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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601820/axillary-versus-innominate-artery-cannulation-for-antegrade-cerebral-perfusion-in-aortic-surgery-design-of-the-aortic-surgery-cerebral-protection-evaluation-ace-cardiolink-3-randomised-trial
#1
Vinay Garg, Mark D Peterson, Michael Wa Chu, Maral Ouzounian, Roderick Gg MacArthur, John Bozinovski, Ismail El-Hamamsy, F Victor Chu, Ankit Garg, Judith Hall, Kevin E Thorpe, Natasha Dhingra, Hwee Teoh, Thomas R Marotta, David A Latter, Adrian Quan, Muhammad Mamdani, Peter Juni, C David Mazer, Subodh Verma
INTRODUCTION: Neurological injury remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality following open aortic arch repair. Systemic hypothermia along with antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) is the accepted cerebral protection approach, with axillary artery cannulation being the most common technique used to establish ACP. More recently, innominate artery cannulation has been shown to be a safe and efficacious method for establishing ACP. Inasmuch as there is a lack of high-quality data comparing axillary and innominate artery ACP, we have designed a randomised, multi-centre clinical trial to compare both cerebral perfusion strategies with regards to brain morphological injury using diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI)...
June 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589124/a-multidisciplinary-phenotyping-and-genotyping-analysis-of-a-mapping-population-enables-quality-to-be-combined-with-yield-in-rice
#2
Mariafe Calingacion, Roland Mumm, Kevin Tan, Lenie Quiatchon-Baeza, Jeanaflor C T Concepcion, Jos A Hageman, Sangeeta Prakash, Melissa Fitzgerald, Robert D Hall
In this study a mapping population (F8) of ca 200 progeny from a cross between the commercial rice varieties Apo and IR64 has been both genotyped and phenotyped. A genotyping-by-sequencing approach was first used to identify 2,681 polymorphic SNP markers which gave dense coverage of the genome with a good distribution across all 12 chromosomes. The coefficient of parentage was also low, at 0.13, confirming that the parents are genetically distant from each other. The progeny, together with both parents, were grown under irrigated and water restricted conditions in a randomised block design...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581512/structural-basis-for-the-cooperative-allosteric-activation-of-the-free-fatty-acid-receptor-gpr40
#3
Jun Lu, Noel Byrne, John Wang, Gerard Bricogne, Frank K Brown, Harry R Chobanian, Steven L Colletti, Jerry Di Salvo, Brande Thomas-Fowlkes, Yan Guo, Dawn L Hall, Jennifer Hadix, Nicholas B Hastings, Jeffrey D Hermes, Thu Ho, Andrew D Howard, Hubert Josien, Maria Kornienko, Kevin J Lumb, Michael W Miller, Sangita B Patel, Barbara Pio, Christopher W Plummer, Bradley S Sherborne, Payal Sheth, Sarah Souza, Srivanya Tummala, Clemens Vonrhein, Maria Webb, Samantha J Allen, Jennifer M Johnston, Adam B Weinglass, Sujata Sharma, Stephen M Soisson
Clinical studies indicate that partial agonists of the G-protein-coupled, free fatty acid receptor 1 GPR40 enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion and represent a potential mechanism for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Full allosteric agonists (AgoPAMs) of GPR40 bind to a site distinct from partial agonists and can provide additional efficacy. We report the 3.2-Å crystal structure of human GPR40 (hGPR40) in complex with both the partial agonist MK-8666 and an AgoPAM, which exposes a novel lipid-facing AgoPAM-binding pocket outside the transmembrane helical bundle...
June 5, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390057/mechanical-properties-of-6-finger-trap-suture-techniques
#4
Naomi F Earley, Lee B Meakin, Kevin J Parsons, John Tarlton, Jon L Hall
OBJECTIVE: To identify the most common methods used by surgeons to place finger-trap sutures (FTS), and determine their influence on the biomechanical properties of constructs. STUDY DESIGN: Questionnaire and experimental study. METHODS: Six commonly used FTS methods (A-F) were identified from literature review and questionnaire. Constructs made with 3-metric nylon suture and 18-French polyurethane esophagostomy tubing were tested in axial loading to failure...
