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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092771/plant-peroxisomes-a-nitro-oxidative-cocktail
#1
REVIEW
Francisco J Corpas, Juan B Barroso, José M Palma, Marta Rodriguez-Ruiz
Although peroxisomes are very simple organelles, research on different species has provided us with an understanding of their importance in terms of cell viability. In addition to the significant role played by plant peroxisomes in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS), data gathered over the last two decades show that these organelles are an endogenous source of nitric oxide (NO) and related molecules called reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Molecules such as NO and H2O2 act as retrograde signals among the different cellular compartments, thus facilitating integral cellular adaptation to physiological and environmental changes...
January 3, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092144/exergaming-boxing-versus-heavy-bag-boxing-are-these-equipotent-for-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Maziah Mat Rosly, Hadi Mat Rosly, Nazirah Hasnan, Glen M Davis, Ruby Husain
BACKGROUND: Current strategies for increased physical activity and exercise in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) face many challenges with regards to maintaining their continuity of participation. Barriers cited often include problems with accessing facilities, mundane, monotonous or boring exercises and expensive equipment that is often not adapted for wheelchair users. AIM: To compare the physiological responses and user preferences between conventional heavy bag boxing against a novel form of video game boxing, known as exergaming boxing...
January 13, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091901/contractility-of-right-ventricular-myocardium-in-male-and-female-rats-during-physiological-and-pathological-hypertrophy
#3
Yu L Protsenko, A A Balakin, D A Kuznetsov, A G Kursanov, R V Lisin, E A Mukhlynina, O N Lookin
Sex differences in the morphogenesis and adaptation of the mechanisms controlling myocardium contractility during physiological and pathological hypertrophy of the right ventricle were demonstrated in mature rats. The study revealed sex-dependent effects of physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy on the coefficient of variation of the cardiomyocyte diameter, length-dependent control of the contractile force, and the maximum velocity of isotonic shortening.
January 14, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091882/identification-of-some-main-streptococcus-iniae-associated-proteins-relationship
#4
Fatima El Aamri, José Ángel Guillén, Daniel Padilla, Félix Acosta, Fernando Real
The surface-associated proteins play a key role in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis, and are the major targets in the development of new vaccines. These proteins contribute to the adaptation of bacteria to different hosts and environments. To study differences at the genomic level, we first sequenced the whole genome of Streptococcus iniae from fish (IUSA-1 strain) and compared it to Streptococcus iniae from human (9117 strain), revealing a high similitude between both strains. To gain further insights into host- and environment-specific differences, we then studied proteins in silico and by High Performance Liquid Chromatography...
January 14, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091856/daily-rhythmicity-of-the-thermoregulatory-responses-of-locally-adapted-brazilian-sheep-in-a-semiarid-environment
#5
Wilma Emanuela da Silva, Jacinara Hody Gurgel Morais Leite, José Ernandes Rufino de Sousa, Wirton Peixoto Costa, Wallace Sostene Tavares da Silva, Magda Maria Guilhermino, Luis Alberto Bermejo Asensio, Débora Andréa Evangelista Façanha
The goal of this study was to evaluate the daily rhythmicity of the thermoregulatory responses of Morada Nova ewes that were raised in a semiarid environment. The experiment was conducted during the dry season. Data were collected from 5:00 a.m. to 4:00 a.m.. Samples were taken over the course of 8 days, with a 1-week interval between sampling periods. During each day that the data were collected, animals were measured once an hour for 24 h in an area directly exposed to solar radiation. The environment was characterized by measuring the following variables: air temperature (TA), relative humidity (RH), Black Globe Humidity Index (BGHI), radiant heat load (RHL), and wind speed (WS)...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091518/insights-into-the-molecular-basis-of-long-term-storage-and-survival-of-sperm-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#6
Ellen Paynter, A Harvey Millar, Mat Welch, Barbara Baer-Imhoof, Danyang Cao, Boris Baer
Honeybee males produce ejaculates consisting of large numbers of high quality sperm. Because queens never re-mate after a single mating episode early in life, sperm are stored in a specialised organ for years but the proximate mechanisms underlying this key physiological adaptation are unknown. We quantified energy metabolism in honeybee sperm and show that the glycolytic metabolite glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GA3P) is a key substrate for honeybee sperm survival and energy production. This reliance on non-aerobic energy metabolism in stored sperm was further supported by our findings of very low levels of oxygen inside the spermatheca...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090431/a-role-for-3d-printing-in-kidney-on-a-chip-platforms
#7
Ryan D Sochol, Navin R Gupta, Joseph V Bonventre
The advancement of "kidney-on-a-chip" platforms - submillimeter-scale fluidic systems designed to recapitulate renal functions in vitro - directly impacts a wide range of biomedical fields, including drug screening, cell and tissue engineering, toxicity testing, and disease modelling. To fabricate kidney-on-a-chip technologies, researchers have primarily adapted traditional micromachining techniques that are rooted in the integrated circuit industry; hence the term, "chip." A significant challenge, however, is that such methods are inherently monolithic, which limits one's ability to accurately recreate the geometric and architectural complexity of the kidney in vivo...
