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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931045/effect-of-extracytoplasmic-function-sigma-factors-on-autoaggregation-hemagglutination-and-cell-surface-properties-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#1
Kazutaka Fujise, Yuichiro Kikuchi, Eitoyo Kokubu, Kazuko Okamoto-Shibayama, Kazuyuki Ishihara
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a bacterium frequently isolated from chronic periodontal lesions and is involved in the development of chronic periodontitis. To colonize the gingival crevice, P. gingivalis has to adapt to environmental stresses. Microbial gene expression is regulated by transcription factors such as those in two-component systems and extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors. ECF sigma factors are involved in the regulation of environmental stress response genes; however, the roles of individual ECF sigma factors are largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930992/a-cell-culture-model-of-resistance-arteries
#2
Lauren A Biwer, Christophe Lechauve, Sheri Vanhoose, Mitchell J Weiss, Brant E Isakson
The myoendothelial junction (MEJ), a unique signaling microdomain in small diameter resistance arteries, exhibits localization of specific proteins and signaling processes that can control vascular tone and blood pressure. As it is a projection from either the endothelial or smooth muscle cell, and due to its small size (on average, an area of ~1 µm(2)), the MEJ is difficult to study in isolation. However, we have developed a cell culture model called the vascular cell co-culture (VCCC) that allows for in vitro MEJ formation, endothelial cell polarization, and dissection of signaling proteins and processes in the vascular wall of resistance arteries...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930602/molecular-biology-of-tick-acetylcholinesterases
#3
Kevin Bruce Temeyer
Ticks vector many pathogens with major health and economic impacts and have developed resistance to most acaricides used for tick control. Organophosphate (OP) acaricides target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) critical to tick central nervous system function. Mutations producing tick AChEs resistant to OPs were characterized; but tick OP-resistance is not fully elucidated, due to remarkable complexity of tick cholinergic systems. Three paralogous tick AChEs exhibiting differences in primary structure and biochemical kinetics are encoded by amplified genes with developmentally regulated expression...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929951/the-fate-of-inhaled-nanoparticles-detection-and-measurement-by-enhanced-dark-field-microscopy
#4
Robert R Mercer, James F Scabilloni, Liying Wang, Lori A Battelli, James M Antonini, Jenny R Roberts, Yong Qian, Jennifer D Sisler, Vincent Castranova, Dale W Porter, Ann F Hubbs
Assessing the potential health risks for newly developed nanoparticles poses a significant challenge. Nanometer-sized particles are not generally detectable with the light microscope. Electron microscopy typically requires high-level doses, above the physiologic range, for particle examination in tissues. Enhanced dark-field microscopy (EDM) is an adaption of the light microscope that images scattered light. Nanoparticles scatter light with high efficiency while normal tissues do not. EDM has the potential to identify the critical target sites for nanoparticle deposition and injury in the lungs and other organs...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929623/influence-of-combined-iron-supplementation-and-simulated-hypoxia-on-the-haematological-module-of-the-athlete-biological-passport
#5
Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Victor L Vuong, Andrew D Govus, Yorck Olaf Schumacher, David Hughes, Greg Lovell, Daniel Eichner, Christopher J Gore
The integrity of Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is underpinned by understanding normal fluctuations of its biomarkers to environmental or medical conditions, e.g. altitude training or iron deficiency. The combined impact of altitude and iron supplementation on the ABP was evaluated in endurance-trained athletes (n=34) undertaking 3-weeks of simulated live-high: train-low (14 h.d(-1) , 3000m). Athletes received either oral, intravenous (IV) or placebo iron supplementation, commencing two weeks prior and continuing throughout hypoxic exposure...
September 19, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929194/adapting-secretory-proteostasis-and-function-through-the-unfolded-protein-response
#6
Madeline Y Wong, Andrew S DiChiara, Patreece H Suen, Kenny Chen, Ngoc-Duc Doan, Matthew D Shoulders
Cells address challenges to protein folding in the secretory pathway by engaging endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protective mechanisms that are collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). By the action of the transmembrane signal transducers IRE1, PERK, and ATF6, the UPR induces networks of genes whose products alleviate the burden of protein misfolding. The UPR also plays instructive roles in cell differentiation and development, aids in the response to pathogens, and coordinates the output of professional secretory cells...
