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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208581/macronutrient-intakes-in-553-dutch-elite-and-sub-elite-endurance-team-and-strength-athletes-does-intake-differ-between-sport-disciplines
#1
Floris Wardenaar, Naomi Brinkmans, Ingrid Ceelen, Bo Van Rooij, Marco Mensink, Renger Witkamp, Jeanne De Vries
Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively...
February 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194116/dynamic-and-static-exercises-differentially-affect-plasma-cytokine-content-in-elite-endurance-and-strength-trained-athletes-and-untrained-volunteers
#2
Leonid V Kapilevich, Anna N Zakharova, Anastasia V Kabachkova, Tatyana A Kironenko, Sergei N Orlov
Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174540/the-influence-of-mid-event-deception-on-psychophysiological-status-and-pacing-can-persist-across-consecutive-disciplines-and-enhance-self-paced-multi-modal-endurance-performance
#3
Daniel Taylor, Mark F Smith
Purpose: To examine the effects of deceptively aggressive bike pacing on performance, pacing, and associated physiological and perceptual responses during simulated sprint-distance triathlon. Methods: Ten non-elite, competitive male triathletes completed three simulated sprint-distance triathlons (0.75 km swim, 500 kJ bike, 5 km run), the first of which established personal best "baseline" performance (BL). During the remaining two trials athletes maintained a cycling power output 5% greater than BL, before completing the run as quickly as possible...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152331/comparison-of-immunohematological-profile-between-endurance-and-power-oriented-elite-athletes
#4
José P Morgado, Catarina N Matias, Cristina P Monteiro, Francisco Alves, Joana F Reis, Diana A Santos, Analiza M Silva, Fátima Martins, Maria T Seixas, Petronila Rocha-Pereira, Luís B Sardinha, Maria J Laires
There is general perception that elite athletes are highly susceptible to changes in immunohematological profile. The objective of this study was to compare immunohematological parameters of elite athletes of different aerobic and muscular strength sports and analyze changes over 2 months. Sixteen judoists and 14 swimmers were evaluated 2 months before (M1) and immediately prior to competition (M2). Hemogram and lymphocytes subpopulations were assessed with automatic counter and flow cytometry, respectively...
November 9, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149428/analysis-of-tests-evaluating-sport-climbers-strength-and-isometric-endurance
#5
Mariusz Ozimek, Robert Staszkiewicz, Robert Rokowski, Arkadiusz Stanula
The present study was designed to determine which types of specific tests provide an effective evaluation of strength and endurance in highly trained competitive sport climbers. The research process consisted of three basic components: the measurement of selected somatic characteristics of the climbers, the assessment of their physical conditioning, and a search for correlations between the anthropometric and "conditioning" variables on the one hand, and climber's performance on the other. The sample of subjects consisted of 14 experienced volunteer climbers capable of handling 7a- 8a+/b on-sight rock climbing grades...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149399/a-systematic-review-of-the-main-factors-that-determine-agility-in-sport-using-structural-equation-modeling
#6
Vladimir Hojka, Petr Stastny, Tomas Rehak, Artur Gołas, Aleksandra Mostowik, Marek Zawart, Martin Musálek
While tests of basic motor abilities such as speed, maximum strength or endurance are well recognized, testing of complex motor functions such as agility remains unresolved in current literature. Therefore, the aim of this review was to evaluate which main factor or factor structures quantitatively determine agility. In methodological detail, this review focused on research that explained or described the relationships between latent variables in a factorial model of agility using approaches such as principal component analysis, factor analysis and structural equation modeling...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102898/a-composite-autonomic-index-as-unitary-metric-for-heart-rate-variability-a-proof-of-concept
#7
Roberto Sala, Mara Malacarne, Nadia Solaro, Massimo Pagani, Daniela Lucini
BACKGROUND: This study addresses whether a unitary cardiac autonomic nervous system index (ANSI), obtained combining multiple metrics from Heart Rate Variability (HRV) into a radar plot could provide an easy appreciation of autonomic performance in a clinical setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data are standardized using percentile ranking of autonomic proxies from a relatively large reference population (n= 1593, age 39±13 years). Autonomic indices are obtained from autoregressive spectral analysis of (ECG derived) HRV at rest and during standing up...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095083/physiological-capacity-and-training-routines-of-elite-cross-country-skiers-approaching-the-upper-limits-of-human-endurance
