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Face reconstruction

Dmitriy Nikolavsky, Michael Hughes, Lee C Zhao
In the past decade, issues facing transgender individuals have come to the forefront of popular culture, political discourse, and medical study. The evaluating physician should have knowledge of the reconstructed anatomy, as well as potential postoperative complications. This knowledge will aid in providing appropriate care and recognizing issues that may require specialized urologic care. Transgender anatomic definitions and a synopsis of common urologic complications specific to transmen, including urethrocutaneous fistulae, neourethral strictures, and persistent vaginal cavities are discussed...
July 2018: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
Peter J Ciolek, Brandon L Prendes, Michael A Fritz
INTRODUCTION: The reconstructive goals following radical parotidectomy include restoration of symmetry, reanimation of the face, and reestablishment of oral competence. We present our experience utilizing the anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap, orthodromic temporalis tendon transfer (OTTT), and facial nerve cable grafting to reestablish form and function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2016, 17 patients underwent radical parotidectomy followed by immediate reconstruction...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
A E Cordero-Borboa, R Unda-Angeles
A typical quadruple node (QN) of triple junctions (TJs) of grain boundaries (GBs) in a Eu2+ -doped KCl0.52 Br0.48 solid solution is investigated from the geometrical point of view by epifluorescence microscopy using the doping ion as a fluorochrome. The excitation and fluorescence optical properties of the fluorochrome were previously characterised by spectrophotometry whereas the structural nature of the studied material as well as its Bravais lattice type, unit cell size and long-range translational order degree was determined by X-ray diffraction...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Krishn Khanna, Abhinav Janghala, Nirav K Pandya
Background: Posterior hamstring harvest has been described in the adult population in a limited fashion, but no study is available describing the use of posterior hamstring harvest in an active pediatric and adolescent cohort. At times, surgeons may be faced with a challenging anterior harvest due to patient anatomic characteristics, particularly the anatomic features and size of the pes tendons. Clinicians need to have multiple harvest approaches at their disposal. Complications with hamstring harvest such as premature graft transection are more problematic in this population due to higher failure rates with allograft tissue...
June 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Jing Zhu, Jianxiu Li, Xiaowei Li, Juan Rao, Yanrong Hao, Zhijie Ding, Gangping Wang
Objects: Effective psychological function requires that cognition is not affected by task-irrelevant emotional stimuli in emotional conflict. Depression is mainly characterized as an emotional disorder. The object of this study is to reveal the behavioral and electrophysiological signature of emotional conflict processing in major depressive disorder (MDD) using event-related potentials (ERPs) and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analysis. Method: We used a face-word Stroop task involving emotional faces while recording EEG (electroencephalography) in 20 patients with MDD and 20 healthy controls (HCs)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Bruce E Gelb, J Rodrigo Diaz-Siso, Natalie M Plana, Adam Jacoby, William J Rifkin, Kimberly S Khouri, Daniel J Ceradini, Eduardo D Rodriguez
Background: Donor-specific antibodies (DSA) to human leukocyte antigen increase the risk of accelerated rejection and allograft damage and reduce the likelihood of successful transplantation. Patients with full-thickness facial burns may benefit from facial allotransplantation. However, they are at a high risk of developing DSA due to standard features of their acute care. Case Presentation: A 41-year-old male with severe disfigurement from facial burns consented to facial allotransplantation in 2014; panel reactive antibody score was 0%...
2018: Case Reports in Transplantation
Ekaterina Urch, Anthony DeGiacomo, Christos D Photopoulos, Orr Limpisvasti, Neal S ElAttrache
The gold standard for management of elbow ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries in elite athletes is reconstruction of the UCL with a tendon graft. Over the past several years, UCL repair for acute tears, as well as partial tears, in young athletes has gained increasing popularity, with studies reporting good outcomes and high rates of return to sports. Additionally, there is increased interest in ligament augmentation using the InternalBrace concept. A recent technique paper describes a direct repair of the UCL augmented with a spanning suture bridge...
