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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353055/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-signaling-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-modulates-cued-fear-learning-but-not-spatial-working-memory-in-female-rats
#1
Adam J Kirry, Matthew R Herbst, Sarah E Poirier, Michelle M Maskeri, Amy C Rothwell, Robert C Twining, Marieke R Gilmartin
A genetic polymorphism within the gene encoding the pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor type I (PAC1R) has recently been associated with hyper-reactivity to threat-related cues in women, but not men, with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PACAP is a highly conserved peptide, whose role in mediating adaptive physiological stress responses is well established. Far less is understood about the contribution of PACAP signaling in emotional learning and memory, particularly the encoding of fear to discrete cues...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353021/phosphoproteomics-unveils-stable-energy-supply-as-key-to-flooding-tolerance-in-kandelia-candel
#2
Dezhuo Pan, Lingxia Wang, Fanglin Tan, Si Lu, Xiaojie Lv, Madiha Zaynab, Chi-Lien Cheng, Yakubu Saddeeq Abubakar, Shipin Chen, Wei Chen
The mangrove Kandelia candel (L.) Druce experiences daily flooding cycles. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the physiological adaptation of K. candel to flooding, the potential role of protein phosphorylation in flooding responses was investigated by a large-scale quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation. Total 2141 unique phosphopeptides and 2603 non-redundant phosphorylation sites were identified from 1516 phosphoproteins in K. candel leaves...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352355/physiological-responses-to-salt-stress-of-salt-adapted-and-directly-salt-nacl-and-nacl-na2so4-mixture-stressed-cyanobacterium-anabaena-fertilissima
#3
Prashant Swapnil, Ashwani K Rai
Soil salinity in nature is generally mixed type; however, most of the studies on salt toxicity are performed with NaCl and little is known about sulfur type of salinity (Na2SO4). Present study discerns the physiologic mechanisms responsible for salt tolerance in salt-adapted Anabaena fertilissima, and responses of directly stressed parent cells to NaCl and NaCl+Na2SO4 mixture. NaCl at 500 mM was lethal to the cyanobacterium, whereas salt-adapted cells grew luxuriantly. Salinity impaired gross photosynthesis, electron transport activities, and respiration in parent cells, but not in the salt-adapted cells, except a marginal increase in PSI activity...
January 19, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352179/growth-and-remodeling-play-opposing-roles-during-postnatal-human-heart-valve-development
#4
Pim J A Oomen, Maria A Holland, Carlijn V C Bouten, Ellen Kuhl, Sandra Loerakker
Tissue growth and remodeling are known to govern mechanical homeostasis in biological tissue, but their relative contributions to homeostasis remain unclear. Here, we use mechanical models, fueled by experimental findings, to demonstrate that growth and remodeling have different effects on heart valve stretch homeostasis during physiological postnatal development. Two developmental stages were considered: early-stage (from infant to adolescent) and late-stage (from adolescent to adult) development. Our models indicated that growth and remodeling play opposing roles in preserving tissue stretch and with time...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352155/conflict-sensitive-neurons-gate-interocular-suppression-in-human-visual-cortex
#5
Sucharit Katyal, Mark Vergeer, Sheng He, Bin He, Stephen A Engel
Neural suppression plays an important role in cortical function, including sensory, memory, and motor systems. It remains, however, relatively poorly understood. A paradigmatic case arises when conflicting images are presented to the two eyes. These images can compete for awareness, and one is usually strongly suppressed. The mechanisms that resolve such interocular conflict remain unclear. Suppression could arise solely from "winner-take-all" competition between neurons responsive to each eye. Alternatively, suppression could also depend upon neurons detecting interocular conflict...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352133/molecular-and-physiological-roles-of-the-adaptor-protein-card9-in-immunity
#6
REVIEW
Xiaoming Zhong, Bin Chen, Liang Yang, Zhiwen Yang
CARD9 is a caspase recruitment domain-containing signaling protein that plays a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. It has been widely demonstrated that CARD9 adaptor allows pattern recognition receptors to induce NF-κB and MAPK activation, which initiates a "downstream" inflammation cytokine cascade and provides effective protection against microbial invasion, especially fungal infection. Here our aim is to update existing paradigms and summarize the most recent findings on the CARD9 signaling pathway, revealing significant mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of CARD9 deficiency...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351662/the-versatile-tanycyte-a-hypothalamic-integrator-of-reproduction-and-energy-metabolism
#7
Vincent Prevot, Bénédicte Dehouck, Ariane Sharif, Philippe Ciofi, Paolo Giacobini, Jerome Clasadonte
The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual...
