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microbial physiology

Xu Zhang, Min Li, Huanhuan Yang, Xinxin Li, Zhaojie Cui
The over discharge of mine tailing cause consequent heavy metal pollution. Phytoremediation as one of the most viable and efficient method for this problem has aroused much attention. In this research, the growth and physiological responses of Suaeda glauca and Arabidopsis thaliana plants were investigated, and the soil conditions (pH and enzyme activity) were evaluated further under varied levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn). The results showed that heavy metals could inhibit the growth of plants...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Richard M Johnson, Kathleen A McDonough
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of the most successful microbial pathogens, and currently infects over a quarter of the world's population. Mtb's success depends on the ability of the bacterium to sense and respond to dynamic and hostile environments within the host, including the ability to regulate bacterial metabolism and interactions with the host immune system. One of the ways Mtb senses and responds to conditions it faces during infection is through the concerted action of multiple cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Kenichi Asano, Kenta Kikuchi, Masato Tanaka
Tissue macrophages comprise heterogeneous subsets that differ in localization, phenotype, and ontogeny. They acquire tissue-specific phenotype in order to maintain normal tissue physiology. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the functions of CD169-positive macrophage subset residing in the lymphoid organs and intestinal tract. Strategically positioned at the interface between tissue and circulating fluid, CD169+ macrophages in the lymphoid organs capture blood- and lymph-borne particulate materials...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Kassem Makki, Edward C Deehan, Jens Walter, Fredrik Bäckhed
Food is a primordial need for our survival and well-being. However, diet is not only essential to maintain human growth, reproduction, and health, but it also modulates and supports the symbiotic microbial communities that colonize the digestive tract-the gut microbiota. Type, quality, and origin of our food shape our gut microbes and affect their composition and function, impacting host-microbe interactions. In this review, we will focus on dietary fibers, which interact directly with gut microbes and lead to the production of key metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, and discuss how dietary fiber impacts gut microbial ecology, host physiology, and health...
June 13, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
L M Simon, S Karg, A J Westermann, M Engel, A H A Elbehery, B Hense, M Heinig, L Deng, F J Theis
Background: With the advent of the age of big data in bioinformatics, large volumes of data and high performance computing power enable researchers to perform re-analyses of publicly available datasets at an unprecedented scale. Ever more studies imply the microbiome in both normal human physiology and a wide range of diseases. RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq) is commonly used to infer global eukaryotic gene expression patterns under defined conditions, including human disease-related contexts, but its generic nature also enables the detection of microbial and viral transcripts...
June 12, 2018: GigaScience
Ezgi Özcan, David A Sela
Human milk contains a high concentration of indigestible oligosaccharides, which likely mediated the coevolution of the nursing infant with its gut microbiome. Specifically, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ( B. infantis ) often colonizes the infant gut and utilizes these human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) to enrich their abundance. In this study, the physiology and mechanisms underlying B. infantis utilization of two HMO isomers lacto- N -tetraose (LNT) and lacto- N -neotetraose (LNnT) was investigated in addition to their carbohydrate constituents...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Jacob J Valenzuela, Adrián López García de Lomana, Allison Lee, E V Armbrust, Mónica V Orellana, Nitin S Baliga
The fate of diatoms in future acidified oceans could have dramatic implications on marine ecosystems, because they account for ~40% of marine primary production. Here, we quantify resilience of Thalassiosira pseudonana in mid-20th century (300 ppm CO2 ) and future (1000 ppm CO2 ) conditions that cause ocean acidification, using a stress test that probes its ability to recover from incrementally higher amount of low-dose ultraviolet A (UVA) and B (UVB) radiation and re-initiate growth in day-night cycles, limited by nitrogen...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Shoko Edogawa, Stephanie A Peters, Gregory D Jenkins, Sakteesh V Gurunathan, Wendy J Sundt, Stephen Johnson, Ryan J Lennon, Roy B Dyer, Michael Camilleri, Purna C Kashyap, Gianrico Farrugia, Jun Chen, Ravinder J Singh, Madhusudan Grover
Intestinal barrier function and microbiota are integrally related and play critical roles in maintenance of host physiology. Sex is a key biologic variable for several disorders. Our aim was to determine sex-based differences in response to perturbation and subsequent recovery of intestinal barrier function and microbiota in healthy humans. Twenty-three volunteers underwent duodenal biopsies, mucosal impedance, and in vivo permeability measurement. Permeability testing was repeated after administration of indomethacin, then 4 to 6 wk after its discontinuation...