April 8, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348869/nasp-an-accurate-rapid-method-for-the-identification-of-snps-in-wgs-datasets-that-supports-flexible-input-and-output-formats
#5
Jason W Sahl, Darrin Lemmer, Jason Travis, James M Schupp, John D Gillece, Maliha Aziz, Elizabeth M Driebe, Kevin P Drees, Nathan D Hicks, Charles Hall Davis Williamson, Crystal M Hepp, David Earl Smith, Chandler Roe, David M Engelthaler, David M Wagner, Paul Keim
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of bacterial isolates has become standard practice in many laboratories. Applications for WGS analysis include phylogeography and molecular epidemiology, using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as the unit of evolution. NASP was developed as a reproducible method that scales well with the hundreds to thousands of WGS data typically used in comparative genomics applications. In this study, we demonstrate how NASP compares with other tools in the analysis of two real bacterial genomics datasets and one simulated dataset...
August 2016: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346407/insights-into-activity-and-inhibition-from-the-crystal-structure-of-human-o-glcnacase
#6
Nathaniel L Elsen, Sangita B Patel, Rachael E Ford, Dawn L Hall, Fred Hess, Hari Kandula, Maria Kornienko, John Reid, Harold Selnick, Jennifer M Shipman, Sujata Sharma, Kevin J Lumb, Stephen M Soisson, Daniel J Klein
O-GlcNAc hydrolase (OGA) catalyzes removal of βα-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine from serine and threonine residues. We report crystal structures of Homo sapiens OGA catalytic domain in apo and inhibited states, revealing a flexible dimer that displays three unique conformations and is characterized by subdomain α-helix swapping. These results identify new structural features of the substrate-binding groove adjacent to the catalytic site and open new opportunities for structural, mechanistic and drug discovery activities...
June 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296257/randomized-controlled-trial-of-rituximab-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis-in-treating-fatigue-and-oral-dryness-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#7
Simon J Bowman, Colin C Everett, John L O'Dwyer, Paul Emery, Costantino Pitzalis, Wan-Fai Ng, Colin T Pease, Elizabeth J Price, Nurhan Sutcliffe, Nagui S T Gendi, Frances C Hall, Sharon P Ruddock, Catherine Fernandez, Catherine Reynolds, Claire T Hulme, Kevin A Davies, Christopher J Edwards, Peter C Lanyon, Robert J Moots, Euthalia Roussou, Ian P Giles, Linda D Sharples, Michele Bombardieri
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether rituximab, an anti-B cell therapy, improves symptoms of fatigue and oral dryness in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial that included health economic analysis. Anti-Ro-positive patients with primary SS, symptomatic fatigue, and oral dryness were recruited from 25 UK rheumatology clinics from August 2011 to January 2014...
March 10, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265829/a-multicenter-study-of-a-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-probe-set-for-diagnosing-high-grade-dysplasia-and-adenocarcinoma-in-barrett-s-esophagus
#8
MULTICENTER STUDY
John M Poneros, Adam S Faye, Emily G Barr Fritcher, Ananda Sen, Sharmila Anandasabapathy, Robert S Bresalier, Norman Marcon, D Kim Turgeon, Henry Appelman, Daniel Normolle, Larry E Morrison, Dean E Brenner, Kevin C Halling
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Preliminary single-institution data suggest that fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) may be useful for detecting high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE). This multicenter study aims to validate the measurement of polysomy (gain of at least two loci) by FISH as a way to discriminate degrees of dysplasia in BE specimens. METHODS: Tissue specimens were collected from four different hospitals and read by both the local pathology department ("Site diagnosis") and a single central pathologist ("Review diagnosis") at a separate institution...
May 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193517/obesity-energetics-body-weight-regulation-and-the-effects-of-diet-composition
#9
Kevin D Hall, Juen Guo
Weight changes are accompanied by imbalances between calorie intake and expenditure. This fact is often misinterpreted to suggest that obesity is caused by gluttony and sloth and can be treated by simply advising people to eat less and move more. Rather various components of energy balance are dynamically interrelated and weight loss is resisted by counterbalancing physiological processes. While low-carbohydrate diets have been suggested to partially subvert these processes by increasing energy expenditure and promoting fat loss, our meta-analysis of 32 controlled feeding studies with isocaloric substitution of carbohydrate for fat found that both energy expenditure (26 kcal/d; P <...
