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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447417/primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-part-1-epidemiology-diagnosis-staging-and-prognosis
#1
Rimas V Lukas, Roger Stupp, Vinai Gondi, Jeffrey J Raizer
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a rare CNS neoplasm. Its highest incidence is in the elderly and the immunocompromised. The initial steps in establishing a diagnosis involve CNS imaging. Familiarity with the clinical presentation is important in order to limit the risk of a nondiagnostic biopsy. In addition to confirming the diagnosis, it is wise to evaluate for extra-CNS disease. There are important differences in the presentation and evaluation of immunocompetent patients and those of immunocompromised patients; we will delineate these in this review...
January 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415126/central-nervous-system-germinomas-express-programmed-death-ligand-1
#2
Miriam E Wildeman, Matthew J Shepard, Edward H Oldfield, M Beatriz S Lopes
Immunomodulation and tumor-induced tolerance is one of the central mechanisms in the oncogenesis of malignant and benign neoplasms. While numerous pathways have been described, signaling through the programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) on T lymphocytes, via activation through its ligand, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressed on tumor cells is one of the central pathways involved in tumor-induced tolerance. While the neoplastic component of germinomas of the CNS is the germ cell, these tumors also exhibit an abundance of quiescent tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412177/medulloblastoma-with-myogenic-and-or-melanotic-differentiation-does-not-align-immunohistochemically-with-the-genetically-defined-molecular-subgroups
#3
Kirti Gupta, Swathi Jugunoori, Ayusman Satapathy, Pravin Salunke, Narendra Kumar, Bishan Dass Radotra, Rakesh Kumar Vasishta
The World Health Organization classification of central nervous system neoplasms (2016 update) recognizes four histological variants and genetically defined molecular subgroups within medulloblastoma (MB). MB with myogenic differentiation is one of the rare variant which is usually recognized as a pattern alongside the known histological variants. Due to its rarity, less is known about its molecular landscape and importantly about its placement in the current molecular schema. We aimed to analyze this rare variant for expression of three immunohistochemical markers conventionally used in molecular stratification of MB...
February 2, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408302/the-role-of-small-molecule-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-pdgfr-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-neoplastic-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Robert Roskoski
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was discovered as a serum-derived component necessary for the growth of smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and glial cells. The PDGF family is a product of four gene products and consists of five dimeric isoforms: PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, PDGF-CC, PDGF-DD, and the PDGF-AB heterodimer. This growth factor family plays an essential role in embryonic development and in wound healing in the adult. These growth factors mediate their effects by binding to and activating their receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, which are encoded by two genes: PDGFRA and PDGFRB...
February 2, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403544/current-therapeutic-approaches-to-diffuse-grade-ii-and-iii-gliomas
#5
Alberto Picca, Giulia Berzero, Marc Sanson
The 2016 WHO classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System brought major conceptual and practical changes in the classification of diffuse gliomas, by combining molecular features and histology into 'integrated' diagnoses. In diffuse gliomas, molecular profiling has thus become essential for nosological purposes, as well as to plan adequate treatment strategies and identify patients susceptible of target therapy. WHO grade II (low grade) and grade III (anaplastic) diffuse gliomas form a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, also known as 'lower-grade gliomas', characterized by a wide range of malignant potential...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402204/glomeruloid-microvascular-proliferation-desmoplasia-and-high-proliferative-index-as-potential-indicators-of-high-grade-canine-choroid-plexus-tumors
#6
Luisa Vera Muscatello, Giancarlo Avallone, Fabienne Serra, Torsten Seuberlich, Maria Teresa Mandara, Silvia Sisó, Barbara Brunetti, Anna Oevermann
Choroid plexus tumors (CPT) are intraventricular neoplasms accounting for 10% of all primary central nervous system tumors in dogs. They are frequently classified according to the human WHO classification into choroid plexus papilloma (CPP, grade I), atypical CPP (aCPP, grade II), and choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC, grade III). Histological features observed in canine CPT such as increased vascular density (IVD) and glomeruloid microvascular proliferation (GMVP) are not part of the WHO classification. This multi-centric study aimed to investigate tumor-associated vascular hyperplasia in dogs by determining the prevalence of GMVP and IVD in 52 canine CPT and their association with tumor grade...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396936/flow-cytometry-in-pediatric-malignancies
#7
Anil Handoo, Tina Dadu
The utility of flow cytometry as a useful diagnostic modality for the assessment of hematopoietic neoplasms has been established beyond doubt. In fact, it is now an integral part of the diagnosis and classification of various diseases like leukemias and lymphomas along with molecular studies and cytogenetics. Prognostication and disease monitoring by flow cytometry is also being recognized increasingly as one of the important fortes. This is evident by the number of articles in the published in literature on the minimal residual disease detection by flow cytometry especially in the last decade or so...
