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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633965/phosphoproteome-analysis-reveals-a-critical-role-for-hedgehog-signalling-in-osteoblast-morphological-transitions
#1
Ariane Marumoto, Renato Milani, Rodrigo A da Silva, Célio Junior da Costa Fernandes, José Mauro Granjeiro, Carmen V Ferreira, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Willian F Zambuzzi
The reciprocal and adaptive interactions between cells and substrates governing morphological transitions in the osteoblast compartment remain largely obscure. Here we show that osteoblast cultured in basement membrane matrix (Matrigel™) exhibits significant morphological changes after ten days of culture, and we decided to exploit this situation to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for guiding osteoblast morphological transitions. As almost all aspects of cellular physiology are under control of kinases, we generated more or less comprehensive cellular kinome profiles employing PepChip peptide arrays that contain over 1000 consensus substrates of kinase peptide...
June 17, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633427/genotypic-variation-in-tolerance-to-drought-stress-is-highly-coordinated-with-hydraulic-conductivity-photosynthesis-interplay-and-aquaporin-expression-in-field-grown-mulberry-morus-spp
#2
Kanubothula Sitarami Reddy, Kalva Madhana Sekhar, Attipalli Ramachandra Reddy
Hydraulic conductivity quantifies the efficiency of a plant to transport water from root to shoot and is a major constriction on leaf gas exchange physiology. Mulberry (Morus spp.) is the most economically important crop for sericulture industry. In this study, we demonstrate a finely coordinated control of hydraulic dynamics on leaf gas exchange characteristics in 1-year-old field-grown mulberry genotypes (Selection-13 (S13); Kollegal Local (KL) and Kanva-2 (K2)) subjected to water stress by withholding water for 20 days and subsequent recovery for 7 days...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633002/the-trpm2-channel-a-thermo-sensitive-metabolic-sensor
#3
Makiko Kashio, Makoto Tominaga
Living organisms continually experience changes in ambient temperature. In order to detect such temperature changes for adaptive behavioral responses, we evolved the ability to sense temperature. Thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, so-called thermo-TRPs, are involved in many physiological functions in diverse organisms and constitute important temperature sensors. One of the important roles of thermo-TRPs is detecting ambient temperature in sensory neurons. Importantly, the functional expression of thermo-TRPs is observed not only in sensory neurons but also in tissues and cells that are not exposed to drastic temperature changes, indicating that thermo-TRPs are involved in many physiological functions within the body's normal temperature range...
June 20, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631132/adaptive-biochemical-and-physiological-responses-of-eriobotrya-japonica-to-fluoride-air-pollution
#4
Nada Elloumi, Mohamed Zouari, Imed Mezghani, Ferjani Ben Abdallah, Steve Woodward, Monem Kallel
The biochemical and physiological effects of fluoride were investigated in loquat trees (Eriobotrya japonica) grown in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plant in Tunisia. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (E), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were assessed; along with photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, electrolytic leakage (EL) and total phenolic contents in foliage and roots of trees at different distances from the phosphate fertilizer plant...
June 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631015/ask-yeast-how-to-burn-your-fats-lessons-learned-from-the-metabolic-adaptation-to-salt-stress
#5
REVIEW
Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Alba Timón-Gómez, Markus Proft
Here, we review and update the recent advances in the metabolic control during the adaptive response of budding yeast to hyperosmotic and salt stress, which is one of the best understood signaling events at the molecular level. This environmental stress can be easily applied and hence has been exploited in the past to generate an impressively detailed and comprehensive model of cellular adaptation. It is clear now that this stress modulates a great number of different physiological functions of the cell, which altogether contribute to cellular survival and adaptation...
June 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630407/colony-adaptive-response-to-simulated-heat-waves-and-consequences-at-the-individual-level-in-honeybees-apis-mellifera
#6
Célia Bordier, Hélène Dechatre, Séverine Suchail, Mathilde Peruzzi, Samuel Soubeyrand, Maryline Pioz, Michel Pélissier, Didier Crauser, Yves Le Conte, Cédric Alaux
Since climate change is expected to bring more severe and frequent extreme weather events such as heat waves, assessing the physiological and behavioural sensitivity of organisms to temperature becomes a priority. We therefore investigated the responses of honeybees, an important insect pollinator, to simulated heat waves (SHW). Honeybees are known to maintain strict brood thermoregulation, but the consequences at the colony and individual levels remain poorly understood. For the first time, we quantified and modelled colony real-time activity and found a 70% increase in foraging activity with SHW, which was likely due to the recruitment of previously inactive bees...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630328/toll-like-receptor-pathway-evolution-in-deuterostomes
#7
Michael G Tassia, Nathan V Whelan, Kenneth M Halanych
Animals have evolved an array of pattern-recognition receptor families essential for recognizing conserved molecular motifs characteristic of pathogenic microbes. One such family is the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). On pathogen binding, TLRs initiate specialized cytokine signaling catered to the class of invading pathogen. This signaling is pivotal for activating adaptive immunity in vertebrates, suggesting a close evolutionary relationship between innate and adaptive immune systems. Despite significant advances toward understanding TLR-facilitated immunity in vertebrates, knowledge of TLR pathway evolution in other deuterostomes is limited...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630000/betaine-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-expression-during-physiological-cardiac-hypertrophy-induced-by-pregnancy
#8
Jesús Alfredo Rosas-Rodríguez, José Guadalupe Soñanez-Organis, José Arquimides Godoy-Lugo, Juan Alberto Espinoza-Salazar, Cesar Jeravy López-Jacobo, Norma Aurora Stephens-Camacho, Guadalupe González-Ochoa
Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (betaine aldehyde: NAD(P)(+) oxidoreductase, (E.C. 1.2.1.8; BADH) catalyze the irreversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde (BA) to glycine betaine (GB) and is essential for polyamine catabolism, γ-aminobutyric acid synthesis, and carnitine biosynthesis. GB is an important osmolyte that regulates the homocysteine levels, contributing to a vascular risk factor reduction. In this sense, distinct investigations describe the physiological roles of GB, but there is a lack of information about the GB novo synthesis process and regulation during cardiac hypertrophy induced by pregnancy...
