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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346407/insights-into-activity-and-inhibition-from-the-crystal-structure-of-human-o-glcnacase
#1
Nathaniel L Elsen, Sangita B Patel, Rachael E Ford, Dawn L Hall, Fred Hess, Hari Kandula, Maria Kornienko, John Reid, Harold Selnick, Jennifer M Shipman, Sujata Sharma, Kevin J Lumb, Stephen M Soisson, Daniel J Klein
O-GlcNAc hydrolase (OGA) catalyzes removal of βα-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine from serine and threonine residues. We report crystal structures of Homo sapiens OGA catalytic domain in apo and inhibited states, revealing a flexible dimer that displays three unique conformations and is characterized by subdomain α-helix swapping. These results identify new structural features of the substrate-binding groove adjacent to the catalytic site and open new opportunities for structural, mechanistic and drug discovery activities...
March 27, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323164/mapping-the-pharmacological-modulation-of-brain-oxygen-metabolism-the-effects-of-caffeine-on-absolute-cmro2-measured-using-dual-calibrated-fmri
#2
Alberto Merola, Michael A Germuska, Esther Ah Warnert, Lewys Richmond, Daniel Helme, Sharmila Khot, Kevin Murphy, Peter J Rogers, Judith E Hall, Richard G Wise
This study aims to map the acute effects of caffeine ingestion on grey matter oxygen metabolism and haemodynamics with a novel MRI method. Sixteen healthy caffeine consumers (8 males, age = 24.7±5.1) were recruited to this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Each participant was scanned on two days before and after the delivery of an oral caffeine (250mg) or placebo capsule. Our measurements were obtained with a newly proposed estimation approach applied to data from a dual calibration fMRI experiment that uses hypercapnia and hyperoxia to modulate brain blood flow and oxygenation...
March 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304107/the-percutaneous-toxicokinetics-of-sulphur-mustard-in-a-damaged-skin-porcine-model-and-the-evaluation-of-woundstat%C3%A2-as-a-topical-decontaminant
#3
Charlotte A Hall, Helen L Lydon, Christopher H Dalton, J Kevin Chipman, John S Graham, Robert P Chilcott
This study used a damaged skin, porcine model to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of WoundStat™ for decontamination of superficial (non-haemorrhaging), sulphur mustard-contaminated wounds. The dorsal skin of 12 female pigs was subjected to controlled physical damage and exposed to 10 μL (14) C-radiolabelled sulphur mustard ((14) C-SM). Animals were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group. In the latter, WoundStat™ was applied 30 s post exposure and left in situ for 1 h. Skin lesion progression and decontaminant efficacy were quantified over 6 h using a range of biophysical measurements...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296257/randomized-controlled-trial-of-rituximab-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis-in-treating-fatigue-and-oral-dryness-in-primary-sjogren-s-syndrome
#4
Simon J Bowman, Colin C Everett, John L O'Dwyer, Paul Emery, Costantino Pitzalis, Wan-Fai Ng, Colin T Pease, Elizabeth J Price, Nurhan Sutcliffe, Nagui St Gendi, Frances C Hall, Sharon P Ruddock, Catherine Fernandez, Catherine Reynolds, Claire T Hulme, Kevin A Davies, Christopher J Edwards, Peter C Lanyon, Robert J Moots, Euthalia Roussou, Ian P Giles, Linda D Sharples, Michele Bombardieri
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether rituximab, an anti-B-cell therapy, improved symptoms of fatigue and oral dryness in patients with Primary Sjögren's Syndrome (PSS). METHODS: Multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group placebo-controlled trial, including Health Economic Analysis. Anti-Ro positive patients with PSS, symptomatic fatigue and oral dryness were recruited from 25 UK rheumatology clinics from August 2011 to January 2014. Patients were centrally-randomised to either placebo IV or rituximab IV (1000mg in 250mL) at weeks 0, 2, 24 and 26, with pre-and post-infusion medication including corticosteroids...
