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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918666/quantification-of-training-and-competition-loads-in-endurance-sports-methods-and-applications
#1
Iñigo Mujika
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889869/left-ventricular-speckle-tracking-derived-cardiac-strain-and-cardiac-twist-mechanics-in-athletes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-studies
#2
REVIEW
Alexander Beaumont, Fergal Grace, Joanna Richards, John Hough, David Oxborough, Nicholas Sculthorpe
BACKGROUND: The athlete's heart is associated with physiological remodeling as a consequence of repetitive cardiac loading. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular (LV) cardiac strain and twist mechanics are equivocal, and no meta-analysis has been conducted to date. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the literature pertaining to the effect of different forms of athletic training on cardiac strain and twist mechanics and determine the influence of traditional and contemporary sporting classifications on cardiac strain and twist mechanics...
November 26, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854281/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-peak-torque-differences-between-vegetarian-and-omnivore-endurance-athletes-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Heidi M Lynch, Christopher M Wharton, Carol S Johnston
In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG) and 43 omnivore (OMN) athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs...
November 15, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811300/comparative-locomotor-costs-of-domestic-dogs-reveal-energetic-economy-of-wolf-like-breeds
#4
C M Bryce, T M Williams
The broad diversity in morphology and geographic distribution of the 35 free-ranging members of the family Canidae is only rivaled by that of the domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris. Considered to be among nature's most elite endurance athletes, both domestic and wild canids provide a unique opportunity to examine the variability in mammalian aerobic exercise performance and energy expenditure. To determine the potential effects of domestication and selective breeding on locomotor gait and economy in canids, we measured the kinematics and mass-specific metabolism of three large (>20 kg) dog breed groups (northern breeds, retrievers, and hounds) of varying morphological and genomic relatedness to their shared progenitor, the gray wolf...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803627/muscle-contraction-velocity-a-suitable-approach-to-analyze-the-functional-adaptations-in-elite-soccer-players
#5
Irineu Loturco, Lucas A Pereira, Ronaldo Kobal, Katia Kitamura, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Vinicius Zanetti, Cesar C Cal Abad, Fabio Y Nakamura
Tensiomyography (TMG) has been used as a simple and non-invasive tool to assess the mechanical properties of skeletal muscles. The TMG-derived velocity of contraction (Vc), which can be calculated from the ratio between maximal radial displacement and the sum of contraction time and delay time, has been proposed for evaluating athletes. However, its sensitivity to training effects and possible relation with changes in soccer players' neuromuscular performance have not yet been addressed. To test this possibility, twenty-two male Brazilian elite soccer players were assessed using TMG-derived Vc, unloaded squat jump, countermovement jump and drop jump at 45 cm, loaded jump squat and linear (20 m) and change of direction (COD) sprint tests, prior to and after an 8-week period, between two consecutive official tournaments, during which the concurrency between endurance and strength-power training commonly impairs neuromuscular capacities...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787336/use-of-alcohol-and-alcohol-related-morbidity-in-finnish-former-elite-athletes
#6
Titta K Kontro, Seppo Sarna, Jaakko Kaprio, Urho M Kujala
INTRODUCTION: The impact of a history of competitive sports on later use of alcohol and occurrence of alcohol-related diseases is poorly known. We investigated how a history of elite level sports was associated with alcohol consumption in middle-age and with alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Occurrence of alcohol-related diseases and deaths were followed using national registers from 1970 to 2008 among Finnish male former elite athletes (n=2202) and matched controls (n=1403) alive in 1970 (mean age 45...