May 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169454/toxicity-of-sulfide-to-early-life-stages-of-wild-rice-zizania-palustris
#10
Douglas J Fort, Kevin Todhunter, Troy D Fort, Michael B Mathis, Rachel Walker, Mike Hansel, Scott Hall, Robin Richards, Kurt Anderson
The sensitivity of wild rice (Zizania palustris) to sulfide is not well understood. Because sulfate in surface waters is reduced to sulfide by anaerobic bacteria in sediments and historical information indicated that 10 mg/L sulfate in Minnesota (USA) surface water reduced Z. palustris abundance, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency established 10 mg/L sulfate as a water quality criterion in 1973. A 21-d daily-renewal hydroponic study was conducted to evaluate sulfide toxicity to wild rice and the potential mitigation of sulfide toxicity by iron (Fe)...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132905/towards-better-models-and-mechanistic-biomarkers-for-drug-induced-gastrointestinal-injury
#11
REVIEW
Daniel F Carr, Seyoum Ayehunie, Andrea Davies, Carrie A Duckworth, Stephanie French, Neil Hall, Syed Hussain, Howard R Mellor, Alan Norris, B Kevin Park, Alexander Penrose, D Mark Pritchard, Chris S Probert, Shashi Ramaiah, Claire Sadler, Michael Schmitt, Alison Shaw, James E Sidaway, Robert G Vries, Matthew Wagoner, Munir Pirmohamed
Adverse drug reactions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are a serious burden on patients, healthcare providers and the pharmaceutical industry. GI toxicity encompasses a range of pathologies in different parts of the GI tract. However, to date no specific mechanistic diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers or translatable pre-clinical models of GI toxicity exist. This review will cover the current knowledge of GI ADRs, existing biomarkers and models with potential application for toxicity screening/monitoring...
April 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111149/increases-in-physical-activity-result-in-diminishing-increments-in-daily-energy-expenditure-in-mice
#12
Timothy J O'Neal, Danielle M Friend, Juen Guo, Kevin D Hall, Alexxai V Kravitz
Exercise is a common component of weight loss strategies, yet exercise programs are associated with surprisingly small changes in body weight [1-4]. This may be due in part to compensatory adaptations, in which calories expended during exercise are counteracted by decreases in other aspects of energy expenditure [1, 5-10]. Here we examined the relationship between a rodent model of voluntary exercise- wheel running- and total daily energy expenditure. Use of a running wheel for 3 to 7 days increased daily energy expenditure, resulting in a caloric deficit of ∼1 kcal/day; however, total daily energy expenditure remained stable after the first week of wheel access, despite further increases in wheel use...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041956/basal-ganglia-dysfunction-contributes-to-physical-inactivity-in-obesity
#13
Danielle M Friend, Kavya Devarakonda, Timothy J O'Neal, Miguel Skirzewski, Ioannis Papazoglou, Alanna R Kaplan, Jeih-San Liow, Juen Guo, Sushil G Rane, Marcelo Rubinstein, Veronica A Alvarez, Kevin D Hall, Alexxai V Kravitz
Obesity is associated with physical inactivity, which exacerbates the health consequences of weight gain. However, the mechanisms that mediate this association are unknown. We hypothesized that deficits in dopamine signaling contribute to physical inactivity in obesity. To investigate this, we quantified multiple aspects of dopamine signaling in lean and obese mice. We found that D2-type receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum, but not D1-type receptor binding or dopamine levels, was reduced in obese mice. Genetically removing D2Rs from striatal medium spiny neurons was sufficient to reduce motor activity in lean mice, whereas restoring Gi signaling in these neurons increased activity in obese mice...
