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microbial physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211847/syntrophic-linkage-between-predatory-carpediemonas-and-specific-prokaryotic-populations
#1
Emmo Hamann, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Dietmar Riedel, Sten Littmann, Soeren Ahmerkamp, Jianwei Chen, Philipp F Hach, Marc Strous
Most anoxic environments are populated by small (<10 μm) heterotrophic eukaryotes that prey on different microbial community members. How predatory eukaryotes engage in beneficial interactions with other microbes has rarely been investigated so far. Here, we studied an example of such an interaction by cultivating the anerobic marine flagellate, Carpediemonas frisia sp. nov. (supergroup Excavata), with parts of its naturally associated microbiome. This microbiome consisted of so far uncultivated members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Nanoarchaeota...
February 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211545/the-effect-of-gut-microbiome-on-tolerance-to-morphine-mediated-antinociception-in-mice
#2
Minho Kang, Ryan A Mischel, Sukhada Bhave, Essie Komla, Alvin Cho, Charity Huang, William L Dewey, Hamid I Akbarali
There is growing appreciation for the importance of gastrointestinal microbiota in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While morphine and other narcotics are the most widely prescribed therapy for moderate to severe pain clinically, they have been noted to alter microbial composition and promote bacterial translocation to other tissues. Here we examined the pharmacodynamic properties of chronic morphine in mice following bacterial depletion with oral gavage of an antibiotic cocktail (ABX). ABX significantly reduced gut bacteria and prevented chronic morphine induced increases in gut permeability, colonic mucosal destruction, and colonic IL-1β expression...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210076/potential-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-synthetic-torpor-and-therapeutic-hypothermia
#3
REVIEW
Claudia Sisa, Silvia Turroni, Roberto Amici, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela, Matteo Cerri
Therapeutic hypothermia is today used in several clinical settings, among them the gut related diseases that are influenced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. This perspective paved the way to the study of hibernation physiology, in natural hibernators, highlighting an unexpected importance of the gut microbial ecosystem in hibernation and torpor. In natural hibernators, intestinal microbes adaptively reorganize their structural configuration during torpor, and maintain a mutualistic configuration regardless of long periods of fasting and cold temperatures...
January 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209601/the-influence-of-rosuvastatin-upon-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-and-host-gene-expression-profiles
#4
James A Nolan, Peter Henry Skuse, Kalaimathi Govindarajan, Elaine Patterson, Nina Konstantinidou, Patrick G Casey, John MacSharry, Fergus Shanahan, Catherine Stanton, Colin Hill, P D Cotter, Susan A Joyce, Cormac Gm Gahan
Statins are the most widely prescribed medications worldwide for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. They inhibit the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co enzyme A reductase (HMG-R) an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis in higher organisms and in isoprenoid biosynthesis in some bacteria. We hypothesized that statins may influence the microbial community in the gut through either direct inhibition or indirect mechanisms involving alterations to host responses. We therefore examined the impact of rosuvastatin (RSV) on the community structure of the murine gastrointestinal microbiota...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208612/enteric-pathogens-and-their-toxin-induced-disruption-of-the-intestinal-barrier-through-alteration-of-tight-junctions-in-chickens
#5
REVIEW
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird's health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207737/the-enteric-nervous-system-promotes-intestinal-health-by-constraining-microbiota-composition
#6
Annah S Rolig, Erika K Mittge, Julia Ganz, Josh V Troll, Ellie Melancon, Travis J Wiles, Kristin Alligood, W Zac Stephens, Judith S Eisen, Karen Guillemin
Sustaining a balanced intestinal microbial community is critical for maintaining intestinal health and preventing chronic inflammation. The gut is a highly dynamic environment, subject to periodic waves of peristaltic activity. We hypothesized that this dynamic environment is a prerequisite for a balanced microbial community and that the enteric nervous system (ENS), a chief regulator of physiological processes within the gut, profoundly influences gut microbiota composition. We found that zebrafish lacking an ENS due to a mutation in the Hirschsprung disease gene, sox10, develop microbiota-dependent inflammation that is transmissible between hosts...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199147/microbiological-safety-of-animal-wastes-processed-by-physical-heat-treatment-an-alternative-to-eliminate-human-pathogens-in-biological-soil-amendments-as-recommended-by-the-food-safety-modernization-act
#7
Zhao Chen, Xiuping Jiang
