Read by QxMD icon Read

microbial physiology

Ya-Qin Tan, Jing Zhang, Gang Zhou
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved lysosomal degradation process essential for cell physiology and human health. By regulating apoptosis, inflammation, pathogen clearance, immune response and other cellular processes, autophagy acts as a modulator of pathogenesis and is a potential therapeutic target in diverse diseases. With regard to oral disease, autophagy can be problematic either when it is activated or impaired, because this process is involved in diverse functions, depending on the specific disease and its level of progression...
October 20, 2016: Autophagy
Marcelo E Fuentes, Renato A Quinones
Facultative marine filamentous fungi have recently emerged as a functional component in coastal marine systems. However, little is known about their ecological role and functions in biogeochemical cycles. Penicillium decumbens, S. strictum, and F. fujikuroi were isolated from the coastal upwelling zone off south-central Chile. Their carbon profiles were characterized using Biolog FF MicroPlates. These species used a wide range of carbon sources, mainly carbohydrates, but also amino acids, suggesting the use of metabolic routes that include glycolysis/gluconeogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
Amy R Mackos, Ross Maltz, Michael T Bailey
Over the past decade, it has become increasingly evident that there are extensive bidirectional interactions between the body and its microbiota. These interactions are evident during stressful periods, where it is recognized that commensal microbiota community structure is significantly changed. Many different stressors, ranging from early life stressors to stressors administered during adulthood, lead to significant, community-wide differences in the microbiota. The mechanisms through which this occurs are not yet known, but it is known that commensal microbes can recognize, and respond to, mammalian hormones and neurotransmitters, including those that are involved with the physiological response to stressful stimuli...
October 16, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Philippe Chouvarine, Lutz Wiehlmann, Patricia Moran Losada, David S DeLuca, Burkhard Tümmler
Ever-increasing affordability of next-generation sequencing makes whole-metagenome sequencing an attractive alternative to traditional 16S rDNA, RFLP, or culturing approaches for the analysis of microbiome samples. The advantage of whole-metagenome sequencing is that it allows direct inference of the metabolic capacity and physiological features of the studied metagenome without reliance on the knowledge of genotypes and phenotypes of the members of the bacterial community. It also makes it possible to overcome problems of 16S rDNA sequencing, such as unknown copy number of the 16S gene and lack of sufficient sequence similarity of the "universal" 16S primers to some of the target 16S genes...
2016: PloS One
Bruno Tilocca, Maren Witzig, Markus Rodehutscord, Jana Seifert
The chicken gastrointestinal tract (GIT) harbours a complex microbial community, involved in several physiological processes such as host immunomodulation and feed digestion. For the first time, the present study analysed dietary effects on the protein inventory of the microbiome in crop and ceca of broilers. We performed quantitative label-free metaproteomics by using 1-D-gel electrophoresis coupled with LC-MS/MS to identify the structural and functional changes triggered by diets supplied with varying amount of mineral phosphorous (P) and microbial phytase (MP)...
2016: PloS One
Abdul Arif Khan, Zakir Khan, Mohd Abul Kalam, Azmat Ali Khan
Microbial pathogenesis involves several aspects of host-pathogen interactions, including microbial proteins targeting host subcellular compartments and subsequent effects on host physiology. Such studies are supported by experimental data, but recent detection of bacterial proteins localization through computational eukaryotic subcellular protein targeting prediction tools has also come into practice. We evaluated inter-kingdom prediction certainty of these tools. The bacterial proteins experimentally known to target host subcellular compartments were predicted with eukaryotic subcellular targeting prediction tools, and prediction certainty was assessed...
October 6, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Cornelia U Welte, Olivia Rasigraf, Annika Vaksmaa, Wouter Versantvoort, Arslan Arshad, Huub J M Op den Camp, Mike S M Jetten, Claudia Lüke, Joachim Reimann
Microbial methane oxidation is an important process to reduce the emission of the greenhouse gas methane. Anaerobic microorganisms couple the oxidation of methane to the reduction of sulfate, nitrate and nitrite, and possibly oxidized iron and manganese minerals. In this article, we review the recent finding of the intriguing nitrate- and nitrite-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Nitrate-dependent AOM is catalyzed by anaerobic archaea belonging to the ANME-2d clade closely related to Methanosarcina methanogens...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Isabella Gandolfi, Claudia Canedoli, Valeria Imperato, Ilario Tagliaferri, Panagiotis Gkorezis, Jaco Vangronsveld, Emilio Padoa Schioppa, Maddalena Papacchini, Giuseppina Bestetti, Andrea Franzetti
Plants and their associated bacteria have been suggested to play a role in air pollution mitigation, especially in urban areas. Particularly, epiphytic bacteria might be able to degrade atmospheric hydrocarbons. However, phyllospheric bacterial communities are highly variable depending on several factors, e.g. tree species, leaf age and physiology, environmental conditions. In this work, bacterial communities hosted by urban Platanus x acerifolia leaves were taxonomically characterized using high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, and their temporal and spatial variability was assessed by comparing samples collected from different locations in the city of Milan (Italy) and in different months...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Shaun R Brinsmade
A growing body of evidence points to CodY, a global regulator in Gram-positive bacteria, as a critical link between microbial physiology and pathogenesis in diverse environments. Recent studies uncovering graded regulation of CodY gene targets reflect the true nature of this transcription factor controlled by ligands and reveal nutrient availability as a potentially critical factor in modulating pathogenesis. This review will serve to update the status of the field and raise new questions to be answered.