March 10, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278068/an-improved-experimental-methodology-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-of-protective-gloves-against-nanoparticles-in-suspension
#5
Ludwig Vinches, Mohamed Zemzem, Stéphane Hallé, Caroline Peyrot, Kevin J Wilkinson, Nathalie Tufenkji
Recent studies underline the potential health risks associated to the "nano" revolution, particularly for the workers who handle engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) that can be found in the formulation of several commercial products. Although many Health & Safety agencies recommend the use of protective gloves against chemicals, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of these gloves towards nanoparticle suspensions. Moreover, the data that are available are often contradictory. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of protective gloves against nanoparticles in suspension...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265829/a-multicenter-study-of-a-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-probe-set-for-diagnosing-high-grade-dysplasia-and-adenocarcinoma-in-barrett-s-esophagus
#6
John M Poneros, Adam S Faye, Emily G Barr Fritcher, Ananda Sen, Sharmila Anandasabapathy, Robert S Bresalier, Norman Marcon, D Kim Turgeon, Henry Appelman, Daniel Normolle, Larry E Morrison, Dean E Brenner, Kevin C Halling
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Preliminary single-institution data suggest that fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) may be useful for detecting high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE). This multicenter study aims to validate the measurement of polysomy (gain of at least two loci) by FISH as a way to discriminate degrees of dysplasia in BE specimens. METHODS: Tissue specimens were collected from four different hospitals and read by both the local pathology department ("Site diagnosis") and a single central pathologist ("Review diagnosis") at a separate institution...
March 6, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237522/development-and-field-testing-of-a-decision-support-tool-to-facilitate-shared-decision-making-in-contraceptive-counseling
#7
Christine Dehlendorf, Judith Fitzpatrick, Jody Steinauer, Lawrence Swiader, Kevin Grumbach, Cara Hall, Miriam Kuppermann
OBJECTIVE: We developed and formatively evaluated a tablet-based decision support tool for use by women prior to a contraceptive counseling visit to help them engage in shared decision making regarding method selection. METHODS: Drawing upon formative work around women's preferences for contraceptive counseling and conceptual understanding of health care decision making, we iteratively developed a storyboard and then digital prototypes, based on best practices for decision support tool development...
February 10, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236831/us-renal-data-system-2016-annual-data-report-epidemiology-of-kidney-disease-in-the-united-states
#8
EDITORIAL
Rajiv Saran, Bruce Robinson, Kevin C Abbott, Lawrence Y C Agodoa, John Ayanian, Jennifer Bragg-Gresham, Rajesh Balkrishnan, Joline L T Chen, Elizabeth Cope, Paul W Eggers, Daniel Gillen, Debbie Gipson, Susan M Hailpern, Yoshio N Hall, Yun Han, Kevin He, William Herman, Michael Heung, David Hutton, Steven J Jacobsen, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Csaba P Kovesdy, Yi Li, Yee Lu, Miklos Z Molnar, Hal Morgenstern, Brahmajee Nallamothu, Danh V Nguyen, Ann M O'Hare, Yoshitsugu Obi, Brett Plattner, Ronald Pisoni, Friedrich K Port, Panduranga Rao, Vanessa Ravel, Connie M Rhee, Ankit Sakhuja, Douglas E Schaubel, David T Selewski, John J Sim, Peter Song, Elani Streja, Manjula Kurella Tamura, Francesca Tentori, Sarah White, Kenneth Woodside, Richard A Hirth, Vahakn Shahinian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221107/use-of-mass-participation-outdoor-events-to-assess-human-exposure-to-tickborne-pathogens
#9
Jessica L Hall, Kathrin Alpers, Kevin J Bown, Stephen J Martin, Richard J Birtles
Mapping the public health threat of tickborne pathogens requires quantification of not only the density of infected host-seeking ticks but also the rate of human exposure to these ticks. To efficiently sample a high number of persons in a short time, we used a mass-participation outdoor event. In June 2014, we sampled ≈500 persons competing in a 2-day mountain marathon run across predominantly tick-infested habitat in Scotland. From the number of tick bites recorded and prevalence of tick infection with Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato and B...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218409/development-of-haemostatic-decontaminants-for-treatment-of-wounds-contaminated-with-chemical-warfare-agents-3-evaluation-of-in-vitro-topical-decontamination-efficacy-using-damaged-skin