September 20, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928641/comparison-of-navigation-related-brain-regions-in-migratory-versus-non-migratory-noctuid-moths
#7
Liv de Vries, Keram Pfeiffer, Björn Trebels, Andrea K Adden, Ken Green, Eric Warrant, Stanley Heinze
Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species-thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928636/smn-deficiency-increases-the-intrinsic-excitability-of-motoneurons
#8
Saravanan Arumugam, Ana Garcera, Rosa M Soler, Lucía Tabares
During development, motoneurons experience significant changes in their size and in the number and strength of connections that they receive, which requires adaptive changes in their passive and active electrical properties. Even after reaching maturity, motoneurons continue to adjust their intrinsic excitability and synaptic activity for proper functioning of the sensorimotor circuit in accordance with physiological demands. Likewise, if some elements of the circuit become dysfunctional, the system tries to compensate for the alterations to maintain appropriate function...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928387/bi-directional-effects-of-vitamin-b12-and-methotrexate-on-daphnia-magna-fitness-and-genomic-methylation
#9
Fitore Kusari, Alan M O'Doherty, Nikolas J Hodges, Marcin W Wojewodzic
Here we interrogated, using three separate but complementary experimental approaches, the impact of vitamin B12 availability and methotrexate exposure on Daphnia magna, which we hypothesised should have an opposite effect on One carbon metabolism (OCM). OCM is a vital biological process supporting a variety of physiological processes, including DNA methylation. Contrary to mammalian models, this process remains largely unexplored in invertebrates. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of OCM short-term alteration on the fitness and epigenome of the keystone species, Daphnia...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928113/pdk4-inhibits-cardiac-pyruvate-oxidation-in-late-pregnancy
#10
Laura Liu, Glenn C Rowe, Steven Yang, Jian Li, Federico Damilano, Mun Chun Chan, Wenyun Lu, Cholsoon Jang, Shogo Wada, Michael Morley, Michael Hesse, Bernd K Fleischmann, Joshua Rabinowitz, Saumya Das, Anthony Rosenzweig, Zoltan Arany
Rationale: Pregnancy profoundly alters maternal physiology. The heart hypertrophies during pregnancy, but its metabolic adaptations are not well understood. Objective: To determine the mechanisms underlying cardiac substrate use during pregnancy. Methods and Results: We use here (13)C-glucose, (13)C-lactate, and (13)C-fatty acid tracing analyses to show that hearts in late pregnant mice increase fatty acid uptake and oxidation into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, while reducing glucose and lactate oxidation...
September 19, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928069/comments-on-the-new-international-criteria-for-electrocardiographic-interpretation-in-athletes
#11
Luis Serratosa-Fernández, Domingo Pascual-Figal, María Dolores Masiá-Mondéjar, María Sanz-de la Garza, Zigor Madaria-Marijuan, Juan Ramón Gimeno-Blanes, Carmen Adamuz
Sudden cardiac death is the most common medical cause of death during the practice of sports. Several structural and electrical cardiac conditions are associated with sudden cardiac death in athletes, most of them showing abnormal findings on resting electrocardiogram (ECG). However, because of the similarity between some ECG findings associated with physiological adaptations to exercise training and those of certain cardiac conditions, ECG interpretation in athletes is often challenging. Other factors related to ECG findings are race, age, sex, sports discipline, training intensity, and athletic background...
September 16, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927930/biodegradable-and-adjustable-sol-gel-glass-based-hybrid-scaffolds-from-multi-armed-oligomeric-building-blocks
#12
Christian Kascholke, Stephan Hendrikx, Tobias Flath, Dzmitry Kuzmenka, Hans-Martin Dörfler, Dirk Schumann, Mathias Gressenbuch, F Peter Schulze, Michaela Schulz-Siegmund, Michael C Hacker
Biodegradability is a crucial characteristic to improve the clinical potential of sol-gel-derived glass materials. To this end, a set of degradable organic/inorganic class II hybrids from a tetraethoxysilane(TEOS)-derived silica sol and oligovalent cross-linker oligomers containing oligo(D,L-lactide) domains was developed and characterized. A series of 18 oligomers (Mn: 1100-3200 Da) with different degrees of ethoxylation and varying length of oligoester units was established and chemical composition was determined...
