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heart rate variability, endurance, athlete

E E Koenders, C P G Franken, J D Cotter, S N Thornton, N J Rehrer
Exercise-associated hyponatremia can be life-threatening. Excessive hypotonic fluid ingestion is the primary etiological factor but does not explain all variability. Possible effects of chronic sodium intake are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary sodium affects plasma sodium concentration [Na(+) ] during exercise in the heat, when water intake nearly matches mass loss. Endurance-trained men (n = 9) participated in this crossover experiment. Each followed a low-sodium (lowNa) or high-sodium (highNa) diet for 9 days with 24-h fluid intakes and urine outputs measured before experimental trials (day 10)...
October 7, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
P Á Latorre-Román, F García Pinillos, P Bujalance-Moreno, V M Soto-Hermoso
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate running kinematic characteristics and foot strike patterns (FSP) during early and late stages of actual and common high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT): 5 × 2000 m with 120-s recovery between runs. Thirteen healthy, elite, highly trained male endurance runners participated in this study. They each had a personal record in the half-marathon of 70 ± 2.24 min, and each had a minimum experience of 4 years of training and competition. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored during HIIT...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Michael C Zourdos, Caleb D Bazyler, Edward Jo, Andy V Khamoui, Bong-Sup Park, Sang-Rok Lee, Lynn B Panton, Jeong-Su Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a submaximal running warm-up on running performance in male endurance athletes (n = 16, Mage = 21 ± 2 years, MVO2max = 69.3 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min). METHOD: Endurance performance was determined by a 30-min distance trial after control and submaximal running warm-up conditions in a randomized crossover fashion. The warm-up began with 5 min of quiet sitting, followed by 6 min of submaximal running split into 2-min intervals at speeds corresponding to 45%, 55%, and 65% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)...
September 16, 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, Vicente Ávila-Gandía, Fernando Alacid, Fulgencio Soto-Méndez, Pedro E Alcaraz, Francisco Javier López-Román, Jacobo Ángel Rubio-Arias
The biological response to ultra-endurance mountain race events is not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical and physiological changes after performing an ultra-endurance mountain race in runners. We recruited 11 amateur runners (age: 29.7 ± 10.2 years; height: 179.7 ± 5.4 cm; body mass: 76.7 ± 10.3 kg). Muscle damage, lactate concentration, energy balance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), body composition changes, and jump performance were analyzed before, during (only lactate, HR, and HRV), and after the race...
August 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Guillaume Ravé, Jacques-Olivier Fortrat
PURPOSE: To show that heart rate variability (HRV) in the standing position better reflects the way in which athletes adapt to training in so-called intermittent sports than the indicator of resting parasympathetic tone usually employed in endurance sports. METHODS: Twenty professional soccer players (intermittent sport) took part in a 5-week training session divided into three successive periods: "Warm-up", "Intensive training" and "Tapering". At the beginning and end of each of the three periods, a stand test was carried out and the heart rate was recorded, beat by beat (Polar Team 2)...
August 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Julie Stang, Trine Stensrud, Petter Mowinckel, Kai-Hakon Carlsen
PURPOSE: High prevalence of asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) are reported in swimmers and cross-country skiers. It has been suggested that increased parasympathetic nervous activity is involved in asthma development in endurance athletes. We aimed to assess the associations of BHR to parasympathetic activity in healthy and asthmatic swimmers and cross-country skiers, and healthy non-athletes. METHODS: Parasympathetic activity was measured by pupillometry and heart rate variability (HRV) at the onset of exercise with the cardiac vagal index (CVI) calculated, in 28 cross-country skiers (♂18/♀10), 29 swimmers (♂17/♀12), and 30 healthy non-athletes controls (♂14/♀16) on two different days...
June 9, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Paulina Hebisz, Rafał Hebisz, Marek Zatoń, Bartosz Ochmann, Natalia Mielnik
PURPOSE: In this study, we compared the effects of two different training modalities on maximal oxygen uptake and work output. METHODS: Participants included 26 well-trained mountain bike cyclists were divided into two groups. The first group trained using a conventional endurance protocol at steady-state (moderate) intensity and variable-intensity (high-moderate-low) free of maximal efforts. The second group combined endurance training with a sprint and high-intensity interval training protocol, which, respectively, were based on 30 s maximal repetitions and 4 min high intensity repetitions...
