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microbial physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236119/estimation-of-the-bioaccessibility-and-bioavailability-of-fe-mn-cu-and-zn-in-chinese-vegetables-using-the-in-vitro-digestion-caco-2-cell-model-the-influence-of-gut-microbiota
#1
Xiaolin Cai, Xiaochen Chen, Naiyi Yin, Huili Du, Guoxin Sun, Lihong Wang, Yudong Xu, Yuqing Chen, Yanshan Cui
The influence of the human gut microbiota on the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of trace elements in vegetables has barely been studied. An in vitro digestion model combining the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) and the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) was applied. Results showed that the gut microbiota increased the bioaccessibility of iron (Fe) in ten test vegetables by 1.3-1.8 times, but reduced the bioaccessibility of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in vegetables in the colon phase by 3...
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232589/peptides-having-antimicrobial-activity-and-their-complexes-with-transition-metal-ions
#2
REVIEW
Małgorzata Jeżowska-Bojczuk, Kamila Stokowa-Sołtys
Peptide antibiotics are produced by bacterial, mammalian, insect or plant organisms in defense against invasive microbial pathogens. Therefore, they are gaining importance as anti-infective agents. There are a number of antibiotics that require metal ions to function properly. Metal ions play a key role in their action and are involved in specific interactions with proteins, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. On the other hand, it is well known that some antimicrobial agents possess functional groups that enable them interacting with metal ions present in physiological fluids...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227906/to-disinfect-or-not-to-disinfect-in-postharvest-research-on-the-fungal-decay-of-apple
#3
Matthias Naets, Mattias van Dael, Els Vanstreels, Dirk Daelemans, Pieter Verboven, Bart Nicolaï, Wannes Keulemans, Annemie Geeraerd
Postharvest losses of fruit and vegetables can reach up to 30%, the main cause being microbial decay. For apple fruit, mostly fungal pathogens, such as Penicillium expansum, Colletotrichum spp., Neofabraea spp. and Botrytis cinerea, are important. As such losses are unsustainable in many ways, it is necessary that research is conducted to prevent them. Generally, for plants and fruit grown under non-sterile field conditions, disinfection is carried out prior to the start of a phytopathological experiment. The motivation for this practice is the removal of background contamination so that it will not affect the experimental outcome and its interpretation...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225005/eicosanoid-mediated-immunity-in-insects
#4
Yonggyun Kim, Shabbir Ahmed, David Stanley, Chunju An
Eicosanoid is a collective term for oxygenated metabolites of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. As seen in mammals, eicosanoids play crucial roles in mediating various physiological processes, including immune responses, in insects. Upon microbial pathogen infection, non-self recognition signals are propagated to nearly immune effectors such as hemocytes and fat body using various immune mediators, in which eicosanoid signals act as the ultimate downstream mediator. The chemical diversity of eicosanoids may operate to mediate various immune responses...
December 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215331/a-comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-replicating-and-dormant-liver-stages-of-the-relapsing-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-cynomolgi
#5
Annemarie Voorberg-van der Wel, Guglielmo Roma, Devendra Kumar Gupta, Sven Schuierer, Florian Nigsch, Walter Carbone, Anne-Marie Zeeman, Boon Heng Lee, Sam O Hofman, Bart W Faber, Judith Knehr, Erica Pasini, Bernd Kinzel, Pablo Bifani, Ghislain M C Bonamy, Tewis Bouwmeester, Clemens H M Kocken, Thierry Tidiane Diagana
Plasmodium liver hypnozoites, which cause disease relapse, are widely considered to be the last barrier towards malaria eradication. The biology of this quiescent form of the parasite is poorly understood which hinders drug discovery. We report a comparative transcriptomic dataset of replicating liver schizonts and dormant hypnozoites of the relapsing parasite Plasmodium cynomolgi. Hypnozoites express only 34% of Plasmodium physiological pathways, while 91% are expressed in replicating schizonts. Few known malaria drug targets are expressed in quiescent parasites, but pathways involved in microbial dormancy, maintenance of genome integrity and ATP homeostasis were robustly expressed...