Animal wastes have high nutritional value as biological soil amendments of animal origin for plant cultivation in sustainable agriculture; however, they can be sources of some human pathogens. Although composting is an effective way to reduce pathogen levels in animal wastes, pathogens may still survive under certain conditions and persist in the composted products, which potentially could lead to fresh produce contamination. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act, alternative treatments are recommended for reducing or eliminating human pathogens in raw animal manure...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196137/effects-of-dietary-nutrient-levels-on-microbial-community-composition-and-diversity-in-the-ileal-contents-of-pregnant-huanjiang-mini-pigs
#8
Yujiao Ji, Xiangfeng Kong, Huawei Li, Qian Zhu, Qiuping Guo, Yulong Yin
The mammalian gut microbiota influences various metabolic and physiological processes. Substantial metabolic changes occur during a healthy pregnancy that may be related to microbiota composition dynamics. However, the effect of diet on intestinal microbiota composition and diversity during pregnancy remains unclear. We examined the ileal contents of Huanjiang mini-pigs at two pregnancy stages to determine the effects of dietary nutrient levels on such microbial communities. Animals received either a higher-nutrient (HN) diet formulated to meet US National Research Council requirements or a lower-nutrient (LN) diet that met the Chinese National Feeding Standard recommendations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196086/nopal-feeding-reduces-adiposity-intestinal-inflammation-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiota-and-metabolism-in-high-fat-fed-rats
#9
Sofia Moran-Ramos, Xuan He, Elizabeth L Chin, Armando R Tovar, Nimbe Torres, Carolyn M Slupsky, Helen E Raybould
Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194448/divergent-relationships-between-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolome-following-distinct-antibiotic-induced-disruptions
#10
Jocelyn M Choo, Tokuwa Kanno, Nur Masirah Mohd Zain, Lex E X Leong, Guy C J Abell, Julie E Keeble, Kenneth D Bruce, A James Mason, Geraint B Rogers
The intestinal microbiome plays an essential role in regulating many aspects of host physiology, and its disruption through antibiotic exposure has been implicated in the development of a range of serious pathologies. The complex metabolic relationships that exist between members of the intestinal microbiota and the potential redundancy in functional pathways mean that an integrative analysis of changes in both structure and function are needed to understand the impact of antibiotic exposure. We used a combination of next-generation sequencing and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics to characterize the effects of two clinically important antibiotic treatments, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin-imipenem, on the intestinal microbiomes of female C57BL/6 mice...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193253/artemisia-spp-essential-oils-against-the-disease-carrying-blowfly-calliphora-vomitoria
#11
Stefano Bedini, Guido Flamini, Francesca Cosci, Roberta Ascrizzi, Maria Cristina Echeverria, Lucia Guidi, Marco Landi, Andrea Lucchi, Barbara Conti
BACKGROUND: Synanthropic flies play a considerable role in the transmission of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the essential oil (EO) of two aromatic plants, Artemisia annua and Artemisia dracunculus, were evaluated for their abilities to control the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria. Artemisia annua and A. dracunculus EOs were extracted, analysed and tested in laboratory bioassays. Besides, the physiology of EOs toxicity and the EOs antibacterial and antifungal properties were evaluated...
February 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192491/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-electrogenic-bacterium-dietzia-sp-rnv-4
#12
Natalia J Sacco, M Celina Bonetto, Eduardo Cortón
Electrogenic bacteria are organisms that can transfer electrons to extracellular electron acceptors and have the potential to be used in devices such as bioelectrochemical systems (BES). In this study, Dietzia sp. RNV-4 bacterium has been isolated and identified based on its biochemical, physiological and morphological characteristics, as well as by its 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Furthermore, the current density production and electron transfer mechanisms were investigated using bioelectrochemical methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192344/rethinking-growth-and-decay-kinetics-in-activated-sludge-towards-a-new-adaptive-kinetics-approach
#13
Michael Friedrich, Jose Jimenez, Amy Pruden, Jennifer H Miller, Jacob Metch, Imre Takács
Growth kinetics in activated sludge modelling (ASM) are typically assumed to be the result of intrinsic growth and decay properties and thus process parameters are deemed to be constant. The activity change in a microbial population is expressed in terms of variance of the active biomass fraction and not actual shifts in bacterial cellular activities. This approach is limited, in that it does not recognise the reality that active biomass is highly physiologically adaptive. Here, a strong correlation between maximum specific growth rate (μmax) and decay rate (be) of ordinary heterotrophic organisms was revealed in both low solids retention times (SRT) and high SRT activated sludge systems...