June 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Paulo Gonçalves Teixeira, Florian David, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Production of triacylglycerols (TAGs) through microbial fermentation is an emerging alternative to plant and animal-derived sources. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a preferred organism for industrial use but has natively a very poor capacity of TAG production and storage. Here, we engineered S. cerevisiae for accumulation of high TAG levels through the use of structural and physiological factors that influence assembly and biogenesis of lipid droplets. First, human and fungal perilipin genes were expressed, increasing TAG content by up to 36% when expressing the human perilipin gene PLIN3...
June 11, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Anupriya Tripathi, Alexey V Melnik, Jin Xue, Orit Poulsen, Michael J Meehan, Gregory Humphrey, Lingjing Jiang, Gail Ackermann, Daniel McDonald, Dan Zhou, Rob Knight, Pieter C Dorrestein, Gabriel G Haddad
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by episodic obstruction to breathing due to upper airway collapse during sleep. Because of the episodic airway obstruction, intermittently low O2 (hypoxia) and high CO2 (hypercapnia) ensue. OSA has been associated with adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes, although data regarding potential causal pathways are still evolving. As changes in inspired O2 and CO2 can affect the ecology of the gut microbiota and the microbiota has been shown to contribute to various cardiometabolic disorders, we hypothesized that OSA alters the gut ecosystem, which, in turn, exacerbates the downstream physiological consequences...
May 2018: MSystems
Vasiliki Katsi, Matthaios Didagelos, Stamatios Skevofilax, Iakovos Armenis, Athanasios Kartalis, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Haralambos Karvounis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Arterial hypertension is a progressive cardiovascular syndrome arising from complex and interrelated etiologies. The human microbiome refers to the community of microorganisms that live in or on the human body. They influence human physiology by interfering in several processes such as providing nutrients and vitamins and in Phase I and Phase II drug metabolism. The human gut microbiota is represented mainly by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and to a lesser degree by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, with each individual harbouring at least 160 such species...
June 12, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
A C Agnello, A Potysz, C Fourdrin, D Huguenot, P S Chauhan
Metallurgical exploitation originates metal-rich by-products termed slags, which are often disposed in the environment being a source of heavy metal pollution. Despite the environmental risk that this may pose for living organisms, little is known about the impact of slags on biotic components of the ecosystem like plants and rhizosphere microbial communities. In this study, metal-rich (Cu, Pb, Zn) granulated slags (GS) derived from Cu production process, were used for a leaching test in the presence of the soil pore solution, showing that soil solution enhanced the release of Cu from GS...