August 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Roland van den Tillaar, Tormod Vatten, Erna von Heimburg
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of a long warm-up (general + specific) and a short warm-up (specific) on intermediate running performance (3-min run). Thirteen experienced endurance-trained athletes (age 23.2 ± 2.3 yr, body mass 79.8 ± 8.2 kg, body height 1.82 ± 0.05 m) conducted two types of warm-ups in a cross-over design with one week in between: a long warm-up (10 min, 80% maximal heart rate, and 8x60 m sprint with increasing intensity and 1 min rest in between) and a short warm-up (8x60 m sprint with increasing intensity and 1 min rest in between)...
May 14, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
D Matelot, F Schnell, G Kervio, C Ridard, N Thillaye du Boullay, M Wilson, F Carre
It is unknown whether commencing structured endurance training after 40 years of age is powerful enough to induce beneficial cardiovascular adaptations in later life. 34 men between the ages of 55 and 75 were included: 10 life-long sedentary seniors (SED), 13 endurance master athletes who commenced training≤30 years of age (ET30), and 11 endurance master athletes who commenced training≥40 years of age with no prior physical training (ET40). All performed resting 5-min spectral heart rate (HR) variability analysis, resting and submaximal-exercise echocardiography, and a maximal exercise test...
July 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Ville Vesterinen, Ari Nummela, Tanja Laine, Esa Hynynen, Jussi Mikkola, Keijo Häkkinen
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a submaximal running test (SRT) with post-exercise heart rate recovery, heart rate variability and countermovement jump measurements could be used to monitor endurance training adaptation. Thirty-five endurance trained men and women completed an 18-week endurance training program. Maximal endurance performance and maximal oxygen uptake were measured every eight weeks. In addition, SRT with post-exercise heart rate recovery, heart rate variability and countermovement jump measurements were performed every four weeks...
April 19, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Clint R Bellenger, Joel T Fuller, Rebecca L Thomson, Kade Davison, Eileen Y Robertson, Jonathan D Buckley
BACKGROUND: Autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR) as an indicator of the body's ability to adapt to an exercise stimulus has been evaluated in many studies through HR variability (HRV) and post-exercise HR recovery (HRR). Recently, HR acceleration has also been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of negative adaptations to endurance training (i.e., a period of overreaching leading to attenuated performance) and positive adaptations (i...
October 2016: Sports Medicine
Felipe García-Pinillos, Víctor Manuel Soto-Hermoso, Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román
This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled...
December 22, 2015: Journal of Human Kinetics
Adam J Berrones, Stephanie P Kurti, Korey M Kilsdonk, Delonyx J Cortez, Flavia F Melo, Michael Whitehurst
Berrones, AJ, Kurti, SP, Kilsdonk, KM, Cortez, DJ, Melo, FF, and Whitehurst, M. Barefoot running reduces the submaximal oxygen cost in female distance runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2348-2353, 2016-Being a competitive distance runner is, in part, attributable to a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. However, running economy (RE) is a more robust indicator of distance running performance among endurance athletes of similar V[Combining Dot Above]O2max levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of unshod (barefoot) vs...
August 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Gerhard Smekal, Serge P von Duvillard, Maximilian Hörmandinger, Roland Moll, Mario Heller, Rochus Pokan, David W Bacharach, Linda M LeMura, Paul Arciero
The purpose of the study was to measure the demands of off-road cycling via portable spirometry, leg-power output (PO), heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (BLa) concentration. Twenty-four male competitive cyclists (age: 29±7.2 yrs, height: 1.79 ± 0.05 m, body mass: 70.0 ± 4.9 kg, VO2peak: 64.9 ± 7.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed simulated mountain bike competitions (COMP) and laboratory tests (LabT). From LabT, we determined maximal workload and first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). A high-performance athlete (HPA) was used for comparison with three groups of subjects with different sport-specific performance levels...