January 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351512/physiology-of-astroglia
#8
Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard
Astrocytes are neural cells of ectodermal, neuroepithelial origin that provide for homeostasis and defense of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes are highly heterogeneous in morphological appearance; they express a multitude of receptors, channels, and membrane transporters. This complement underlies their remarkable adaptive plasticity that defines the functional maintenance of the CNS in development and aging. Astrocytes are tightly integrated into neural networks and act within the context of neural tissue; astrocytes control homeostasis of the CNS at all levels of organization from molecular to the whole organ...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351426/the-effects-of-heat-and-cold-on-health-with-special-reference-to-finnish-sauna-bathing
#9
Ilkka Heinonen, Jari A Laukkanen
Environmental stress such as extremely warm or cold temperature is often considered a challenge to human health and body homeostasis. However, human body can adapt relatively well to heat and cold environments and recent studies have also elucidated that particularly heat stress might be even highly beneficial for human health. Consequently, the aim of the present brief review is first to discuss general cardiovascular and other responses to acute heat stress, followed by a review of beneficial effects of Finnish sauna bathing on general and cardiovascular health and mortality as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease risk...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351389/proliferation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-mediated-by-yap-and-taz-contributes-to-liver-repair-and-regeneration-after-liver-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#10
Takanori Konishi, Rebecca M Schuster, Alex B Lentsch
Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are key regulators of cell proliferation and organ size, however, their physiological contribution after liver injury has not been fully understood. In this study, we sought to determine the role of YAP and TAZ during liver recovery after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). A murine model of partial (70%) I/R was used to induce liver injury and study the reparative and regenerative response. After liver injury, there was marked activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351189/the-role-of-cadaverine-synthesis-on-pneumococcal-capsule-and-protein-expression
#11
Mary F Nakamya, Moses B Ayoola, Seongbin Park, Leslie A Shack, Edwin Swiatlo, Bindu Nanduri
Invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a commensal in the nasopharynx, pose significant risk to human health. Limited serotype coverage by the available polysaccharide-based conjugate vaccines coupled with increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance complicates therapeutic strategies. Bacterial physiology and metabolism that allows pathogens to adapt to the host are a promising avenue for the discovery of novel therapeutics. Intracellular polyamine concentrations are tightly regulated by biosynthesis, transport and degradation...
January 19, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350812/a-unified-framework-of-plant-adaptive-strategies-to-drought-crossing-scales-and-disciplines
#12
Florence Volaire
Plant adaptation to drought has been extensively studied at many scales from ecology to molecular biology across a large range of model species. However, the conceptual frameworks underpinning the definition of plant strategies, and the terminology used across the different disciplines and scales are not analogous. 'Drought resistance' for instance refers to plant responses as different as the maintenance of growth and productivity in crops, to the survival and recovery in perennial woody or grassland species...
January 19, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350451/morphological-specializations-of-the-epidermis-of-an-angler-catfish-chaca-chaca-siluriformes-chacidae-in-relation-to-its-ecological-niche-a-scanning-electron-microscopic-investigation
#13
Arup Mistri, Usha Kumari, Swati Mittal, Ajay Kumar Mittal
The present work was undertaken with the aim to deduce morphological adaptations in skin of an angler catfish Chaca chaca by means of scanning electron microscopy. The fish is nocturnal, bottom dwelling, sluggish, ambush predator, lives in sand, mud, or soft substrates often buried and camouflaged for protection and to feed. The surface of the epidermis is covered with polygonal epithelial cells, each having surface relief of microridges forming intricate patterns. In between epithelial cells irregularly distributed mucous cell openings, randomly distributed epidermal specialized structures, taste buds, and neuromasts are discernible...