#8
Øyvind Sandbakk, Hans-Christer Holmberg
Cross-country skiing is one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involving protracted competitions on varying terrain employing a variety of skiing techniques that require upper- and/or lower-body work to different extents. Through more effective training and extensive improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of cross-country ski races has increased more than that of any other winter Olympic sport and, in addition, new types of racing events have been introduced. To a certain extent this has altered the optimal physiological capacity required to win and the training routines of successful skiers have evolved accordingly...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065583/left-ventricular-contraction-pattern-in-chronic-aortic-regurgitation-and-preserved-ejection-fraction-simultaneous-stress-strain-analysis-by-three-dimensional-echocardiography
#9
Kaspar Broch, Stefano F de Marchi, Richard Massey, Jonny Hisdal, Svend Aakhus, Lars Gullestad, Stig Urheim
BACKGROUND: The role of speckle-tracking echocardiography in the assessment of chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) is not established. Load dependency may encumber the interpretation of strain measurements in the chronically overloaded left ventricle. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of left ventricular (LV) contraction patterns in asymptomatic patients with moderate to severe AR and preserved ejection fractions. METHODS: In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 31 patients with moderate to severe AR, 15 elite endurance athletes, and 17 healthy control subjects were examined using three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033124/variances-in-strength-and-conditioning-practice-in-elite-rugby-union-between-the-northern-and-southern-hemispheres
#10
Thomas W Jones, Andrew Smith, Lindsay S Macnaughton, Duncan N French
The strength and conditioning (S&C) practices in elite Rugby Union (RU) have previously been detailed. There is also research which indicates playing styles can differ between Northern hemisphere (NH) and Southern hemisphere (SH) teams. It is not presently known if these variances in playing styles are reflected in the S&C practices of those supporting NH and SH teams. As such, the present study examines any variances in S&C practices between those supporting NH and SH elite level teams. A validated questionnaire was employed that comprised 7 sections; personal details, physical testing, strength and power development, concurrent training, unique aspects of the programme and any further relevant information regarding prescribed training programmes...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018192/differences-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-young-adult-endurance-athletes-and-healthy-controls
#11
David A Raichlen, Pradyumna K Bharadwaj, Megan C Fitzhugh, Kari A Haws, Gabrielle-Ann Torre, Theodore P Trouard, Gene E Alexander
Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012184/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-impairs-exercise-economy-and-negates-the-performance-benefit-from-intensified-training-in-elite-race-walkers
#12
Louise M Burke, Megan L Ross, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Ida A Heikura, Sara G Forbes, Joanne G Mirtschin, Louise E Cato, Nicki Strobel, Avish P Sharma, John A Hawley
We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate (CHO), high-fat diet (LCHF) during 3 wk of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world-class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: High CHO availability (8.6 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) CHO, 2.1 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) protein; 1.2 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) fat) consumed before/during/after training (HCHO, n = 9): identical macronutrient intake, periodised within/between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (<50 g...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933516/costs-of-diabetes-medication-among-male-former-elite-athletes-in-later-life
#13
M K Laine, R Kujala, J G Eriksson, H Kautiainen, S Sarna, U M Kujala
AIMS: Regular physical activity plays a major role, in both prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Less is known whether vigorous physical activity during young adulthood is associated with costs of diabetes medication in later life. The aim of this study is to evaluate this question. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1314 former elite-class athletes and 860 matched controls. The former athletes were divided into three groups based on their active career sport: endurance, mixed and power sports...