October 27, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770000/left-and-right-ventricular-hemodynamic-forces-in-healthy-volunteers-and-elite-athletes-assessed-with-4d-flow-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Per Martin Arvidsson, Johannes Töger, Marcus Carlsson, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Gianni Pedrizzetti, Einar Heiberg, Hakan Arheden
Intracardiac blood flow is driven by hemodynamic forces that are exchanged between the blood and myocardium. Previous studies have been limited to 2D measurements or investigated only LV forces. Right ventricular forces and their mechanistic contribution to asymmetric redirection of flow in the RV have not been measured. We therefore aimed to quantify three-dimensional hemodynamic forces in both ventricles in a cohort of healthy subjects, using magnetic resonance imaging 4D flow measurements. 25 controls,14 elite endurance athletes, and two patients with left ventricular dyssynchrony were included...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747845/actn3-r577x-polymorphism-is-not-associated-with-team-sport-athletic-status-in-italians
#8
Myosotis Massidda, Valeria Bachis, Laura Corrias, Francesco Piras, Marco Scorcu, Claudia Culigioni, Daniele Masala, Carla M Calò
BACKGROUND: The ACTN3 gene may influence performance in team sports, in which sprint action and high-speed movements, regulated by the anaerobic energy system, are crucial to the ultimate success of a match. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism and elite team sport athletic status in Italian male athletes. METHODS: We compared the genotype and allele frequency of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism between team sport athletes (n = 75), endurance athletes (n = 40), sprint/power athletes (n = 64), and non-athletic healthy controls (n = 192) from Italy...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747844/running-economy-measurement-norms-and-determining-factors
#9
Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
Running economy (RE) is considered an important physiological measure for endurance athletes, especially distance runners. This review considers 1) how RE is defined and measured and 2) physiological and biomechanical factors that determine or influence RE. It is difficult to accurately ascertain what is good, average, and poor RE between athletes and studies due to variation in protocols, gas-analysis systems, and data averaging techniques. However, representative RE values for different caliber of male and female runners can be identified from existing literature with mostly clear delineations in oxygen uptake across a range of speeds in moderately and highly trained and elite runners...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704644/mobility-and-muscle-strength-in-male-former-elite-endurance-and-power-athletes-aged-66-91%C3%A2-years
#10
S Manderoos, N Wasenius, M K Laine, U M Kujala, E Mälkiä, J Kaprio, S Sarna, H M Bäckmand, J A Kettunen, O J Heinonen, A M Jula, S Aunola, J G Eriksson
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare mobility and muscle strength in male former elite endurance and power athletes aged 66-91 years (n = 150; 50 men in both former elite athlete groups and in their control group). Agility, dynamic balance, walking speed, chair stand, self-rated balance confidence (ABC-scale), jumping height, and handgrip strength were assessed. Former elite power athletes had better agility performance time than the controls (age- and body mass index, BMI-adjusted mean difference -3...
October 5, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686166/acute-effects-of-high-intensity-intermittent-training-on-kinematics-and-foot-strike-patterns-in-endurance-runners
#11
P Á Latorre-Román, F García Pinillos, P Bujalance-Moreno, V M Soto-Hermoso
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate running kinematic characteristics and foot strike patterns (FSP) during early and late stages of actual and common high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT): 5 × 2000 m with 120-s recovery between runs. Thirteen healthy, elite, highly trained male endurance runners participated in this study. They each had a personal record in the half-marathon of 70 ± 2.24 min, and each had a minimum experience of 4 years of training and competition. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored during HIIT...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685009/effect-of-dry-needling-on-thigh-muscle-strength-and-hip-flexion-in-elite-soccer-players
#12
Christian Haser, Thomas Stöggl, Monika Kriner, Jörg Mikoleit, Bernd Wolfahrt, Johannes Scherr, Martin Halle, Florian Pfab
PURPOSE: Increase in muscle force, endurance and flexibility is desired in elite athletes in order to improve performance and avoid injuries but often hindered by occurence of myofascial trigger points. Dry needling (DN) has been shown effective in eliminating myofascial trigger points. METHODS: This randomized controlled study in 30 elite youth soccer players of a professional soccer Bundesliga Club investigated the effects of four weekly sessions of DN plus water-pressure-massage on thigh muscle force and range-of-motion of hip flexion...
September 28, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670904/cooling-during-exercise-an-overlooked-strategy-for-enhancing-endurance-performance-in-the-heat
#13
Christopher J Stevens, Lee Taylor, Ben J Dascombe
It is well established that endurance performance is negatively affected by environmental heat stress due to a complex interaction of physical, physiological and psychological alterations. Numerous scientific investigations have attempted to improve performance in the heat with pre-cooling (cooling prior to an exercise test), and as such this has become a well-established ergogenic practice for endurance athletes. However, the use of mid-cooling (cooling during an exercise test) has received considerably less research attention in comparison, despite recent evidence to suggest that the advantage gained from mid-cooling may outweigh that of pre-cooling...
September 27, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625070/effects-of-exercise-on-alterations-in-redox-homeostasis-in-elite-male-and-female-endurance-athletes-using-a-clinical-point-of-care-test
#14
Nathan A Lewis, Colin Towey, Georgie Bruinvels, Glyn Howatson, Charles R Pedlar
Exercise causes alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH). Measuring ARH in elite athletes may aid in the identification of training tolerance, fatigued states, and underperformance. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined ARH in elite male and female distance runners at sea level. The monitoring of ARH in athletes is hindered by a lack of reliable and repeatable in-the-field testing tools and by the rapid turnaround of results. We examined the effects of various exercise intensities on ARH in healthy (non-over-reached) elite male and female endurance athletes using clinical point-of-care (POC) redox tests, referred to as the free oxygen radical test (FORT) (pro-oxidant) and the free oxygen radical defence (FORD) (antioxidant)...