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191038/physiological-and-molecular-characterizations-of-the-interactions-in-two-cellulose-to-methane-cocultures
#14
Hongyuan Lu, Siu-Kin Ng, Yangyang Jia, Mingwei Cai, Patrick K H Lee
BACKGROUND: The interspecies interactions in a biomethanation community play a vital role in substrate degradation and methane (CH4) formation. However, the physiological and molecular mechanisms of interaction among the microbial members of this community remain poorly understood due to the lack of an experimentally tractable model system. In this study, we successfully established two coculture models combining the cellulose-degrading bacterium Clostridium cellulovorans 743B with Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro or Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 for the direct conversion of cellulose to CH4...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187188/development-of-a-flow-chamber-system-for-the-reproducible-in-vitro-analysis-of-biofilm-formation-on-implant-materials
#15
Henryke Rath, Sascha Nico Stumpp, Meike Stiesch
Since the introduction of modern dental implants in the 1980s, the number of inserted implants has steadily increased. Implant systems have become more sophisticated and have enormously enhanced patients' quality of life. Although there has been tremendous development in implant materials and clinical methods, bacterial infections are still one of the major causes of implant failure. These infections involve the formation of sessile microbial communities, called biofilms. Biofilms possess unique physical and biochemical properties and are hard to treat conventionally...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185400/microdiversity-shapes-the-traits-niche-space-and-biogeography-of-microbial-taxa
#16
REVIEW
Alyse A Larkin, Adam C Martiny
With rapidly improving sequencing technologies, scientists have recently gained the ability to examine diverse microbial communities at high genomic resolution, revealing that both free-living and host-associated microbes partition their environment at fine phylogenetic scales. This "microdiversity," or closely related (>97% similar 16S rRNA gene) but ecologically and physiologically distinct sub-taxonomic groups, appears to be an intrinsic property of microorganisms. However, the functional implications of microdiversity as well as its effects on microbial biogeography are poorly understood...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179390/natural-genetic-variation-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-response-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Natalia Martin, Jogender Singh, Alejandro Aballay
Caenorhabditis elegans responds to pathogenic microorganisms by activating its innate immune system, which consists of physical barriers, behavioral responses, and microbial killing mechanisms. We examined whether natural variation plays a role in the response of C. elegans to Pseudomonas aeruginosa using two C. elegans strains that carry the same allele of npr-1, a gene that encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor related to mammalian neuropeptide Y receptors, but that differ in their genetic backgrounds. Strains carrying an allele for the NPR-1 215F isoform have been shown to exhibit lack of pathogen avoidance behavior and deficient immune response towards P...
February 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178033/social-influences-on-prevotella-and-the-gut-microbiome-of-young-monkeys
#18
Wellington Z Amaral, Gabriele R Lubach, Alexandra Proctor, Mark Lyte, Gregory J Phillips, Christopher L Coe
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the bacterial profiles of young monkeys as they were weaned into peer groups with a particular focus on Prevotella, an important taxon in both human and nonhuman primates. The weaning of infants and increased social contact with peers is a developmental stage that is likely to affect the gut microbiome. METHODS: Gut bacteria were assessed in 63 rhesus monkeys living in social groups comprised of 4-7 individuals. Two groups were assessed prospectively on Day 1 and 2 weeks after rehousing away from the mother and group formation...
February 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174738/microgeographic-proteomic-networks-of-the-human-colonic-mucosa-and-their-association-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Xiaoxiao Li, James LeBlanc, David Elashoff, Ian McHardy, Maomeng Tong, Bennett Roth, Andrew Ippoliti, Gildardo Barron, Dermot McGovern, Keely McDonald, Rodney Newberry, Thomas Graeber, Steve Horvath, Lee Goodglick, Jonathan Braun
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Interactions between mucosal cell types, environmental stressors, and intestinal microbiota contribute to pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we applied metaproteomics of the mucosal-luminal interface to study the disease-related biology of the human colonic mucosa. METHODS: We recruited a discovery cohort of 51 IBD and non-IBD subjects endoscopically sampled by mucosal lavage at 6 colonic regions, and a validation cohort of 38 no-IBD subjects...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168223/effects-of-organic-amendments-on-microbiota-associated-with-the-culex-nigripalpus-mosquito-vector-of-the-saint-louis-encephalitis-and-west-nile-viruses
#20
Dagne Duguma, Michael W Hall, Chelsea T Smartt, Josh D Neufeld
Pollution from nutrients in aquatic habitats has been linked to increases in disease vectors, including mosquitoes and other pestiferous insects. One possibility is that changes in mosquito microbiomes are impacted by nutrient enrichments and that these changes affect various traits, including larval development, susceptibility to larval control agents, and susceptibility of the adult mosquitoes to pathogens. We tested this hypothesis using field mesocosms supplemented with low- and high-organic-nutrient regimens and then sampled microbial communities associated with the naturally colonizing Culex nigripalpus mosquito vector...
January 2017: MSphere
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