October 15, 2016: Current Genetics
A E Hoban, R D Moloney, A V Golubeva, K A McVey Neufeld, O O'Sullivan, E Patterson, C Stanton, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
Gut microbiota colonization is a key event for host physiology that occurs early in life. Disruption of this process leads to altered brain development which ultimately manifests as changes in brain function and behaviour in adulthood. Studies using germ-free mice highlight the extreme impact on brain health that results from life without commensal microbes, however the impact of microbiota disturbances occurring in adulthood is less studied. To this end, we depleted the gut microbiota of 10-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats via chronic antibiotic treatment...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience
Massimo Marzorati, Tom Van de Wiele
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) hosts the most complex microbial community in the human body. Given the extensive metabolic potential which is present in this community, this additional organ is of key importance to maintain a healthy status and several diseases are frequently correlated with an alteration of the composition/functionality of the gut microbiota. Consequently, there is a great interest in identifying potential approaches that could modulate the microbiota and its metabolism to bring about a positive health effect...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Sophie Thiemann, Nathiana Smit, Till Strowig
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse ecosystem containing thousands of microbial species, whose metabolic activity affects many aspects of human physiology. Large-scale surveys have demonstrated that an individual's microbiota composition is shaped by factors such as diet and the use of medications, including antibiotics. Loss of overall diversity and in some cases loss of single groups of bacteria as a consequence of antibiotic treatment in humans has been associated with enhanced susceptibility toward gastrointestinal infections and with enhanced weight gain and obesity in young children...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Zachary B Freedman, Rima A Upchurch, Donald R Zak
Fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer use has increased the amount of biologically available N entering terrestrial ecosystems. Nonetheless, our understanding of how anthropogenic N may alter the physiological mechanisms by which soil microorganisms cycle N in soil is still developing. Here, we applied shotgun metagenomics to a replicated long-term field experiment to determine how two decades of experimental N deposition, at a rate expected by mid-century, has affected the genetic potential of the soil microbial community to cycle N in soils...
2016: PloS One
Wei Miao, Xiujuan Wu, Kang Wang, Wenjing Wang, Yumei Wang, Zhigang Li, Jingjing Liu, Li Li, Luying Peng
As a physiological small molecular product from the microbial fermentation of dietary fibers, butyrate plays an important role in maintaining intestinal health. Our previous works have proved that the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) on the intestinal barrier function is mediated by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the detailed pathway involved remains unknown. Using the calcium switch assay in the Caco-2 cell monolayer model, we found here that NaB activated AMPK mainly by increasing the calcium level, but not the ATP concentration, via promoting store-operated calcium entry (SOCE)...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hsi-Hsien Lin, Martin Stacey
As the largest receptor gene family in the human genome, with >800 members, the signal-transducing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play critical roles in nearly all conceivable physiological processes, ranging from the sensing of photons and odorants to metabolic homeostasis and migration of leukocytes. Unfortunately, an exhaustive review of the several hundred GPCRs expressed by myeloid cells/macrophages (P.J. Groot-Kormelink, L .Fawcett, P.D. Wright, M. Gosling, and T.C. Kent, BMC Immunol 12:57, 2012, doi:10...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Ludovic Giloteaux, Maureen R Hanson, Betsy A Keller
BACKGROUND Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) present with profound fatigue, flu-like symptoms, pain, cognitive impairment, orthostatic intolerance, and post-exertional malaise (PEM), and exacerbation of some or all of the baseline symptoms. CASE REPORT We report on a pair of 34-year-old monozygotic twins discordant for ME/CFS, with WELL, the non-affected twin, and ILL, the affected twin. Both twins performed a two-day cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), pre- and post-exercise blood samples were drawn, and both provided stool samples for biochemical and molecular analysis...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Alexander Klotz, Jens Georg, Lenka Bučinská, Satoru Watanabe, Viktoria Reimann, Witold Januszewski, Roman Sobotka, Dieter Jendrossek, Wolfgang R Hess, Karl Forchhammer
The molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in the transition of microbial cells from a resting state to the active vegetative state are critically relevant for solving problems in fields ranging from microbial ecology to infection microbiology. Cyanobacteria that cannot fix nitrogen are able to survive prolonged periods of nitrogen starvation as chlorotic cells in a dormant state. When provided with a usable nitrogen source, these cells re-green within 48 hr and return to vegetative growth. Here we investigated the resuscitation of chlorotic Synechocystis sp...
October 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
C Verde, D Giordano, C M Bellas, G di Prisco, A M Anesio
The large diversity of marine microorganisms harboured by oceans plays an important role in planet sustainability by driving globally important biogeochemical cycles; all primary and most secondary production in the oceans is performed by microorganisms. The largest part of the planet is covered by cold environments; consequently, cold-adapted microorganisms have crucial functional roles in globally important environmental processes and biogeochemical cycles cold-adapted extremophiles are a remarkable model to shed light on the molecular basis of survival at low temperature...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
Walter P Pfliegler, Matthias Sipiczki
Simple and efficient genotyping methods are widely used to assess the diversity of a large number of microbial strains, e.g. wine yeasts isolated from a specific geographic area or a vintage, etc. Such methods are often also the first to be applied, to decrease the number of strains deemed interesting for a more time-consuming physiological characterization. Here, we aimed to use a physiologically characterized strain collection of 69 S. cerevisiae strains from Hungarian wine regions to determine whether geographic origin or physiological similarity can be recovered by clustering the strains with one or two simultaneously used variations of interdelta genotyping...
October 8, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Doron Ben-Gad, Yoram Gerchman
Brevibacterium halotolerans is currently classified as a member of the Brevibacterium genus, a genus that groups together many bacterial species of similar morphology but diverse biochemical and physiological features. Here we suggest, based on multiple gene sequencing and microbial and biochemical characterization of two environmental isolates and one type strain (DSM8802), that the B. halotolerans DSM8802 (and probably the other deposited under this species name) should be re-classified into the Bacillus genus, and offered the name B...
October 7, 2016: Current Microbiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"