December 8, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918666/quantification-of-training-and-competition-loads-in-endurance-sports-methods-and-applications
#14
Iñigo Mujika
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889869/left-ventricular-speckle-tracking-derived-cardiac-strain-and-cardiac-twist-mechanics-in-athletes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-studies
#15
REVIEW
Alexander Beaumont, Fergal Grace, Joanna Richards, John Hough, David Oxborough, Nicholas Sculthorpe
BACKGROUND: The athlete's heart is associated with physiological remodeling as a consequence of repetitive cardiac loading. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular (LV) cardiac strain and twist mechanics are equivocal, and no meta-analysis has been conducted to date. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the literature pertaining to the effect of different forms of athletic training on cardiac strain and twist mechanics and determine the influence of traditional and contemporary sporting classifications on cardiac strain and twist mechanics...
November 26, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854281/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-peak-torque-differences-between-vegetarian-and-omnivore-endurance-athletes-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Heidi M Lynch, Christopher M Wharton, Carol S Johnston
In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG) and 43 omnivore (OMN) athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs...
November 15, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811300/comparative-locomotor-costs-of-domestic-dogs-reveal-energetic-economy-of-wolf-like-breeds
#17
Caleb M Bryce, Terrie M Williams
The broad diversity in morphology and geographic distribution of the 35 free-ranging members of the family Canidae is only rivaled by that of the domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris. Considered to be among nature's most elite endurance athletes, both domestic and wild canids provide a unique opportunity to examine the variability in mammalian aerobic exercise performance and energy expenditure. To determine the potential effects of domestication and selective breeding on locomotor gait and economy in canids, we measured the kinematics and mass-specific metabolism of three large (>20 kg) dog breed groups (northern breeds, retrievers and hounds) of varying morphological and genomic relatedness to their shared progenitor, the gray wolf...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803627/muscle-contraction-velocity-a-suitable-approach-to-analyze-the-functional-adaptations-in-elite-soccer-players
#18
Irineu Loturco, Lucas A Pereira, Ronaldo Kobal, Katia Kitamura, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Vinicius Zanetti, Cesar C Cal Abad, Fabio Y Nakamura
Tensiomyography (TMG) has been used as a simple and non-invasive tool to assess the mechanical properties of skeletal muscles. The TMG-derived velocity of contraction (Vc), which can be calculated from the ratio between maximal radial displacement and the sum of contraction time and delay time, has been proposed for evaluating athletes. However, its sensitivity to training effects and possible relation with changes in soccer players' neuromuscular performance have not yet been addressed. To test this possibility, twenty-two male Brazilian elite soccer players were assessed using TMG-derived Vc, unloaded squat jump, countermovement jump and drop jump at 45 cm, loaded jump squat and linear (20 m) and change of direction (COD) sprint tests, prior to and after an 8-week period, between two consecutive official tournaments, during which the concurrency between endurance and strength-power training commonly impairs neuromuscular capacities...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787336/use-of-alcohol-and-alcohol-related-morbidity-in-finnish-former-elite-athletes
#19
Titta Katariina Kontro, Seppo Sarna, Jaakko Kaprio, Urho M Kujala
INTRODUCTION: The effect of a history of competitive sports on later use of alcohol and occurrence of alcohol-related diseases is poorly known. We investigated how a history of elite level sports was associated with alcohol consumption in middle-age and with alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. METHODS: The occurrence of alcohol-related diseases and deaths were followed using national registers from 1970 to 2008 among Finnish male former elite athletes (n = 2202) and matched controls (n = 1403) alive in 1970 (mean age = 45...
March 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770000/left-and-right-ventricular-hemodynamic-forces-in-healthy-volunteers-and-elite-athletes-assessed-with-4d-flow-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Per Martin Arvidsson, Johannes Töger, Marcus Carlsson, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Gianni Pedrizzetti, Einar Heiberg, Hakan Arheden
Intracardiac blood flow is driven by hemodynamic forces that are exchanged between the blood and myocardium. Previous studies have been limited to 2D measurements or investigated only LV forces. Right ventricular forces and their mechanistic contribution to asymmetric redirection of flow in the RV have not been measured. We therefore aimed to quantify three-dimensional hemodynamic forces in both ventricles in a cohort of healthy subjects, using magnetic resonance imaging 4D flow measurements. 25 controls,14 elite endurance athletes, and two patients with left ventricular dyssynchrony were included...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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