June 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629517/erythropoietin-mediated-neuroprotection-in-insects-suggests-a-prevertebrate-evolution-of-erythropoietin-like-signaling
#9
Ralf Heinrich, Verena Günther, Natasa Miljus
The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) mediates protective and regenerative functions in mammalian nervous systems via activation of poorly characterized receptors that differ from the "classical" homodimeric Epo receptor expressed on erythroid progenitor cells. Epo genes have been identified in vertebrate species ranging from human to fish, suggesting that Epo signaling evolved earlier than the vertebrate lineage. Studies on insects (Locusta migratoria, Chorthippus biguttulus, Tribolium castaneum) revealed Epo-mediated neuroprotection and neuroregeneration...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628358/h2b-ubiquitination-conserved-molecular-mechanism-diverse-physiological-functions-of-the-e3-ligase-during-meiosis
#10
Liying Wang, Cunwei Cao, Fang Wang, Jianguo Zhao, Wei Li
RNF20/Bre1 mediated H2B ubiquitination (H2Bub) has various physiological functions. Recently, we found that H2Bub participates in meiotic recombination by promoting chromatin relaxation during meiosis. We then analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among the E3 ligase for H2Bub, its E2 Rad6 and their partner WW domain-containing adapter with a coiled-coil (WAC) or Lge1, and found that the molecular mechanism underlying H2Bub is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. However, RNF20 has diverse physiological functions in different organisms, which might be caused by the evolutionary divergency of their domain/motif architectures...
June 19, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627618/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-regulates-autophagy-via-the-p27-e2f1-signaling-pathway
#11
Pan Wang, Meijing Long, Shijie Zhang, Zhenyun Cheng, Xin Zhao, Fucheng He, Hongchun Liu, Liang Ming
Autophagy is a highly conserved process by which the cell contents are delivered to lysosomes for degradation, or are used to provide macromolecules for energy generation under conditions of nutritional starvation. It has previously been demonstrated that cancer cells in hypoxic regions, with an oxygen concentration below the normal physiological level, express hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)‑1α, in order to adapt and survive. HIF‑1α is important in the regulation of oxygen homeostasis and the transcription of hundreds of genes in response to conditions of hypoxia, hence maintaining energy and redox homeostasis...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626887/using-numerical-plant-models-and-phenotypic-correlation-space-to-design-achievable-ideotypes
#12
Victor Picheny, Pierre Casadebaig, Ronan Trépos, Robert Faivre, David Da Silva, Patrick Vincourt, Evelyne Costes
Numerical plant models can predict the outcome of plant traits modifications resulting from genetic variations, on plant performance, by simulating physiological processes and their interaction with the environment. Optimization methods complement those models to design ideotypes, i.e. ideal values of a set of plant traits resulting in optimal adaptation for given combinations of environment and management, mainly through the maximization of a performance criteria (e.g. yield, light interception). As use of simulation models gains momentum in plant breeding, numerical experiments must be carefully engineered to provide accurate and attainable results, rooting them in biological reality...
