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microbial physiology

Katrin Rosenthal, Verena Oehling, Christian Dusny, Andreas Schmid
Microbial single cell analysis has led to discoveries that are beyond what can be resolved with population-based studies. It provides a pristine view of the mechanisms that organize cellular physiology, unbiased by population heterogeneity or uncontrollable environmental impacts. A holistic description of cellular functions at the single cell level requires analytical concepts beyond the miniaturization of existing technologies, defined but uncontrolled by the biological system itself. This review provides an overview of the latest advances in single cell technologies and demonstrates their potential...
September 29, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
John L Wallace, Jean-Paul Motta, Andre G Buret
A diverse range of effects of the intestinal microbiota on mucosal defence and injury has become increasingly clear over the past decade. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important mediator of many physiological functions, including gastrointestinal mucosal defence and repair. Hydrogen sulfide is produced gastrointestinal tract tissues and by bacteria residing within the gut, and can influence the function of a wide range of cells. The microbiota also appears to be an important target of hydrogen sulfide...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
M M Erdaw, R A Perez-Maldonado, P A Iji
A 2 × 3 factorial study (protease: 0 or 1,5000 PROT/kg and raw full-fat soya bean meal [RSBM] replacing the commercial SBM at 0, 45 and 75 g/kg of diet) was conducted to examine the performance of broilers. Phytase (2000 FYT/kg) was uniformly added to each diet, each also replicated six times, with eight birds per replicate. Birds were raised in climate-controlled rooms using sawdust as the bedding material and offered starter, grower and finisher diets. Feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) were reduced (p < ...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
L M T Dicks, J Geldenhuys, L S Mikkelsen, E Brandsborg, H Marcotte
The microbiome of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consists of billions of bacteria, fungi and viruses, of which bacteria play the most important role in nutrition, immune development, production of vitamins and maintaining a well-balanced (homeostatic) microbial population. Many papers have been published on the microbiota in the human GIT, but little is known about the first group of bacteria that colonises an infant. The intestinal tract of an unborn is, despite general belief, not sterile, but contains bacteria that have been transferred from the mother...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
Blair Ney, Carlo R Carere, Richard Sparling, Thanavit Jirapanjawat, Matthew B Stott, Colin J Jackson, John G Oakeshott, Andrew C Warden, Chris Greening
F420 is a microbial cofactor that mediates a wide range of physiologically important and industrially relevant redox reactions, including in methanogenesis and tetracycline biosynthesis. This deazaflavin comprises a redox-active isoalloxazine headgroup conjugated to a lactyloligoglutamyl tail. Here we studied the catalytic significance of the oligoglutamate chain, which differs in length between bacteria and archaea. We purified short-chain F420 (two glutamates) from a methanogen isolate and long-chain F420 (five to eight glutamates) from a recombinant mycobacterium, confirming their different chain lengths by HPLC and LC/MS analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Boyeon Park, Hyelyeon Hwang, Jina Lee, Sung-Oh Sohn, Se Hee Lee, Min Young Jung, Hyeong In Lim, Hae Woong Park, Jong-Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng is a physiologically active plant widely used in traditional medicine that is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides. Rb1, a major ginsenoside, is used as the starting material for producing ginsenoside derivatives with enhanced pharmaceutical potentials through chemical, enzymatic, or microbial transformation. METHODS: To investigate the bioconversion of ginsenoside Rb1, we prepared kimchi originated bacterial strains Leuconostoc mensenteroides WiKim19, Pediococcus pentosaceus WiKim20, Lactobacillus brevis WiKim47, Leuconostoc lactis WiKim48, and Lactobacillus sakei WiKim49 and analyzed bioconversion products using LC-MS/MS mass spectrometer...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
Masaomi Kurokawa, Bei-Wen Ying
Bacterial growth is a central concept in the development of modern microbial physiology, as well as in the investigation of cellular dynamics at the systems level. Recent studies have reported correlations between bacterial growth and genome-wide events, such as genome reduction and transcriptome reorganization. Correctly analyzing bacterial growth is crucial for understanding the growth-dependent coordination of gene functions and cellular components. Accordingly, the precise quantitative evaluation of bacterial growth in a high-throughput manner is required...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jiang Xu, Lin-Lin Dong, Rui Wang, Wei-Hao Niu, Nai-Wu Zhang, Fujiwara Naoki, Liang Shen, Xi-Wen Li, Shi-Lin Chen
This study has revealed the change of the soil micro-ecology of farmlands, which used for ginseng cultivation, brought by comprehensive soil improvement. The process of soil improvement was described as follows: soil was sterilized using trichloronitromethane, and then perilla seeds were planted. After growing up, the perillas were turned over into the field and fermented, then organic fertilizer was added. Rotary tillages were carried out during the intervals. Physical and chemical properties of treated soil were measured, as well as microbial diversity, which was illustrated using 16s high through-put sequencing...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Hiroto Yokaryo, Morimi Teruya, Ryuji Hanashiro, Masahiro Goda, Yutaka Tokiwa
The chiral compound (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (R-3HB) has some important physiological functions in the human body and can also be applied as a functional material for industrial products. A novel Halomonas sp. OITC1261 isolated from a coastal sediment was selected for efficient production of R-3HB. This strain secreted R-3HB of high optical purity into the extracellular medium while maintaining poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) inside the microbial cell under aerobic conditions. There is a possibility that R-3HB is generated independently of PHB...