January 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396807/the-cns-penetrating-taxane-tpi-287-and-the-aurka-inhibitor-alisertib-induce-synergistic-apoptosis-in-glioblastoma-cells
#8
Cory T Zumbar, Aisulu Usubalieva, Paul D King, Xiaohui Li, Caroline S Mifsud, Hailey M Dalton, Muge Sak, Sara Urio, William M Bryant, Joseph P McElroy, George Farmer, Norman L Lehman
Glioblastoma is a highly malignant disease in critical need of expanded treatment options. The AURKA inhibitor alisertib exhibits antiproliferative activity against glioblastoma in vitro and in vivo. Unlike current clinically used taxane drugs, the novel taxane TPI 287 penetrates the CNS. We tested for interactions between three selective AURKA inhibitors and TPI 287 against standard U87 and U1242 cells and primary glioblastoma neurospheres using colony formation assays. Bliss and Chou-Talalay analyses were utilized to statistically test for synergism...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393190/pathology-and-genetics-of-gliomas
#9
Takashi Komori, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Mikhail F Chernov
Current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the neuroepithelial tumors is cell lineage-oriented and based on a presumed developmental tree of the central nervous system (CNS). It defines three main groups of gliomas, namely astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas, and additionally presumes their 4-tiered histopathological grading (WHO grades I to IV). Nevertheless, the impact of tumor pathology on clinically related parameters may be frequently much better predicted by genetics, than by histological appearance of the lesion...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387965/cell-biology-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-from-basic-science-to-diagnosis-and-treatment
#10
George S Stoyanov, Deyan Dzhenkov, Peter Ghenev, Bogomil Iliev, Yavor Enchev, Anton B Tonchev
First described in the 1800s, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a class IV neoplasm with astrocytic differentiation, as per the revised 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) is the most common malignant tumor of the CNS. GBM has an extremely wide set of alterations, both genetic and epigenetic, which yield a great number of mutation subgroups, some of which have an established role in independent patient survival and treatment response. All of those components not only represent a closed cycle but are also relevant to the tumor biological behavior and resistance to treatment as they form the pathobiological behavior and clinical course...
January 31, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384187/investigating-the-levels-of-soluble-extracellular-domain-of-her2-protein-in-the-sera-of-meningioma-patients
#11
Shabnam Abtahi, Sareh Hakimrabet, Mahyar Malekzadeh, Amir Reza Deghanian, Abbas Ghaderi
AIM: Meningiomas are the most frequently diagnosed primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms. Considering slightly higher incidence of meningiomas in breast cancer patients and breast cancer in meningioma patients, it can be assumed that both tumors share similar risk factors. HER2 gene amplification and/or over-expression have been found in several human cancers, but it has been most widely studied in breast carcinomas. Bearing in mind the association of breast cancer and meningioma, the present study aimed to investigate the levels of the soluble extracellular domain of HER2 protein in meningioma cases and control group...
December 11, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378347/extraventricular-neurocytoma-in-the-left-frontal-lobe-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Fan Chen, Rihua Jin, Xinmin Wu, Zengping Dong, Dawei Chen
BACKGROUND: Neurocytoma is a rare brain neoplasm of neuroepithelial origin that predominantly occurs in the ventricular system adjacent to the interventricular foramen and septum pellucidum. However, extraventricular neurocytoma is an extremely rare entity with poor clinical, radiological, and histopathological characterization. Herein, we report a case of an extraventricular parafalcine neurocytoma in the left frontal lobe. OBJECTIVES: This study will compile and examine reported cases of extraventricular neurocytoma in an attempt to provide an up-to-date summary of the condition...
January 25, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345507/ovarian-tissue-cryopreservation-in-young-females-through-the-oncofertility-consortium-s-national-physicians-cooperative
#13
Austin G Armstrong, Bruce F Kimler, Brigid M Smith, Teresa K Woodruff, Mary Ellen Pavone, Francesca E Duncan
AIM: To characterize the clinical indications of females (<15 years old) undergoing ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) through the Oncofertility Consortium's National Physicians Cooperative (OC-NPC). PATIENTS & METHODS: The clinical indications of 114 females who underwent OTC were classified, and their incidence was compared with childhood cancer databases. RESULTS: Leukemias/myeloproliferative diseases/myelodysplastic diseases and hemoglobinopathies were the most prevalent oncologic and nononcologic indications for OTC, respectively...