#10
Helen L Lydon, Charlotte A Hall, Christopher H Dalton, J Kevin Chipman, John S Graham, Robert P Chilcott
Previous studies have demonstrated that haemostatic products with an absorptive mechanism of action retain their clotting efficiency in the presence of toxic materials and are effective in decontaminating chemical warfare (CW) agents when applied to normal, intact skin. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess three candidate haemostatic products for effectiveness in the decontamination of superficially damaged porcine skin exposed to the radiolabelled CW agents, soman (GD), VX and sulphur mustard (HD)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206892/influence-of-the-amount-of-dentifrice-and-fluoride-concentrations-on-salivary-fluoride-levels-in-children
#11
Kevin Bruce Hall, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem, Mariana Emi Nagata, Thayse Yumi Hosida, Felipe Ricardo Nunes de Moraes, Marcelle Danelon, Robson Frederico Cunha, Juliano Pelim Pessan
PURPOSE: This study evaluated fluoride (F) concentrations in saliva of children after brushing with dentifrices containing different F concentrations (zero, 550, and 1,100 ppm F) in different quantities (full bristles, transversal technique, and pea-sized). METHODS: Eight- to 10-year-old volunteers (<small>N</small>=24) were randomly assigned into nine experimental groups (dentifrice type versus amounts) following a double-blind, crossover protocol. After a one-week washout period (use of placebo toothpaste), stimulated saliva was collected prior to toothbrushing (baseline) and at five, 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after toothbrushing with one of the possible combinations...
October 15, 2016: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193517/obesity-energetics-body-weight-regulation-and-the-effects-of-diet-composition
#12
Kevin D Hall, Juen Guo
Weight changes are accompanied by imbalances between calorie intake and expenditure. This fact is often misinterpreted to suggest that obesity is caused by gluttony and sloth and can be treated by simply advising people to eat less and move more. However, various components of energy balance are dynamically interrelated and weight loss is resisted by counterbalancing physiological processes. While low carbohydrate diets have been suggested to partially subvert these processes by increasing energy expenditure and promoting fat loss, our meta-analysis of 32 controlled feeding studies with isocaloric substitution of carbohydrate for fat found that both energy expenditure (26 kcal/d; p<0...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169454/toxicity-of-sulfide-to-early-life-stages-of-wild-rice-zizania-palustris
#13
Douglas J Fort, Kevin Todhunter, Troy D Fort, Michael B Mathis, Rachel Walker, Mike Hansel, Scott Hall, Robin Richards, Kurt Anderson
Wild rice (Zizania palustris) sensitivity to sulfide is not well understood. Since sulfate in surface waters is reduced to sulfide by anaerobic bacteria in sediments and historical information indicated that 10 mg/L sulfate in Minnesota surface water reduced Z. palustris abundance, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) established 10 mg/L sulfate as a water quality criterion in 1973. A 21-day daily-renewal hydroponic study was conducted to evaluate sulfide toxicity to wild rice and the potential mitigation of sulfide toxicity by Fe...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132905/towards-better-models-and-mechanistic-biomarkers-for-drug-induced-gastrointestinal-injury
#14
REVIEW
Daniel F Carr, Seyoum Ayehunie, Andrea Davies, Carrie A Duckworth, Stephanie French, Neil Hall, Syed Hussain, Howard R Mellor, Alan Norris, B Kevin Park, Alexander Penrose, D Mark Pritchard, Chris S Probert, Shashi Ramaiah, Claire Sadler, Michael Schmitt, Alison Shaw, James E Sidaway, Robert G Vries, Matthew Wagoner, Munir Pirmohamed
Adverse drug reactions affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are a serious burden on patients, healthcare providers and the pharmaceutical industry. GI toxicity encompasses a range of pathologies in different parts of the GI tract. However, to date no specific mechanistic diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers or translatable pre-clinical models of GI toxicity exist. This review will cover the current knowledge of GI ADRs, existing biomarkers and models with potential application for toxicity screening/monitoring...