October 10, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Andréa S G Figueiredo-Rinhel, Lamartine L de Melo, Leandro O Bortot, Everton O L Santos, Micássio F Andrade, Ana Elisa C S Azzolini, Luciana M Kabeya, Antonio Caliri, Jairo K Bastos, Yara Maria Lucisano-Valim
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the hydroalcoholic extract from Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves (BdE) modulates the human neutrophil oxidative metabolism, degranulation, phagocytosis and microbial killing capacity. METHODS: In-vitro assays based on chemiluminescence, spectrophotometry, flow cytometry and polarimetry were used, as well as docking calculations. KEY FINDINGS: At concentrations that effectively suppressed the neutrophil oxidative metabolism elicited by soluble and particulate stimuli (<10 μg/ml), without clear signs of cytotoxicity, BdE (1) inhibited NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity; (2) scavenged H2 O2 and HOCl; (3) weakly inhibited phagocytosis; and (4) did not affect neutrophil degranulation and microbial killing capacity, the expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, FcγRIIa, FcγRIIIb and CR3 and the activity of elastase and lysozyme...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Renata C Matos, Martin Schwarzer, Hugo Gervais, Pascal Courtin, Pauline Joncour, Benjamin Gillet, Dali Ma, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Maria Elena Martino, Sandrine Hughes, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier, François Leulier
The microbial environment influences animal physiology. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of such functional interactions are largely undefined. Previously, we showed that during chronic undernutrition, strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, a major commensal partner of Drosophila, promote host juvenile growth and maturation partly through enhanced expression of intestinal peptidases. By screening a transposon insertion library of Lactobacillus plantarum in gnotobiotic Drosophila larvae, we identify a bacterial cell-wall-modifying machinery encoded by the pbpX2-dlt operon that is critical to enhance host digestive capabilities and promote animal growth and maturation...
October 9, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Alicja M Nogacka, Nuria Salazar, Silvia Arboleya, Marta Suárez, Nuria Fernández, Gonzalo Solís, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Miguel Gueimonde
The colonization of the neonatal digestive tract provides a microbial stimulus required for an adequate maturation towards the physiological homeostasis of the host. This colonization, which is affected by several factors, begins with facultative anaerobes and continues with anaerobic genera. Accumulating evidence underlines the key role of the early neonatal period for this microbiota-induced maturation, being a key determinant factor for later health. Therefore, understanding the factors that determine the establishment of the microbiota in the infant is of critical importance...
October 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Vidya Suseela, Nishanth Tharayil
Decomposition of plant litter is a fundamental ecosystem process that can act as a feedback to climate change by simultaneously influencing both the productivity of ecosystems and the flux of carbon dioxide from the soil. The influence of climate on decomposition from a post-senescence perspective is relatively well known; in particular, climate is known to regulate the rate of litter decomposition via its direct influence on the reaction kinetics and microbial physiology on processes downstream of tissue senescence...