September 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927254/integrated-analysis-of-microrna-and-mrna-expression-in-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-of-warmblood-horses-before-and-after-exercise
#13
Hang-Ah Kim, Myung-Chul Kim, Na-Yon Kim, Doug-Young Ryu, Hong-Seok Lee, Yongbaek Kim
Exercise capacity is a valuable trait in horses, and it has been used as one of their selection criteria. Although exercise affects molecular homeostasis and adaptation in horses, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. This study was carried out to identify changes in the blood profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs induced by exercise in horse leukocytes. Total RNAs isolated from the peripheral blood leukocytes of four Warmblood horses before and after exercise were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) and microarray analyses to determine the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles, respectively...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926156/the-roles-of-plasticity-and-evolutionary-change-in-shaping-gene-expression-variation-in-natural-populations-of-extremophile-fish
#14
Courtney N Passow, Chathurika Henpita, Jennifer H Shaw, Corey R Quackenbush, Wesley C Warren, Manfred Schartl, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez, Joanna L Kelley, Michael Tobler
The notorious plasticity of gene expression responses and the complexity of environmental gradients complicate the identification of adaptive differences in gene regulation among populations. We combined transcriptome analyses in nature with common garden and exposure experiments to establish cause and effect relationships between the presence of a physiochemical stressor and expression differences, as well as to test how evolutionary change and plasticity interact to shape gene expression variation in natural systems...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925409/metabolic-and-genomic-adaptations-to-winter-fattening-in-a-primate-species-the-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#15
J Terrien, M Gaudubois, D Champeval, V Zaninotto, L Roger, J F Riou, F Aujard
AIM: To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic changes leading to obesity remains a major world health issue. Among such mechanisms, seasonality is quite underestimated although it corresponds to the manifestation of extreme metabolic flexibility in response to a changing environment. Nevertheless, the changes induced by such flexibility are far to be understood, especially at the level of insulin signaling, genomic stability or inflammation. METHODS: Here, we investigated the metabolic regulations displayed by a seasonal primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) that exhibits pronounced changes in body mass during the 6-month winter season: a fattening period followed by a spontaneous fat loss, without ever reaching pathological stages...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925331/assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-modular-clothing-protecting-against-the-cold-based-on-physiological-tests
#16
Anna Marszałek, Grażyna Bartkowiak, Anna Dąbrowska
At many work stations under cold environment, protective clothing, which is provided for the workers is characterized by an inadequate thermal insulation, which results in an adverse impact of cold environment on a worker's body. The purpose of this paper is to present a developed new ergonomic modular cold protective clothing, which allows for easy adaptation of the thermal insulation of clothing to worker's individual needs. This clothing was compared in a laboratory study with the clothing having been used so far by workers of cold environment using physiological and physical measurements, subjective ratings of thermal state as well a questionnaire of subjective assessment of used clothing...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924495/adaptations-to-different-habitats-in-sexual-and-asexual-populations-of-parasitoid-wasps-a-meta-analysis
#17
Isabelle Amat, Jacques J M van Alphen, Alex Kacelnik, Emmanuel Desouhant, Carlos Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Coexistence of sexual and asexual populations remains a key question in evolutionary ecology. We address the question how an asexual and a sexual form of the parasitoid Venturia canescens can coexist in southern Europe. We test the hypothesis that both forms are adapted to different habitats within their area of distribution. Sexuals inhabit natural environments that are highly unpredictable, and where density of wasps and their hosts is low and patchily distributed. Asexuals instead are common in anthropic environments (e...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924043/dynamic-regulation-of-cdr1-localization-and-phosphorylation-during-osmotic-stress
#18
Hannah E Opalko, James B Moseley
Environmental conditions modulate cell cycle progression in many cell types. A key component of the eukaryotic cell cycle is the protein kinase Wee1, which inhibits the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 in yeast through human cells. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the protein kinase Cdr1 is a mitotic inducer that promotes mitotic entry by phosphorylating and inhibiting Wee1. Cdr1 and Wee1 both localize to punctate structures termed nodes on the medial cortex, but it has been unknown if node localization can be altered by physiological signals...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923825/qualitative-differences-in-t-cell-activation-by-dendritic-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicle-subtypes
#19
Mercedes Tkach, Joanna Kowal, Andres E Zucchetti, Lotte Enserink, Mabel Jouve, Danielle Lankar, Michael Saitakis, Lorena Martin-Jaular, Clotilde Théry
Exosomes, nano-sized secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs), are actively studied for their diagnostic and therapeutic potential. In particular, exosomes secreted by dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to carry MHC-peptide complexes allowing efficient activation of T lymphocytes, thus displaying potential as promoters of adaptive immune responses. DCs also secrete other types of EVs of different size, subcellular origin and protein composition, whose immune capacities have not been yet compared to those of exosomes...
September 18, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923536/the-limbo-of-motherhood-women-s-experiences-of-major-challenges-to-cope-with-the-first-pregnancy
#20
Farzaneh Soltani, Azam Maleki, Fatemeh Shobeiri, Farshid Shamsaei, Fazlollah Ahmadi, Ghodratollah Roshanaei
INTRODUCTION: pregnancy is a unique health experience which is influenced by various factors, particularly culture and social context. AIM OF STUDY: to explore women's perception regarding major challenges of adaptation with first pregnancy based on culture and social context. DESIGN: a qualitative content analysis was used for data gathering and analysis. Data were collected through unstructured in-depth interviews. SETTING: the study was conducted in public health clinics in Hamadan city, an urban area in southwest of Iran from July to December 2016...
August 30, 2017: Midwifery
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