioural plasticity can be categorized into activational (also termed contextual) and developmental plasticity. Activational plasticity allows immediate contextual behavioural changes, whereas developmental plasticity is characterized by time-lagged changes based on memory of previous experiences (learning). Behavioural plasticity tends to decline with age but whether this holds true for both plasticity categories and the effects of first-in-life experiences is poorly understood. We tackled this issue by assessing the foraging plasticity of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii , on thrips and spider mites following age-dependent prey experience, i...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765640/vascularization-of-the-trachea-in-the-bottlenose-dolphin-comparison-with-bovine-and-evidence-for-evolutionary-adaptations-to-diving
#16
Cristina Ballarin, Paola Bagnoli, Antonella Peruffo, Bruno Cozzi
The rigid structure of the mammalian trachea is functional to maintain constant patency and airflow during breathing, but no gas exchange takes place through its walls. The structure of the organ in dolphins shows increased rigidity of the tracheal cartilaginous rings and the presence of vascular lacunae in the submucosa. However, no actual comparison was ever made between the size and capacity of the vascular lacunae of the dolphin trachea and the potentially homologous structures of terrestrial mammals. In the present study, the extension of the lacunae has been compared between the bottlenose dolphin and the bovine, a closely related terrestrial Cetartiodactyla...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765371/analysis-of-factors-limiting-bacterial-growth-in-pdms-mother-machine-devices
#17
Da Yang, Anna D Jennings, Evalynn Borrego, Scott T Retterer, Jaan Männik
The microfluidic mother machine platform has attracted much interest for its potential in studies of bacterial physiology, cellular organization, and cell mechanics. Despite numerous experiments and development of dedicated analysis software, differences in bacterial growth and morphology in narrow mother machine channels compared to typical liquid media conditions have not been systematically characterized. Here we determine changes in E. coli growth rates and cell dimensions in different sized dead-end microfluidic channels using high resolution optical microscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765360/the-surface-layer-homology-domain-containing-proteins-of-alkaliphilic-bacillus-pseudofirmus-of4-play-an-important-role-in-alkaline-adaptation-via-peptidoglycan-synthesis
#18
Shun Fujinami, Masahiro Ito
It is well known that the Na+ cycle and the cell wall are essential for alkaline adaptation of Na+ -dependent alkaliphilic Bacillus species. In Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, surface layer protein A (SlpA), the most abundant protein in the surface layer (S-layer) of the cell wall, is involved in alkaline adaptation, especially under low Na+ concentrations. The presence of a large number of genes that encode S-layer homology (SLH) domain-containing proteins has been suggested from the genome sequence of B. pseudofirmus OF4...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764987/rapid-and-dynamic-alternative-splicing-impacts-the-arabidopsis-cold-response-transcriptome
#19
Cristiane P G Calixto, Wenbin Guo, Allan B James, Nikoleta A Tzioutziou, Juan C Entizne, Paige E Panter, Heather Knight, Hugh Nimmo, Runxuan Zhang, John W S Brown
Plants have adapted to tolerate and survive constantly changing environmental conditions by re-programming gene expression. The dynamics of the contribution of alternative splicing (AS) to stress responses are unknown. RNA-sequencing of a time-series of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to cold determines the timing of significant AS changes. This shows a massive and rapid AS response with coincident waves of transcriptional and AS activity occurring in the first few hours of temperature reduction, and further AS throughout the cold...
May 15, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764809/temperature-induced-physiological-stress-and-reproductive-characteristics-of-the-migratory-seahorse-hippocampus-erectus-during-a-thermal-stress-simulation
#20
Geng Qin, Cara Johnson, Yuan Zhang, Huixian Zhang, Jianping Yin, Glen Miller, Ralph G Turingan, Eric Guisbert, Qiang Lin
Inshore-offshore migration occurs frequently in seahorse species either because of prey opportunities or because it is driven by reproduction, and variations in water temperature may dramatically change migratory seahorse behavior and physiology. The present study investigated the behavioral and physiological responses of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus under thermal stress and evaluated the potential effects of different temperatures on its reproduction. The results showed that the thermal tolerance of the seahorses was time dependent...
May 15, 2018: Biology Open
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