October 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618339/the-effect-of-maximal-explosive-strength-training-on-performance-indicators-in-cyclists
#15
Kris Beattie, Brian P Carson, Mark Lyons, Ian C Kenny
Cycling economy (CE), power at maximal oxygen uptake (WV̇O2max) and anaerobic function (i.e. sprinting ability) are considered to be the best physiological performance indicators in elite road cyclists. In addition to cardiovascular function, these physiological indicators are partly dictated by neuromuscular factors. One technique to improve neuromuscular function in athletes is through strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 20 week maximal- and explosive-strength training intervention on strength (maximal- , explosive-strength & bike-specific explosive-strength), WV̇O2max, CE and body composition (body mass, fat & lean mass) in cyclists...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606953/incidence-of-iron-deficiency-and-iron-deficient-anemia-in-elite-runners-and-triathletes
#16
Alexandra Coates, Margo Mountjoy, Jamie Burr
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficient anemia (IDA) within a cohort of highly trained runners and triathletes, and to examine the association of oral iron supplementation history with serum ferritin (sFe) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of routine blood test data taken from 2009 to 2015 from (n = 38) elite level runners and triathletes between the ages of 21 to 36 years. Oral iron supplement intake was assessed through a questionnaire...
September 5, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570626/an-empirical-study-of-race-times-in-recreational-endurance-runners
#17
Andrew J Vickers, Emily A Vertosick
BACKGROUND: Studies of endurance running have typically involved elite athletes, small sample sizes and measures that require special expertise or equipment. METHODS: We examined factors associated with race performance and explored methods for race time prediction using information routinely available to a recreational runner. An Internet survey was used to collect data from recreational endurance runners (N = 2303). The cohort was split 2:1 into a training set and validation set to create models to predict race time...
2016: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494731/no-evidence-of-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-in-former-elite-endurance-athletes
#18
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Marta López-Ramón, Rafael Alis, Nuria Garatachea, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Pilar Catalán, Veronica Sansoni, Silvia Perego, Giovanni Lombardi, Herbert Löllgen, Hector Bueno, Enrique Serrano-Ostáriz, Alejandro Lucia
BACKGROUND: The impact of high exercise loads on a previously healthy heart remains controversial. We examined the consequences of decades of strenuous endurance exercise at the highest competition level on heart dimensions and volumes as well as on serum biomarkers of cardiac fibrosis/remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared echocardiographic measurements and serum biomarkers of cardiac fibrosis/remodeling [troponin I, galectin-3, matrix metallopeptidase-2 and -9, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and soluble suppressor of tumorigenicity-2 (sST-2)/interleukin(IL)-1R4] in 53 male athletes [11 former professional ('elite') and 42 amateur-level ('sub-elite') cyclists or runners, aged 40-70years] and 18 aged-matched controls...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476525/short-term-performance-peaking-in-an-elite-cross-country-mountain-biker
#19
Bent R Rønnestad, Joar Hansen, Geir Vegge, Iñigo Mujika
Endurance athletes usually achieve performance peaks with 2-4 weeks of overload training followed by 1-3weeks of tapering. With a tight competition schedule, this may not be appropriate. This case investigates the effect of a 7-day overload period including daily high-intensity aerobic training followed by a 5-day step taper between two competitions in an elite cross-country mountain biker. Pre-test peak oxygen consumption was 89 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), peak aerobic power 6.8 W·kg(-1), power output at 2 mmol·L(-1) blood lactate concentration 3...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464417/polymorphism-of-the-igf-i-system-and-sports-performance
#20
REVIEW
Sigal Ben-Zaken, Yoav Meckel, Dan Nemet, Nitzan Dror, Alon Eliakim
The potential use genetic polymorphism, and in particularly polymorphism of hormone genes, as tool to predict athletic performance is currently very challenging. Recent studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms in IGF-I and myostatin may be beneficial for endurance and short distance running, and may even be associated with elite performance. Polymorphism in IGF-I receptor may differentiate between the two edges of the endurance-power athletic performance running spectrum suggesting beneficial effects for endurance and prevent from success in power events...
June 2016: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
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