October 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
Lanmei Yin, Huansheng Yang, Jianzhong Li, Yali Li, Xueqing Ding, Guoyao Wu, Yulong Yin
The gastrointestinal tract plays a vital role in nutrient supply, digestion, and absorption, and has a crucial impact on the entire organism. Much attention is being paid to utilize animal models to study the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases in response to intestinal development and health. The piglet has a body size similar to that of the human and is an omnivorous animal with comparable anatomy, nutritional requirements, and digestive and associated inflammatory processes, and displays similarities to the human intestinal microbial ecosystem, which make piglets more appropriate as an animal model for human than other non-primate animals...
October 6, 2017: Amino Acids
Jonathan M Conway, Bennett S McKinley, Nathaniel L Seals, Diana Hernandez, Piyum A Khatibi, Suresh Poudel, Richard J Giannone, Robert L Hettich, Amanda M Williams-Rhaesa, Gina L Lipscomb, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
The ability to hydrolyze microcrystalline cellulose is an uncommon feature in the microbial world, but one that can be exploited for conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into bio-based fuels and chemicals. Understanding the physiological and biochemical mechanisms by which microorganisms deconstruct cellulosic material is key to achieving this objective. The Glucan Degradation Locus (GDL) in the genomes of extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor species encodes polysaccharide lyases (PLs), unique cellulose binding proteins (tāpirins), and putative post-translational modifying enzymes, in addition to multi-domain, multi-functional glycoside hydrolases (GHs), thereby representing an alternative paradigm for plant biomass degradation, as compared to fungal or cellulosomal systems...
October 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Zidong Donna Fu, Julia Yue Cui
Recent technological advancements including metagenomics sequencing and metabolomics have allowed the discovery of critical functions of gut microbiota in obesity, malnutrition, neurological disorders, asthma, and xenobiotic metabolism. Classification of the human gut microbiome into distinct "enterotypes" has been proposed to serve as a new paradigm for understanding the interplay between microbial variation and human disease phenotypes, as many organs are affected by gut microbiota modifications during the pathogenesis of diseases...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Gong Chen, Qi Bei, Tao Huang, Zhenqiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Monascus pigments are promising sources for food and medicine due to their natural food-coloring functions and pharmaceutical values. The innovative technology of extractive fermentation is used to promote pigment productivity, but reports of pigment trans-membrane secretion mechanism are rare. In this study, tracking of pigment accumulation and secretion in extractive fermentation of Monascus anka GIM 3.592 was investigated. RESULTS: The increased vacuole size in mycelia correlated with fluorescence intensity (r > 0...
October 4, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Agnieszka Kwiatkowska-Stenzel, Dorota Witkowska, Janina Sowińska, Artur Stopyra
The choice of bedding material affects the quality of air in a stable and, consequently, the respiratory health of horses and humans. The risk of respiratory problems can be mitigated by improving the quality of air in the stable. The choice of bedding material is particularly important in cold climate conditions where horses are kept indoors throughout the year. This study examined the impact of three bedding materials: straw (S), peat with shavings (PS), and crushed wood pellets (CWP). The investigated factors were air contamination, including dust contamination and microbial (bacterial and fungal) contamination, and the condition of the equine respiratory tract...
September 25, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
Simone Fontana, Mridul Kanianthara Thomas, Mirela Moldoveanu, Piet Spaak, Francesco Pomati
Understanding how microbial diversity influences ecosystem properties is of paramount importance. Cellular traits-which determine responses to the abiotic and biotic environment-may help us rigorously link them. However, our capacity to measure traits in natural communities has thus far been limited. Here we compared the predictive power of trait richness (trait space coverage), evenness (regularity in trait distribution) and divergence (prevalence of extreme phenotypes) derived from individual-based measurements with two species-level metrics (taxonomic richness and evenness) when modelling the productivity of natural phytoplankton communities...
October 3, 2017: ISME Journal
Nicolas Perez-Soto, Lauren Moule, Daniel N Crisan, Ignacio Insua, Leanne M Taylor-Smith, Kerstin Voelz, Francisco Fernandez-Trillo, Anne Marie Krachler
Here we report the first application of non-bactericidal synthetic polymers to modulate the physiology of a bacterial pathogen. Poly(N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide) (P1) and poly(N-(3-aminopropyl)methacrylamide) (P2), cationic polymers that bind to the surface of V. cholerae, the infectious agent causing cholera disease, can sequester the pathogen into clusters. Upon clustering, V. cholerae transitions to a sessile lifestyle, characterised by increased biofilm production and the repression of key virulence factors such as the cholera toxin (CTX)...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
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