March 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090285/pulmonary-vascular-and-ventricular-dysfunction-in-the-susceptible-patient-2015-grover-conference-series
#8
REVIEW
Bradley A Maron, Roberto F Machado, Larissa Shimoda
Pulmonary blood vessel structure and tone are maintained by a complex interplay between endogenous vasoactive factors and oxygen-sensing intermediaries. Under physiological conditions, these signaling networks function as an adaptive interface between the pulmonary circulation and environmental or acquired perturbations to preserve oxygenation and maintain systemic delivery of oxygen-rich hemoglobin. Chronic exposure to hypoxia, however, triggers a range of pathogenetic mechanisms that include hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-dependent upregulation of the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin 1 in pulmonary endothelial cells...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089907/adenosine-and-preeclampsia
#9
REVIEW
Rocío Salsoso, Marcelo Farías, Jaime Gutiérrez, Fabián Pardo, Delia I Chiarello, Fernando Toledo, Andrea Leiva, Alfonso Mate, Carmen M Vázquez, Luis Sobrevia
Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside with pleiotropic effects in different physiological processes including circulation, renal blood flow, immune function, or glucose homeostasis. Changes in adenosine membrane transporters, adenosine receptors, and corresponding intracellular signalling network associate with development of pathologies of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality affecting 3-5% of pregnancies. Since the proposed mechanisms of preeclampsia development include adenosine-dependent biological effects, adenosine membrane transporters and receptors, and the associated signalling mechanisms might play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089853/region-specific-increases-in-fosb-%C3%AE-fosb-immunoreactivity-in-the-rat-brain-in-response-to-chronic-sleep-restriction
#10
Shannon Hall, Samüel Deurveilher, Kristin Robin Ko, Joan Burns, Kazue Semba
Using a rat model of chronic sleep restriction (CSR) featuring periodic sleep deprivation with slowly rotating wheels (3h on/1h off), we previously observed that 99h of this protocol induced both homeostatic and allostatic (adaptive) changes in physiological and behavioural measures. Notably, the initial changes in sleep intensity and attention performance gradually adapted during CSR despite accumulating sleep loss. To identify brain regions involved in these responses, we used FosB/ΔFosB immunohistochemistry as a marker of chronic neuronal activation...
January 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089759/using-pupil-size-and-heart-rate-to-infer-affective-states-during-behavioral-neurophysiology-and-neuropsychology-experiments
#11
Andrew R Mitz, Ravi V Chacko, Philip T Putnam, Peter H Rudebeck, Elisabeth A Murray
BACKGROUND: Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are a valuable research model because of their behavioral, physiological and neuroanatomical similarities to humans. In the absence of language, autonomic activity can provide crucial information about cognitive and affective states during single-unit recording, inactivation and lesion studies. Methods standardized for use in humans are not easily adapted to NHPs and detailed guidance has been lacking. NEW METHOD: We provide guidance for monitoring heart rate and pupil size in the behavioral neurophysiology setting by addressing the methodological issues, pitfalls and solutions for NHP studies...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089504/review-nutrient-sulfate-supply-from-mother-to-fetus-placental-adaptive-responses-during-human-and-animal-gestation
#12
REVIEW
P A Dawson, K Richard, A Perkins, Z Zhang, D G Simmons
Nutrient sulfate has numerous roles in mammalian physiology and is essential for healthy fetal growth and development. The fetus has limited capacity to generate sulfate and relies on sulfate supplied from the maternal circulation via placental sulfate transporters. The placenta also has a high sulfate requirement for numerous molecular and cellular functions, including sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) to estrogen and thyroid hormone which leads to their inactivation. Accordingly, the ratio of sulfonated (inactive) to unconjugated (active) hormones modulates endocrine function in fetal, placental and maternal tissues...
January 4, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089490/dynamic-plant-plant-herbivore-interactions-govern-plant-growth-defence-integration
#13
REVIEW
Jorad de Vries, Jochem B Evers, Erik H Poelman
Plants downregulate their defences against insect herbivores upon impending competition for light. This has long been considered a resource trade-off, but recent advances in plant physiology and ecology suggest this mechanism is more complex. Here we propose that to understand why plants regulate and balance growth and defence, the complex dynamics in plant-plant competition and plant-herbivore interactions needs to be considered. Induced growth-defence responses affect plant competition and herbivore colonisation in space and time, which has consequences for the adaptive value of these responses...