June 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Tomomi Shionoya, Misao Mizuno, Takashi Tsukamoto, Kento Ikeda, Hayato Seki, Keiichi Kojima, Mikihiro Shibata, Izuru Kawamura, Yuki Sudo, Yasuhisa Mizutani
Thermophilic rhodopsin (TR) is a light-driven proton pump from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus JL-18. Previous studies on TR solubilized with detergent showed that the protein exhibits high thermal stability and forms a trimer at room temperature, but irreversibly dissociates into monomers when incubated at physiological temperature (75 ºC). In the present study, we used resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to analyze the oligomeric structure of TR in a lipid environment...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Muriel Dietrich, Teresa Kearney, Ernest C J Seamark, Janusz T Paweska, Wanda Markotter
Seasonal reproduction is a period of extreme physiological and behavioural changes, yet we know little about how it may affect host microbial communities (i.e. microbiota) and pathogen transmission. Here, we investigated shifts of the bacterial microbiota in saliva, urine and faeces during the seasonal reproduction of bats in South Africa, and test for an interaction in shedding patterns of both bacterial ( Leptospira ) and viral (adeno- and herpesviruses) agents. Based on a comparative approach in two cave-dwelling bat species and high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we demonstrated a clear signature in microbiota changes over the reproduction season, consistent across the multiple body habitats investigated, and associated with the sex, age and reproductive condition of bats...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Julia Sbierski-Kind, Jonas Kath, Sebastian Brachs, Mathias Streitz, Matthias G von Herrath, Anja A Kühl, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek, Knut Mai, Joachim Spranger, Hans-Dieter Volk
Obesity is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, our knowledge is mostly based on conventional murine models and promising preclinical studies rarely translated into successful therapies. There is a growing awareness of the limitations of studies in laboratory mice, housed in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions, as relevant aspects of the human immune system remain unappreciated. Here, we assessed the impact of housing conditions on adaptive immunity and metabolic disease processes during high-fat diet (HFD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiaoying Yang, Xiaohui Zhang, Maorun Fu, Qingmin Chen, Jahangir Muhammad Muzammil
The effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) on fruit quality during storage was investigated. Strawberries were treated with 1-MCP alone or in combination with ClO2 gas generated by a releasing agent, and the quality, fruit decay, microbial inhibition, and enzyme activities [polyphenol oxidase (PPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL)] at 4 °C were measured for 16 days. 1-MCP alone could maintain the fruit quality during storage but had little effect on microbial growth, resulting in quick decay during storage...
June 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Xue-Ying Zhang, Gansukh Sukhchuluun, Ting-Bei Bo, Qing-Sheng Chi, Jun-Jie Yang, Bin Chen, Lei Zhang, De-Hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Huddling is highly evolved as a cooperative behavioral strategy for social mammals to maximize their fitness in harsh environments. Huddling behavior can change psychological and physiological responses. The coevolution of mammals with their microbial communities confers fitness benefits to both partners. The gut microbiome is a key regulator of host immune and metabolic functions. We hypothesized that huddling behavior altered energetics and thermoregulation by shaping caecal microbiota in small herbivores...
June 8, 2018: Microbiome
Dawoon Jung, Eun-Young Seo, Jeffrey S Owen, Yoshiteru Aoi, Seungcheon Yong, Elena V Lavrentyeva, Tae Seok Ahn
Hot springs are regarded as treasury of valuable thermophiles. Like other bacteria, thermophiles are not easily cultivated using conventional culture methods. We used an advanced cultivation method, the filter plate microbial trap (FPMT), to isolate bacteria from thermal springs. In total, 184 isolates were obtained from five thermal springs using the FPMT and standard agar plate method, and their 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed. FPMT allowed us to obtain a culture collection that was larger, richer, and more novel than that obtained by standard cultivation...
June 8, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Daotong Li, Pan Wang, Pengpu Wang, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
Barley leaf (BL) contains abundant plant fibers, which are important substrates for the metabolism and degradation by the gut microbiota. Here we show that mice fed a diet supplemented with BL exhibited altered gut bacterial composition characterized by the enrichment of fiber-degrading bacteria Lachnospiraceae and Prevotella. Gut microbiota-mediated BL degradation promoted butyrate and propionate production. Metabolomic analysis showed increased aromatic metabolites such as ferulic acid, 3-phenylpropanoic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid in feces of mice fed with BL...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
David N O'Dwyer, Xiaofeng Zhou, Carol A Wilke, Meng Xia, Nicole R Falkowski, Katy C Norman, Kelly B Arnold, Gary B Huffnagle, Susan Murray, John R Erb-Downward, Gregory A Yanik, Beth B Moore, Robert P Dickson
RATIONALE: Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a common treatment for hematological neoplasms and autoimmune disorders. Among HCT recipients, pulmonary complications are common, morbid, and/or lethal, and have recently been associated with gut dysbiosis. The role of lung microbiota in post-HCT pulmonary complications is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of lung microbiota in post-HCT pulmonary complications using animal modeling and human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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