January 19, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350264/linking-muscle-metabolism-and-functional-variation-to-field-swimming-performance-in-bluegill-sunfish-lepomis-macrochirus
#14
David J Ellerby, Shauna Cyr, Angela X Han, Mika Lin, Lloyd A Trueblood
Skeletal muscle has diverse mechanical roles during locomotion. In swimming fish, power-producing muscles work in concert with the accessory muscles of the fins which augment and control power transfer to the water. Although fin muscles represent a significant proportion of the locomotor muscle mass, their physiological properties are poorly characterized. To examine the relationship between muscle metabolism and the differing mechanical demands placed on distinct muscle groups, we quantified the aerobic and glycolytic capacities of the myotomal, pectoral and caudal muscles of bluegill sunfish...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350248/natural-variation-and-genetic-make-up-of-leaf-blade-area-in-spring-barley
#15
Ahmad M Alqudah, Helmy M Youssef, Andreas Graner, Thorsten Schnurbusch
GWAS analysis for leaf blade area (LA) revealed intriguing genomic regions associated with putatively novel QTL and known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. Despite long-standing studies in the morpho-physiological characters of leaf blade area (LA) in cereal crops, advanced genetic studies to explore its natural variation are lacking. The importance of modifying LA in improving cereal grain yield and the genes controlling leaf traits have been well studied in rice but not in temperate cereals...
January 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349635/the-diving-reflex-and-asphyxia-working-across-species-in-physiological-ecology
#16
Joel B Hagen
Beginning in the mid-1930s the comparative physiologists Laurence Irving and Per Fredrik (Pete) Scholander pioneered the study of diving mammals, particularly harbor seals. Although resting on earlier work dating back to the late nineteenth century, their research was distinctive in several ways. In contrast to medically oriented physiology, the approaches of Irving and Scholander were strongly influenced by natural history, zoology, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Diving mammals, they argued, shared the cardiopulmonary physiology of terrestrial mammals, but evolution had modified these basic adaptive processes in extreme ways...
January 18, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348657/an-ethylene-response-factor-mxerf4-functions-as-a-repressor-of-fe-acquisition-in-malus-xiaojinensis
#17
Wei Liu, Ting Wu, Qiwei Li, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Tianhong Li, Zhenhai Han, Yi Wang
Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plants; however, its availability is limited as it forms insoluble complexes in the soil. Consequently, plants have developed mechanisms to adapt to low Fe conditions. We demonstrate that ethylene is involved in Fe deficiency-induced physiological responses in Malus xiaojinensis, and describe the identification of MxERF4 as a protein-protein interaction partner with the MxFIT transcription factor, which is involved in the iron deficiency response. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MxERF4 acts as an MxFIT interaction partner to suppresses the expression of the Fe transporter MxIRT1, by binding directly to its promoter, requiring the EAR motif of the MxERF4 protein...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346678/case-study-of-an-adaptation-and-implementation-of-a-diabetes-prevention-program-for-individuals-with-serious-mental-illness
#18
Maria M Quiñones, Judy Lombard-Newell, Daryl Sharp, Valerie Way, Wendi Cross
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is an evidence-based lifestyle intervention developed to decrease the risk for type 2 diabetes and promote weight loss in individuals at risk for diabetes. Individuals with serious mental illness have a greater risk for developing diabetes compared with the general population. In this article, the authors provide a detailed description of the adaptation process of the DPP for individuals with serious mental illness (DPP-SMI). The adaptation process was based on a cultural adaptation framework for modifying evidence-based interventions...
January 16, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346164/the-nuclear-receptor-nor-1-is-a-pleiotropic-regulator-of-exercise-induced-adaptations
#19
Michael A Pearen, George E O Muscat
Exercise induces various physical and metabolic changes in skeletal muscle that adaptively reprograms this tissue to current physiological and environmental demands. Underlying these changes are broad modifications to gene expression. We postulate that the nuclear hormone receptor, Nor-1, is activated following exercise and this transcription factor modifies gene expression to drive the molecular and cellular adaptations associated with contractile reorganization.
January 15, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346158/biomechanical-response-to-osteoarthritis-pain-treatment-may-impair-long-term-efficacy
#20
Katherine A Boyer
Pain has an important physiologic role and acts with and/or stimulates motor system adaptations to protect tissue from threats of damage. While clinically beneficial, removing the protective pain response may have negative consequence in osteoarthritis, a mechanically-mediated disease. We hypothesize motor system adaptations to joint pain and its treatment may impact osteoarthritis progression thereby limiting efficacy of pain therapies.
January 15, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
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