December 2015: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Jose Luiz Dantas, Gleber Pereira, Fabio Yuzo Nakamura
BACKGROUND: The five-kilometer time trial (TT5km) has been used to assess aerobic endurance performance without further investigation of its validity. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to perform a preliminary validation of the TT5km to rank well-trained cyclists based on aerobic endurance fitness and assess changes of the aerobic endurance performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After the incremental test, 20 cyclists (age = 31.3 ± 7.9 years; body mass index = 22...
September 2015: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
Davide Susta, Elena Dudnik, Oleg S Glazachev
Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is a major concern among endurance athletes and is a leading cause in preventing them to perform for long periods. Intermittent exposure to hypoxia has been shown to be an effective way of improving performance without exercising. Aim of this pilot study was to evaluate intermittent hypoxia-hyperoxia training combined with light exercise as an intervention to facilitate athletes with OTS to restore their usual performance level. Thirty-four track and field athletes were recruited: 15 athletes with OTS volunteered to participate and undertook a conditioning programme consisting of repeated exposures to hypoxia (O2 at 10%) and hyperoxia (O2 at 30%) (6-8 cycles, total time 45 min-1 h), three times a week, delivered 1·5-2 h after a low-intensity exercise session (2 bouts of 30 min, running at 50% of VO2max with 10 min rest between bouts) over 4 weeks...
October 7, 2015: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Laura Capranica, Giulia De Ioannon, Maria Francesca Piacentini, Sergio Mignardi, Giovanni Messina, Stefano Villani, Giuseppe Cibelli
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a solo ultraendurance open-water swim on autonomic and nonautonomic control of heart rate (HR). METHODS: A male athlete (age 48 y, height 172 cm, body mass 68 kg, BMI 23 kg/m2) underwent HR-variability (HRV) and circulating catecholamine evaluations at different times before and after an ultraendurance swim crossing the Adriatic Sea from Italy to Albania. HRV was measured in 5-min segments and quantified by time and frequency domain...
April 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski, Jan Jeszka
BACKGROUND: β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) is an interesting supplement in sports. However, literature sources present a limited number of studies that verify the efficacy of HMB intake over a longer time period among endurance athletes. For this reason, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of HMB supplementation on physical capacity, body composition and levels of biochemical markers in rowers. METHODS: Sixteen elite male rowers were administered a 12-week HMB supplementation (3×1 gHMB · day(-1)) and placebo administration (PLA) following the model of a randomised, placebo controlled, double-blind crossover study with a 10 days washout period...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Marcin Konopka, Krystyna Burkhard-Jagodzińska, Krystyna Anioł-Strzyżewska, Wojciech Król, Andrzej Klusiewicz, Jolanta Chwalbińska, Andrzej Pokrywka, Dariusz Sitkowski, Mirosław Dłużniewski, Wojciech Braksator
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and significance of the early repolarisation (ER) pattern in the general population has raised a number of questions. Even less data are available on athletes. AIM: To determine the prevalence and determinants of ER in a group of young high endurance athletes. METHODS: We studied 117 rowers (46% women, mean age 17.5 ± 1.5 years, mean training duration 4.3 ± 1.8 years). On 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), we evaluated inferolateral leads for the presence of the ER pattern, defined as at least 0...
2016: Kardiologia Polska
Tsubasa Tomoto, Jun Sugawara, Ai Hirasawa, Tomoko Imai, Seiji Maeda, Shigehiko Ogoh
Lack of elasticity in the central artery causes an increase in left ventricular (LV) afterload. Although regular moderate-intensity endurance exercise improves cardiovascular function, including arterial destiffening, little is known about the effect of short-term vigorous exercise on cardiovascular function (i.e., the interaction between cardiac and arterial functions). We measured arterial stiffness [via pulse wave velocity from the heart to ankle (haPWV)] and LV contractility (via systolic interval time) before and after a 1-week training camp in a total of 33 regularly highly-trained collegiate endurance runners...
September 2015: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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