June 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626467/mutation-in-hvcbp20-cap-binding-protein-20-adapts-barley-to-drought-stress-at-phenotypic-and-transcriptomic-levels
#13
Agata Daszkowska-Golec, Anna Skubacz, Marek Marzec, Michal Slota, Marzena Kurowska, Monika Gajecka, Patrycja Gajewska, Tomasz Płociniczak, Krzysztof Sitko, Andrzej Pacak, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska, Iwona Szarejko
CBP20 (Cap-Binding Protein 20) encodes a small subunit of the cap-binding complex (CBC), which is involved in the conserved cell processes related to RNA metabolism in plants and, simultaneously, engaged in the signaling network of drought response, which is dependent on ABA. Here, we report the enhanced tolerance to drought stress of barley mutant in the HvCBP20 gene manifested at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic levels. Physiological analyses revealed differences between the hvcbp20.ab mutant and its WT in response to a water deficiency...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626464/toward-unveiling-the-mechanisms-for-transcriptional-regulation-of-proline-biosynthesis-in-the-plant-cell-response-to-biotic-and-abiotic-stress-conditions
#14
REVIEW
Marco Zarattini, Giuseppe Forlani
Proline accumulation occurs in plants following the exposure to a wide array of stress conditions, as well as during numerous physiological and adaptive processes. Increasing evidence also supports the involvement of proline metabolism in the plant response to pathogen attack. This requires that the biosynthetic pathway is triggered by components of numerous and different signal transduction chains. Indeed, several reports recently described activation of genes coding for enzymes of the glutamate pathway by transcription factors (TFs) belonging to various families...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626157/protein-restriction-does-not-affect-body-temperature-pattern-in-female-mice
#15
Goro A Kato, Hiroki Shichijo, Toshihiro Takahashi, Akio Shinohara, Tetsuo Morita, Chihiro Koshimoto
Daily torpor is a physiological adaptation in mammals and birds characterized by a controlled reduction of metabolic rate and body temperature during the resting phase of circadian rhythms. In laboratory mice, daily torpor is induced by dietary caloric restriction. However, it is not known which nutrients are related to daily torpor expression. To determine whether dietary protein is a key factor in inducing daily torpor in mice, we fed mice a protein-restricted (PR) diet that included only one-quarter of the amount of protein but the same caloric level as a control (C) diet...
June 13, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626046/perpetual-change-autophagy-the-endothelium-and-response-to-vascular-injury
#16
REVIEW
Ulka Sachdev, Michael T Lotze
Current studies of vascular health, aging, and autophagy emphasize how the endothelium adapts to stress and contributes to disease. The endothelium is far from an inert barrier to blood-borne cells, pathogens, and chemical signals; rather, it actively translates circulating mediators into tissue responses, changing rapidly in response to physiologic stressors. Macroautophagy-the cellular ingestion of effete organelles and protein aggregates to provide anabolic substrates to fuel bioenergetics in times of stress-plays an important role in endothelial cell homeostasis, vascular remodeling, and disease...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625714/proteomic-analysis-of-seminal-plasma-from-locally-adapted-curraleiro-p%C3%A3-duro-bulls-bos-taurus-identifying-biomarkers-involved-in-sperm-physiology-in-endangered-animals-for-conservation-of-biodiversity
#17
E B Menezes, R V de Oliveira, M F van Tilburg, E A Barbosa, N V Nascimento, A L M C S Velho, F B Moreno, R A Moreira, A C O Monteiro-Moreira, G M C Carvalho, A F Ramos, E Memili, A A Moura
The present study was aimed at evaluating the seminal plasma proteins and sperm parameters of Curraleiro Pé-Duro bulls. Semen was collected from 10 bulls by electroejaculation, and sperm parameters were evaluated in fresh and frozen-thawed semen. Seminal plasma proteins were analyzed by 2-D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrophotometry. Tools in computational biology were used to generate bioinformatic knowledge and evaluate gene ontology, protein-protein interactions, phylogenetic trees and multiple sequence alignments...
May 29, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624991/a-new-global-and-comprehensive-model-for-icu-ventilator-performances-evaluation
#18
Nicolas S Marjanovic, Agathe De Simone, Guillaume Jegou, Erwan L'Her
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to provide a new global and comprehensive evaluation of recent ICU ventilators taking into account both technical performances and ergonomics. METHODS: Six recent ICU ventilators were evaluated. Technical performances were assessed under two FIO2 levels (100%, 50%), three respiratory mechanics combinations (Normal: compliance [C] = 70 mL cmH2O(-1)/resistance [R] = 5 cmH2O L(-1) s(-1); Restrictive: C = 30/R = 10; Obstructive: C = 120/R = 20), four exponential levels of leaks (from 0 to 12...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624683/drought-responsive-micrornas-in-two-barley-cultivars-differing-in-their-level-of-sensitivity-to-drought-stress
#19
Ehsan Mohseni Fard, Behnam Bakhshi, Reza Keshavarznia, Nava Nikpay, Maryam Shahbazi, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be involved in the regulation of gene expression, including that of genes involved in the response to stress. Here, a comparison has been drawn between the miRNA profiles of a drought susceptible, 'Morocco 9-75', and a drought tolerant, 'Yousef', barley cultivars. Leaf water content, shoot dry matter and chlorophyll content decreased in 'Morocco 9-75' more considerably compared with 'Yousef' under drought stress. Furthermore, lower stomatal conductance and higher leaf temperature were observed in 'Morocco 9-75' compared with 'Yousef'...
June 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624682/effect-of-the-fungus-piriformospora-indica-on-physiological-characteristics-and-root-morphology-of-wheat-under-combined-drought-and-mechanical-stresses
#20
Fatemeh Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Mosaddeghi, Anthony Roger Dexter
This study was done to evaluate the effects of the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on wheat growth under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Inoculated (colonized) and non-inoculated (uncolonized) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chamran) seedlings were planted in growth chambers filled with moist sand (at a matric suction of 20 hPa). Slight, moderate and severe mechanical stresses (i.e., penetration resistance, Qp, of 1.17, 4.17 and 5.96 MPa, respectively) were produced by a dead-load technique (i...
June 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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