January 27, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111149/increases-in-physical-activity-result-in-diminishing-increments-in-daily-energy-expenditure-in-mice
#15
Timothy J O'Neal, Danielle M Friend, Juen Guo, Kevin D Hall, Alexxai V Kravitz
Exercise is a common component of weight loss strategies, yet exercise programs are associated with surprisingly small changes in body weight [1-4]. This may be due in part to compensatory adaptations, in which calories expended during exercise are counteracted by decreases in other aspects of energy expenditure [1, 5-10]. Here we examined the relationship between a rodent model of voluntary exercise- wheel running- and total daily energy expenditure. Use of a running wheel for 3 to 7 days increased daily energy expenditure, resulting in a caloric deficit of ∼1 kcal/day; however, total daily energy expenditure remained stable after the first week of wheel access, despite further increases in wheel use...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048608/tu-e-tour-i-00-exhibit-hall-guided-tours-dosimters-for-qc-in-diagnostic-imaging-tuesday
#16
(no author information available yet)
Tour Leader: Xia Jiang, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Tour Guides: Xia Jiang, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Kevin Little, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL Christina Sammet, Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL Participating Vendors: IBA PTW - New York Radcal Corporation RTI Electronics, Inc. Exhibit Hall Guided Tours is a new program launching this year at the Annual Meeting. The Guided Tours are designed to enhance the interaction between meeting attendees and exhibitors. This year's Imaging Guided Tours are organized around the theme of dosimeters for quality control in diagnostic imaging...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048432/we-c-tour-i-01-dosimters-for-qc-in-diagnostic-imaging
#17
X Jiang
Tour Leader: Xia Jiang, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Tour Guides: Xia Jiang, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Kevin Little, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL Adrien Sanchez, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL Participating Vendors: IBA PTW - New York Radcal Corporation RTI Electronics, Inc. Exhibit Hall Guided Tours is a new program launching this year at the Annual Meeting. The Guided Tours are designed to enhance the interaction between meeting attendees and exhibitors. This year's Imaging Guided Tours are organized around the theme of dosimeters for quality control in diagnostic imaging...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047940/tu-e-tour-i-01-dosimters-for-qc-in-diagnostic-imaging
#18
X Jiang
Tour Leader: Xia Jiang, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Tour Guides: Xia Jiang, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Kevin Little, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL Christina Sammet, Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL Participating Vendors: IBA PTW - New York Radcal Corporation RTI Electronics, Inc. Exhibit Hall Guided Tours is a new program launching this year at the Annual Meeting. The Guided Tours are designed to enhance the interaction between meeting attendees and exhibitors. This year's Imaging Guided Tours are organized around the theme of dosimeters for quality control in diagnostic imaging...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046356/we-c-tour-i-00-exhibit-hall-guided-tours-dosimters-for-qc-in-diagnostic-imaging-wednesday
#19
(no author information available yet)
Tour Leader: Xia Jiang, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Tour Guides: Xia Jiang, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Kevin Little, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL Adrien Sanchez, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL Participating Vendors: IBA PTW - New York Radcal Corporation RTI Electronics, Inc. Exhibit Hall Guided Tours is a new program launching this year at the Annual Meeting. The Guided Tours are designed to enhance the interaction between meeting attendees and exhibitors. This year's Imaging Guided Tours are organized around the theme of dosimeters for quality control in diagnostic imaging...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041956/basal-ganglia-dysfunction-contributes-to-physical-inactivity-in-obesity
#20
Danielle M Friend, Kavya Devarakonda, Timothy J O'Neal, Miguel Skirzewski, Ioannis Papazoglou, Alanna R Kaplan, Jeih-San Liow, Juen Guo, Sushil G Rane, Marcelo Rubinstein, Veronica A Alvarez, Kevin D Hall, Alexxai V Kravitz
Obesity is associated with physical inactivity, which exacerbates the health consequences of weight gain. However, the mechanisms that mediate this association are unknown. We hypothesized that deficits in dopamine signaling contribute to physical inactivity in obesity. To investigate this, we quantified multiple aspects of dopamine signaling in lean and obese mice. We found that D2-type receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum, but not D1-type receptor binding or dopamine levels, was reduced in obese mice. Genetically removing D2Rs from striatal medium spiny neurons was sufficient to reduce motor activity in lean mice, whereas restoring Gi signaling in these neurons increased activity in obese mice...
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
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