March 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Antonio Díaz-Pérez, Diana López-Álvarez, Rubén Sancho, Pilar Catalán
The identification of homeologous genomes and the biogeographical analyses of highly reticulate allopolyploid-rich groups face the challenge of incorrectly inferring the genomic origins and the biogeographical patterns of the polyploids from unreliable strictly bifurcating trees. Here we reconstruct a plausible evolutionary scenario of the diverging and merging genomes inherited by the diploid and allopolyploid species and cytotypes of the model grass genus Brachypodium. We have identified the ancestral Brachypodium genomes and inferred the paleogeographical ranges for potential hybridization events that originated its allopolyploid taxa...
June 4, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Anne F Klassen, Natalia Ziolkowski, Lily R Mundy, H Catherine Miller, Alison McIlvride, Allison DiLaura, Joel Fish, Andrea L Pusic
Background: Every year millions of individuals acquire scars. A literature review of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments identified content limitations in existing scar-specific measures. The aim of this study was to develop a new PRO instrument called SCAR-Q for children and adults with surgical, traumatic, and burn scars. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of the qualitative datasets used in the development of PRO instruments for plastic and reconstructive surgery, that is, BREAST-Q, FACE-Q, BODY-Q, and CLEFT-Q...
April 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Vasily Kerov, Joseph G Laird, Mei-Ling Joiner, Sharmon Knecht, Daniel Soh, Jussara Hagen, Sarah H Gardner, Wade Gutierrez, Takeshi Yoshimatsu, Sajag Bhattarai, Teresa Puthussery, Nikolai O Artemyev, Arlene V Drack, Rachel O Wong, Sheila A Baker, Amy Lee
α2 δ-4 is an auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated Cav 1.4 L-type channels that regulate the development and mature exocytotic function of the photoreceptor ribbon synapse. In humans, mutations in the CACNA2D4 gene encoding α2 δ-4 cause heterogeneous forms of vision impairment in humans, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of which remain unclear. To investigate the retinal function of α2 δ-4, we used genome editing to generate an α2 δ-4 knock-out (α2 δ-4 KO) mouse. In male and female α2 δ-4 KO mice, rod spherules lack ribbons and other synaptic hallmarks early in development...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Fabian N Svara, Jörgen Kornfeld, Winfried Denk, Johann H Bollmann
Spinal interneurons coordinate the activity of motoneurons to generate the spatiotemporal patterns of muscle contractions required for vertebrate locomotion. It is controversial to what degree the orderly, gradual recruitment of motoneurons is determined by biophysical differences among them rather than by specific connections from presynaptic interneurons to subsets of motoneurons. To answer this question, we mapped all connections from two types of interneurons onto all motoneurons in a larval zebrafish spinal cord hemisegment, using serial block-face electron microscopy (SBEM)...
June 5, 2018: Cell Reports
Igor J Chybicki, Andrzej Oleksa
Background and Aims: Dispersal is crucial due to its direct impact on dynamics of a species' distribution as well as having a role in shaping adaptive potential through gene flow. In plants forming scarce and small populations, knowledge about the dispersal process is required to assess the potential for colonizing new habitats and connectivity of present and future populations. This study aimed to assess dispersal potential in Taxus baccata, a dioecious gymnosperm tree with a wide but highly fragmented distribution...
June 4, 2018: Annals of Botany
Nwokoro Chingbundu Collins, Emmanuel Ezekiel Ayodeji, Fatungase Oluwabunmi Motunrayo, Salami Babatunde Abayomi, Ogundele Ibukunolu Olufemi, Amosu Lukmon Olusesan
Background: Neurofibromatosis is a genetically inherited disorder of the nervous system (brain and spinal cord) which mainly affects the development of nerve (neural) cell tissues, causing tumors (neurofibromas) to develop on nerves. It is the most common single gene disorder of the nervous system and inheritance is through autosomal dominance. They are usually classified into types 1 and 2, the type 1 is the commoner type and also known as superficial neurofibroma. Plexiform neurofibromas are the next most common type of tumor in individuals with type 1 neurofibroma...