December 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213327/green-route-to-synthesis-of-valuable-chemical-6-hydroxynicotine-from-nicotine-in-tobacco-wastes-using-genetically-engineered-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-s33
#6
Wenjun Yu, Rongshui Wang, Huili Li, Jiyu Liang, Yuanyuan Wang, Haiyan Huang, Huijun Xie, Shuning Wang
Background: Tobacco is widely planted as an important nonfood economic crop throughout the world, and large amounts of tobacco wastes are generated during the tobacco manufacturing process. Tobacco and its wastes contain high nicotine content. This issue has become a major concern for health and environments due to its toxicity and complex physiological effects. The microbial transformation of nicotine into valuable functionalized pyridine compounds is a promising way to utilize tobacco and its wastes as a potential biomass resource...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211803/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-precede-or-take-place-in-absence-of-significant-rearrangements-in-bacterial-community-structure-the-planhab-randomized-trial-pilot-study
#7
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Susanne Kublik, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavić, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Matevž Likar, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the randomized crossover design of run-in (5 day) and experimental phases (21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bed rest (HBR) and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, with balanced fluid and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209298/the-gut-entomotype-of-red-palm-weevil-rhynchophorus-ferrugineus-olivier-coleoptera-dryophthoridae-and-their-effect-on-host-nutrition-metabolism
#8
Abrar Muhammad, Ya Fang, Youming Hou, Zhanghong Shi
For invasive insects, the potential roles of gut microbiota in exploiting new food resources and spreading remain elusive. Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, is an invasive destructive pest which feeds on nutrient-poor tender tissues and has caused extensive mortality of palm trees. The microbes associated with insects can improve their nutrition assimilation. However, experimental evidence on the interactions between RPW and its gut microbiota is still absent. The aim of this study is to determine the dynamics changes and the bacterial entomotype in the RPW gut and its potential physiological roles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205093/impact-of-microbial-proteases-on-biotechnological-industries
#9
Goutam Banerjee, Arun Kumar Ray
The demand of enzymes in industrial sectors is increasing rapidly due to their economical and ecological advantages. Micro-organisms produce different types of extracellular enzymes for maintaining their own metabolism, defense, and normal physiological condition. Among several enzymes, proteases have gained special attention in industrial sectors. Several sources of extracellular enzymes are reported by various researchers, but enzymes obtain from microbial sources have high demand in industries due to lower cost, high production rate, availability, stability, and diversity...
December 5, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202271/microbiota-and-environmental-stress-how-pollution-affects-microbial-communities-in-manila-clams
#10
M Milan, L Carraro, P Fariselli, M E Martino, D Cavalieri, F Vitali, L Boffo, T Patarnello, L Bargelloni, B Cardazzo
Given the crucial role of microbiota in host development, health, and environmental interactions, genomic analyses focusing on host-microbiota interactions should certainly be considered in the investigation of the adaptive mechanisms to environmental stress. Recently, several studies suggested that microbiota associated to digestive tract is a key, although still not fully understood, player that must be considered to assess the toxicity of environmental contaminants. Bacteria-dependent metabolism of xenobiotics may indeed modulate the host toxicity...
November 27, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196878/gut-microbiome-production-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-obesity-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Selvasankar Murugesan, Khemlal Nirmalkar, Carlos Hoyo-Vadillo, Matilde García-Espitia, Daniela Ramírez-Sánchez, Jaime García-Mena
Obesity has been a worldwide multifactorial epidemic malady for the last 2 decades. Changes in gut microbiota composition and its metabolites - short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) - have been associated with obesity. Recent evidence suggests that SCFAs made by the gut microbiota may regulate directly or indirectly physiological and pathological processes in relation to obesity. We review the influence of gut microbiota in energy, glucose, and lipid homeostasis control via their metabolites. Gut microbial disturbances in obese children may have a role in their metabolism...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196287/denitrification-by-anaeromyxobacter-dehalogenans-a-common-soil-bacterium-lacking-nitrite-reductase-genes-nirs-nirk
#12
Jenny R Onley, Samiha Ahsan, Robert A Sanford, Frank E Löffler
The versatile soil bacterium Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans lacks the hallmark denitrification genes nirS and nirK (NO2-→NO), and couples growth to NO3- reduction to NH4+ (respiratory ammonification) and to N2O reduction to N2A. dehalogenans also grows by reducing Fe(III) to Fe(II), which chemically reacts with NO2- to form N2O (i.e., chemodenitrification). Following the addition of 100 μmoles of NO3- or NO2- to Fe(III)-grown, axenic cultures of A. dehalogenans, 54 (±7) μmoles and 113 (±2) μmoles N2O-N, respectively, were produced and subsequently consumed...
December 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195054/bacterial-mechanosensors
#13
Charles D Cox, Navid Bavi, Boris Martinac
Bacteria represent one of the most evolutionarily successful groups of organisms to inhabit Earth. Their world is awash with mechanical cues, probably the most ancient form of which are osmotic forces. As a result, they have developed highly robust mechanosensors in the form of bacterial mechanosensitive (MS) channels. These channels are essential in osmoregulation, and in this setting, provide one of the simplest paradigms for the study of mechanosensory transduction. We explore the past, present, and future of bacterial MS channels, including the alternate mechanosensory roles that they may play in complex microbial communities...