January 18, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343557/dicer1-and-associated-conditions-%C3%A2-identification-of-at-risk-individuals-and-recommended-surveillance-strategies
#14
Kris Ann P Schultz, Gretchen M Williams, Junne Kamihara, Douglas R Stewart, Anne K Harris, Andrew J Bauer, Joyce Turner, Rachana Shah, Katherine Schneider, Kami Wolfe Schneider, Ann Garrity Carr, Laura A Harney, Shari Baldinger, A Lindsay Frazier, Daniel Orbach, Dominik T Schneider, David Malkin, Louis P Dehner, Yoav H Messinger, Ashley Hill
Pathogenic germline DICER1 variants cause a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome with a variety of manifestations. In addition to conferring increased cancer risks for pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) and ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, particularly Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, individuals with pathogenic germline DICER1 variants may also develop lung cysts, cystic nephroma, renal sarcoma and Wilms tumor, nodular hyperplasia of the thyroid, nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma, ciliary body medulloepithelioma, genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and brain tumors including pineoblastoma and pituitary blastoma...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332416/-autoimmune-encephalitis-possibilities-in-the-laboratory-investigation
#15
Katalin Böröcz, Zsófia Hayden, Viktória Mészáros, Zsuzsanna Csizmadia, Kornélia Farkas, Zoltán Kellermayer, Péter Balogh, Ferenc Nagy, Tímea Berki
INTRODUCTION: The role of autoimmune responses against central nervous system (CNS) antigens in encephalitis presenting with non-classified neurologic or psychiatric symptoms has been appreciated in the past decade. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis has a poor prognosis and is most commonly associated with lung, ovarium, and testicular neoplasms, leading to immune reactions against intracellular antigens (anti-Hu/ANNA1, anti-Ri/ANNA2, anti-CV2/CRMP5 and anti-Ma2/Ta). In contrast, the recently described autoimmune encephalitis subtypes present with a broad spectrum of symptoms, respond to autoimmune therapies well and usually associate with autoantibodies against neuronal cell surface receptors (NMDAR, GABABR, AMPAR) or synaptic proteins (LGI1, CASPR2)...
January 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299749/a-novel-gene-signature-based-on-five-glioblastoma-stem-like-cell-relevant-genes-predicts-the-survival-of-primary-glioblastoma
#16
Ruichao Chai, Kenan Zhang, Kuanyu Wang, Guanzhang Li, Ruoyu Huang, Zheng Zhao, Yanwei Liu, Jing Chen
PURPOSE: Primary glioblastoma (pGBM) is the most common and lethal type of neoplasms in the central nervous system, while the existing biomarkers, lacking consideration on the stemness changes of GBM cells, are not specific enough to predict the complex prognosis respectively. We aimed to build a high-efficiency prediction gene signature related to GBM cell stemness and investigate its prognostic value in primary glioblastoma. METHODS: Differentially expressed genes were screened in GSE23806 database...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280457/reirradiation-for-recurrent-pediatric-central-nervous-system-malignancies-a-multi-institutional-review
#17
Avani D Rao, Arif S Rashid, Qinyu Chen, Rosangela C Villar, Daria Kobyzeva, Kristina Nilsson, Karin Dieckmann, Alexey Nechesnyuk, Ralph Ermoian, Sara Alcorn, Shannon M MacDonald, Matthew M Ladra, Eric C Ford, Brian A Winey, Maria Luisa S Figueiredo, Michael J Chen, Stephanie A Terezakis
PURPOSE: Reirradiation has been proposed as an effective modality for recurrent central nervous system (CNS) malignancies in adults. We evaluated the toxicity and outcomes of CNS reirradiation in pediatric patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The data from pediatric patients <21 years of age at the initial diagnosis who developed a recurrent CNS malignancy that received repeat radiation therapy (RT) across 5 facilities in an international pediatric research consortium were retrospectively reviewed...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230288/embryonal-tumor-with-multilayered-rosettes-c19mc-altered-report-of-an-extremely-rare-malignant-pediatric-central-nervous-system-neoplasm
#18
Muhammad Usman Tariq, Zubair Ahmad, Muhammad Khurram Minhas, Aisha Memon, Noreen Mushtaq, Cynthia Hawkins
The 2016 update of the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System has redefined a number of tumors. Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered is one such tumor entity which has been newly defined on the basis of a characteristic molecular alteration. We report, to our knowledge, the first case of this rare pediatric brain neoplasm in the Pakistani population. An 8-month-old girl was presented with vomiting and left-sided ptosis, and magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a cerebellar tumor...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222305/biology-of-cns-lymphoma-and-the-potential-of-novel-agents
#19
REVIEW
James L Rubenstein
Primary and secondary CNS lymphomas are aggressive brain tumors that pose an immense challenge to define in terms of molecular pathogenesis, as well as to effectively treat. During the past 10 years improvements in survival have been achieved with the implementation of anti-CD20 immunotherapy and optimization of dose-intensive consolidation strategies. The applications of whole-exome sequencing, comparative genomic hybridization, transcriptional profiling, and examination of the tumor microenvironment, particularly in the context of clinical investigation, provide insights that create a roadmap for the development and implementation of novel targeted agents for this disease...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221349/ab-thymoma-with-atypical-type-a-component-with-delayed-multiple-lung-and-brain-metastases
#20
Wieslawa Grajkowska, Ewa Matyja, Jacek Kunicki, Sylwia Szymanska, Alexander Marx, Cleo-Aron Weis, Renata Langfort, Malgorzata Szolkowska
An atypical type A thymoma is a newly added entity to the last World Health Organization (WHO) histological classification [2015] of uncertain prognosis. The conventional type A and AB thymomas are usually locally aggressive neoplasms that rarely metastasize with distant metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) occurring extremely exceptionally. We present a history of a woman with a mediastinal tumor originally considered to be a Masaoka-Koga stage II "mixed thymoma with well-differentiated thymic carcinoma component" according to the historic Müller-Hermelink nomenclature...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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