March 2018: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
Christopher M Mahoney, Cayla Imbarlina, Cecelia C Yates, Kacey G Marra
Tissue engineered scaffolds for adipose restoration/repair has significantly evolved in recent years. Patients requiring soft tissue reconstruction, caused by defects or pathology, require biomaterials that will restore void volume with new functional tissue. The gold standard of autologous fat grafting (AFG) is not a reliable option. This review focuses on the latest therapeutic strategies for the treatment of adipose tissue defects using biomolecule formulations and delivery, and specifically engineered biomaterials...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Darren W Roddy, Elena Roman, Shane Rooney, Sinaoife Andrews, Chloe Farrell, Kelly Doolin, Kirk J Levins, Leonardo Tozzi, Paul Tierney, Denis Barry, Thomas Frodl, Veronica O'Keane, Erik O'Hanlon
The Stria medullaris (SM) Thalami is a discrete white matter tract that directly connects frontolimbic areas to the habenula, allowing the forebrain to influence midbrain monoaminergic output. Habenular dysfunction has been shown in various neuropsychiatric conditions. However, there exists a paucity of research into the habenula's principal afferent tract, the SM. Diffusion-weighted tractography may provide insights into the properties of the SM in vivo , opening up investigation of this tract in conditions of monoamine dysregulation such as depression, schizophrenia, addiction and pain...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Sophia Bockey, Philipp Berssenbrügge, Dieter Dirksen, Kai Wermker, Martin Klein, Christoph Runte
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a method of designing digital models of facial prostheses was suitable for patients with orbital defects. 32 patients were included in a retrospective study. 23 of them already had a facial prosthesis. 3D-data of the faces were acquired optically using fringe projection technique without and with (if available) the facial prosthesis in place. The healthy side of the surface models was mirrored to reconstruct the defect area. By generating a NURBS-model, the edges of the virtual prostheses were adapted to the defect region...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Elisabetta Marton, Enrico Giordan, Giorgio Gioffrè, Giuseppe Canova, Adolfo Paolin, Marina Grazia Mazzucco, Pierluigi Longatti
OBJECTIVE: Surgical management of spinal dysraphism often requires the use of dural substitutes. Amniotic membrane (AM) has drawn the interest of clinicians for its valuable concentration of cytokines and factors capable of promoting wound healing, re-epithelialization, inhibiting fibrosis and regulating angiogenesis. These beneficial qualities could make AM an interesting dural substitute for spina bifida repair. In this study, we describe the use of banked homologous AM as a dural substitute for the repair of spinal dysraphism in newborns...
June 1, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Jordi Guillen, Fabrizio Natale, Natacha Carvalho, John Casey, Johann Hofherr, Jean-Noël Druon, Gianluca Fiore, Maurizio Gibin, Antonella Zanzi, Jann Th Martinsohn
To ensure food security and nutritional quality for a growing world population in the face of climate change, stagnant capture fisheries production, increasing aquaculture production and competition for natural resources, countries must be accountable for what they consume rather than what they produce. To investigate the sustainability of seafood consumption, we propose a methodology to examine the impact of seafood supply chains across national boundaries: the seafood consumption footprint. The seafood consumption footprint is expressed as the biomass of domestic and imported seafood production required to satisfy national seafood consumption, and is estimated using a multi-regional input output model...
May 29, 2018: Ambio
Rokas Gelažius, David Kasradze, Albinas Gervickas
Self-inflicted gunshot injuries to the head and neck area are challenging cases. Immediate and complex approach is required due to complexity of head and neck anatomy. The extent of injury largely depends on velocity of a rifle and penetrated tissues. Management of these type of patients consist of vital resuscitation, primary wound management, soft and hard tissue reconstruction and rehabilitation. Here we present two cases of self-inflicted gunshot injuries with low and high velocity rifles.
2018: Stomatologija
Manish Kumar, Sandeep Kishore, Jordan Nasenbeny, David L McLean, Yevgenia Kozorovitskiy
Versatile, sterically accessible imaging systems capable of in vivo rapid volumetric functional and structural imaging deep in the brain continue to be a limiting factor in neuroscience research. Towards overcoming this obstacle, we present integrated one- and two-photon scanned oblique plane illumination (SOPi, /sōpī/) microscopy which uses a single front-facing microscope objective to provide light-sheet scanning based rapid volumetric imaging capability at subcellular resolution. Our planar scan-mirror based optimized light-sheet architecture allows for non-distorted scanning of volume samples, simplifying accurate reconstruction of the imaged volume...
May 14, 2018: Optics Express
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