December 1, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194919/a-novel-chromatiales-bacterium-is-a-potential-sulfide-oxidizer-in-multiple-orders-of-marine-sponges
#14
Adi Lavy, Ray Keren, Ke Yu, Brian C Thomas, Lisa Alvarez-Cohen, Jillian F Banfield, Micha Ilan
Sponges are benthic filter feeders that play pivotal roles in coupling benthic-pelagic processes in the oceans that involve transformation of dissolved and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen into biomass. While the contribution of sponge holobionts to the nitrogen cycle has been recognized in past years, their importance in the sulfur cycle, both oceanic and physiological, has only recently gained attention. Sponges in general, and Theonella swinhoei in particular, harbor a multitude of associated microorganisms that could affect sulfur cycling within the holobiont...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194643/quantification-of-acutodesmus-obliquus-chlorophyceae-cell-size-and-lipid-content-heterogeneity-at-single-cell-level
#15
Fabrizio Di Caprio, Francesca Pagnanelli, Rene H Wijffels, Douwe Van der Veen
Much of our current knowledge of microbial growth is obtained from studies at a population level. Driven by the realization that processes which operate within a population might influence a population's behavior, we sought to better understand Acutodesmus obliquus (formerly Scenedesmus obliquus) physiology at the cellular level. In this work, an accurate pre-treatment method to quantitatively obtain single cells of A. obliquus, a coenobia-forming alga, is described. These single cells were examined by flow cytometry for TAG, chlorophyll, and protein content, and their cell sizes were recorded by coulter counter...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193162/influence-of-fertilizers-and-rice-cultivation-methods-on-the-abundance-and-diversity-of-phyllosphere-microbiome
#16
Shobit Thapa, Kunal Ranjan, Balasubramanian Ramakrishnan, Kulandaivelu Velmourougane, Radha Prasanna
Rice paddies are man-made, cross-over ecologies of aquatic and terrestrial systems, which favor the proliferation of characteristic microbial communities. Moisture regimes under flooded and different levels of irrigation such as in direct seeded rice (DSR) and system of rice intensification (SRI) lead to modulation in crop physiology, soil nutrient availability, and the soil microbiome. However, the diversity of the rice phyllosphere microbiome is less investigated in terms of the influence of fertilizer application and the method of rice cultivation (conventional-flooded, DSR and SRI)...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190829/a-comprehensive-analysis-of-breast-cancer-microbiota-and-host-gene-expression
#17
Kevin J Thompson, James N Ingle, Xiaojia Tang, Nicholas Chia, Patricio R Jeraldo, Marina R Walther-Antonio, Karunya K Kandimalla, Stephen Johnson, Janet Z Yao, Sean C Harrington, Vera J Suman, Liewei Wang, Richard L Weinshilboum, Judy C Boughey, Jean-Pierre Kocher, Heidi Nelson, Matthew P Goetz, Krishna R Kalari
The inflammatory tumoral-immune response alters the physiology of the tumor microenvironment, which may attenuate genomic instability. In addition to inducing inflammatory immune responses, several pathogenic bacteria produce genotoxins. However the extent of microbial contribution to the tumor microenvironment biology remains unknown. We utilized The Cancer Genome Atlas, (TCGA) breast cancer data to perform a novel experiment utilizing unmapped and mapped RNA sequencing read evidence to minimize laboratory costs and effort...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188513/optogenetic-retinal-gene-therapy-with-the-light-gated-gpcr-vertebrate-rhodopsin
#18
Benjamin M Gaub, Michael H Berry, Meike Visel, Amy Holt, Ehud Y Isacoff, John G Flannery
In retinal disease, despite the loss of light sensitivity as photoreceptors die, many retinal interneurons survive in a physiologically and metabolically functional state for long periods. This provides an opportunity for treatment by genetically adding a light sensitive function to these cells. Optogenetic therapies are in development, but, to date, they have suffered from low light sensitivity and narrow dynamic response range of microbial opsins. Expression of light-sensitive G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as vertebrate rhodopsin , can increase sensitivity by signal amplification , as shown by several groups...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186668/emulation-of-colonic-oxygen-gradients-in-a-microdevice
#19
David I Walsh, E Victoria Dydek, Jaclyn Y Lock, Taylor L Carlson, Rebecca L Carrier, David S Kong, Catherine R Cabrera, Todd Thorsen
Gut-on-a-chip in vitro modeling is an emerging field, as the human gut epithelium and gut microbiome have been recently identified as novel drug targets for a wide variety of diseases. Realistic in vitro gut models require a variety of precise environmental cues, such as chemical and gas gradients, in combination with substrates like mucus that support the growth of microbial communities. This technical brief describes a microfluidic architecture capable of developing a physiologically relevant oxygen gradient that emulates the oxygen profile proximal to the epithelial inner lining of the human colon...
November 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186317/computational-profiling-of-the-gut-brain-axis-microflora-dysbiosis-insights-to-neurological-disorders
#20
Nikolas Dovrolis, George Kolios, George M Spyrou, Ioanna Maroulakou
Almost 2500 years after Hippocrates' observations on health and its direct association to the gastrointestinal tract, a paradigm shift has recently occurred, making the gut and its symbionts (bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses) a point of convergence for studies. It is nowadays well established that the gut microflora's compositional diversity regulates via its genes (the microbiome) the host's health and provides preliminary insights into disease progression and regulation. The microbiome's involvement is evident in immunological and physiological studies that link changes in its biodiversity to its contributions to the host's phenotype but also in neurological investigations, substantiating the aptly named gut-brain axis...
November 27, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
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