January 12, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088625/absence-of-dj-1-causes-age-related-retinal-abnormalities-in-association-with-increased-oxidative-stress
#14
Vera L Bonilha, Brent A Bell, Mary E Rayborn, Ivy S Samuels, Anna King, Joe G Hollyfield, Chengsong Xie, Huaibin Cai
Oxidative stress alters physiological function in most biological tissues and can lead to cell death. In the retina, oxidative stress initiates a cascade of events leading to focal loss of RPE and photoreceptors, which is thought to be a major contributing factor to geographic atrophy. Despite these implications, the molecular regulation of RPE oxidative stress under normal and pathological conditions remains largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in regulating RPE and photoreceptors oxidative stress response is greatly needed...
January 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088407/far-off-and-close-up-dry-matter-intake-modulate-indicators-of-immunometabolic-adaptations-to-lactation-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-pasture-based-transition-dairy-cows
#15
M Vailati-Riboni, G Farina, F Batistel, A Heiser, M D Mitchell, M A Crookenden, C G Walker, J K Kay, S Meier, J R Roche, J J Loor
The common practice of increasing dietary energy density during the close-up dry period (last ∼3 wk prepartum) has been recently associated with a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving. Despite these reports, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off, nonlactating period is a common management policy aimed at achieving optimum calving body condition score (BCS) in pasture-based systems, as cows are generally thinner than total mixed ration cows at the end of lactation. Our hypothesis was that both far-off and close-up overfeeding influence the peripartum adipose tissue changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088333/mitochondrial-uncoupling-in-cancer-cells-liabilities-and-opportunities
#16
REVIEW
Gyorgy Baffy
Acquisition of the endosymbiotic ancestor of mitochondria was a critical event in eukaryote evolution. Mitochondria offered an unparalleled source of metabolic energy through oxidative phosphorylation and allowed the development of multicellular life. However, as molecular oxygen had become the terminal electron acceptor in most eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain proved to be the largest intracellular source of superoxide, contributing to macromolecular injury, aging, and cancer. Hence, the 'contract of endosymbiosis' represents a compromise between the possibilities and perils of multicellular life...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088019/melatonin-and-resveratrol-reverse-the-toxic-effect-of-high-boron-b-and-modulate-biochemical-parameters-in-pepper-plants-capsicum-annuum-l
#17
Eleana Sarafi, Pavlos Tsouvaltzis, Christos Chatzissavvidis, Anastasios Siomos, Ioannis Therios
The objectives of this research were to test a possible involvement of melatonin (MEL) and resveratrol (RES) in restoring growth and to control boron (B) toxicity in peppers. The plants were subjected to four different nutrient solution treatments as following: 1) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Control), 2) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM B (100 μMB), 3) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM boron+100 μMresveratrol (100 μMRES), and 4) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM B+1 μMmelatonin (1 μM MEL)...
December 23, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087932/the-complexity-of-fungal-vision
#18
Reinhard Fischer, Jesus Aguirre, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Luis M Corrochano
Life, as we know it, would not be possible without light. Light is not only a primary source of energy, but also an important source of information for many organisms. To sense light, only a few photoreceptor systems have developed during evolution. They are all based on an organic molecule with conjugated double bonds that allows energy transfer from visible (or UV) light to its cognate protein to translate the primary physical photoresponse to cell-biological actions. The three main classes of receptors are flavin-based blue-light, retinal-based green-light (such as rhodopsin), and linear tetrapyrrole-based red-light sensors...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087539/quantitative-stability-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cell-clonal-output-in-transplanted-rhesus-macaques
#19
Samson J Koelle, Diego A Espinoza, Chuanfeng Wu, Jason Xu, Rong Lu, Brian Li, Robert E Donahue, Cynthia E Dunbar
Autologous transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells lentivirally labeled with unique oligonucleotide barcodes flanked by sequencing primer targets enables quantitative assessment of the self-renewal and differentiation patterns of these cells in a myeloablative rhesus macaque model. Compared with other approaches to clonal tracking, this approach is highly quantitative and reproducible. We documented very stable multipotent long-term hematopoietic clonal output of monocytes, granulocytes, B cells and T cells from a polyclonal pool of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in four macaques followed for up to 49 months post-transplantation...
January 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086991/does-waterfall-aerosol-influence-mucosal-immunity-and-chronic-stress-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#20
Carina Grafetstätter, Martin Gaisberger, Johanna Prossegger, Markus Ritter, Predrag Kolarž, Christina Pichler, Josef Thalhamer, Arnulf Hartl
BACKGROUND: The specific microclimate of alpine waterfalls with high levels of ionized water aerosols has been suggested to trigger beneficial immunological and psychological effects. In the present three-armed randomized controlled clinical study, we focused on effects on (i) immunological reagibility, on (ii) physiological stress responses, and on (iii) stress-related psychological parameters. METHODS: People with moderate to high stress levels (n = 65) spent an active sojourn with daily hiking tours in the National Park Hohe Tauern (Großkirchheim, Austria)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
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