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804272/how-strongly-does-appetite-counter-weight-loss-quantification-of-the-feedback-control-of-human-energy-intake
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
David Polidori, Arjun Sanghvi, Randy J Seeley, Kevin D Hall
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the feedback control of energy intake in response to long-term covert manipulation of energy balance in free-living humans. METHODS: A validated mathematical method was used to calculate energy intake changes during a 52-week placebo-controlled trial in 153 patients treated with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitor that increases urinary glucose excretion, thereby resulting in weight loss without patients being directly aware of the energy deficit...
November 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670403/erratum-metabolic-adaptation-following-massive-weight-loss-is-related-to-the-degree-of-energy-imbalance-and-changes-in-circulating-leptin
#15
Nicolas D Knuth, Darcy L Johannsen, Robyn A Tamboli, Pamela A Marks-Shulman, Robert Huizenga, Kong Y Chen, Naji N Abumrad, Eric Ravussin, Kevin D Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633460/personality-and-innate-immune-defenses-in-a-wild-bird-evidence-for-the-pace-of-life-hypothesis
#16
Rowan Jacques-Hamilton, Michelle L Hall, William A Buttemer, Kevin D Matson, Anders Gonҫalves da Silva, Raoul A Mulder, Anne Peters
We tested the two main evolutionary hypotheses for an association between immunity and personality. The risk-of-parasitism hypothesis predicts that more proactive (bold, exploratory, risk-taking) individuals have more vigorous immune defenses because of increased risk of parasite exposure. In contrast, the pace-of-life hypothesis argues that proactive behavioral styles are associated with shorter lifespans and reduced investment in immune function. Mechanistically, associations between immunity and personality can arise because personality differences are often associated with differences in condition and stress responsiveness, both of which are intricately linked with immunity...
February 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597452/weight-loss-diet-studies-we-need-help-not-hype
#17
Yoni Freedhoff, Kevin D Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 27, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585837/brain-shift-in-neuronavigation-of-brain-tumors-a-review
#18
Ian J Gerard, Marta Kersten-Oertel, Kevin Petrecca, Denis Sirhan, Jeffery A Hall, D Louis Collins
PURPOSE: Neuronavigation based on preoperative imaging data is a ubiquitous tool for image guidance in neurosurgery. However, it is rendered unreliable when brain shift invalidates the patient-to-image registration. Many investigators have tried to explain, quantify, and compensate for this phenomenon to allow extended use of neuronavigation systems for the duration of surgery. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the work that has been done investigating brain shift...
August 24, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581336/ibis-an-or-ready-open-source-platform-for-image-guided-neurosurgery
#19
REVIEW
Simon Drouin, Anna Kochanowska, Marta Kersten-Oertel, Ian J Gerard, Rina Zelmann, Dante De Nigris, Silvain Bériault, Tal Arbel, Denis Sirhan, Abbas F Sadikot, Jeffery A Hall, David S Sinclair, Kevin Petrecca, Rolando F DelMaestro, D Louis Collins
PURPOSE: Navigation systems commonly used in neurosurgery suffer from two main drawbacks: (1) their accuracy degrades over the course of the operation and (2) they require the surgeon to mentally map images from the monitor to the patient. In this paper, we introduce the Intraoperative Brain Imaging System (IBIS), an open-source image-guided neurosurgery research platform that implements a novel workflow where navigation accuracy is improved using tracked intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) and the visualization of navigation information is facilitated through the use of augmented reality (AR)...
March 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447721/impact-of-masked-replacement-of-sugar-sweetened-with-sugar-free-beverages-on-body-weight-increases-with-initial-bmi-secondary-analysis-of-data-from-an-18-month-double-blind-trial-in-children
#20
Martijn B Katan, Janne C de Ruyter, Lothar D J Kuijper, Carson C Chow, Kevin D Hall, Margreet R Olthof
BACKGROUND: Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. This effect may be more pronounced in children with a high body mass index (BMI) because their sensing of kilocalories might be compromised. We investigated the impact of sugar-free versus sugary drinks separately in children with a higher and a lower initial BMI z score, and predicted caloric intakes and degree of compensation in the two groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a secondary, explorative analysis of our double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) which showed that replacement of one 250-mL sugary drink per day by a sugar-free drink for 18 months significantly reduced weight gain...
2016: PloS One
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