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Phenylephrine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913935/regulation-of-contractile-responses-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-under-conditions-of-hypoxia-reoxygenation
#1
S V Gusakova, Yu G Birulina, L V Smagliy, I V Kovalev, I V Petrova, A V Nosarev, S N Orlov
We analyzed the effects of hypoxia and reoxygenation on changes in contractile activity in rat aortic smooth muscles. Both hypoxia and reoxygenation induced relaxation of smooth muscle cells precontracted with high-potassium Krebs solution (30 mM KCl) or α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Vasodilation resulted from enhancement of potassium permeability of smooth muscle cell membranes caused by activation of voltage-gated potassium channels (triggered by both precontracting agents) or by opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (phenylephrine)...
December 2, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912206/irisin-lowers-blood-pressure-by-improvement-of-endothelial-dysfunction-via-ampk-akt-enos-no-pathway-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#2
Jinjuan Fu, Yu Han, Jialiang Wang, Yukai Liu, Shuo Zheng, Lin Zhou, Pedro A Jose, Chunyu Zeng
BACKGROUND: Exercise is a major nonpharmacological treatment for hypertension, but its underlying mechanisms are still not completely elucidated. Irisin, a polypeptide containing 112 amino acids, which is secreted mainly by skeletal muscle cells during exercise, exerts a protective role in metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and obesity. Because of the close relationship between irisin and metabolic diseases, we hypothesized that irisin may play a role in the regulation of blood pressure...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912158/direct-detection-of-phenylephrine-3-o-sulfate-in-ls180-human-intestinal-cells-using-a-novel-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-hilic-assay
#3
Heta N Shah, Matthew T Halquist, Phillip M Gerk
The efficacy of phenylephrine (PE) is controversial due to its extensive pre-systemic metabolism through sulfation to form phenylephrine-3-O-sulfate (PES). Hence quantitation of PES is important in order to study the metabolism of PE. There are no published methods available for direction detection of PES. We have developed and validated a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method for the direct detection of PES and simultaneous detection of PE to study the enzyme kinetics and metabolism of PE to enable approaches to reduce the presystemic metabolism of PE...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909224/sarcomeric-protein-modification-during-adrenergic-stress-enhances-cross-bridge-kinetics-and-cardiac-output
#4
Kenneth S Gresham, Ranganath Mamidi, Jiayang Li, Hyerin Kwak, Julian E Stelzer
Molecular adaptations to chronic neurohormonal stress, including sarcomeric protein cleavage and phosphorylation, provide a mechanism to increase ventricular contractility and enhance cardiac output, yet the link between sarcomeric protein modifications and changes in myocardial function remains unclear. To examine the effects of neurohormonal stress on post-translational modifications of sarcomeric proteins, mice were administered combined α- and β-adrenergic receptor agonists (isoproterenol and phenylephrine; IPE) for 14 days using implantable osmotic pumps...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900397/noradrenaline-receptor-mechanisms-modulate-the-angiotensin-ii-induced-water-intake-in-the-subfornical-organ-in-rats
#5
Makoto Takahashi, Junichi Tanaka
The present study was carried out to clarify the role of noradrenergic systems in the mediation of drinking response to angiotensin II (ANG II) in the rat subfornical organ (SFO). Microinjection of ANG II (10 pmol, 50 nl) into the SFO caused a robust drinking response (water volume, 1.8-8.7 ml for 20 min). Injections of either noradrenaline (NA; 0.1, 1 and 10 nmols, 50 nl) into the SFO did not produce a significant water intake. Phenylephrine (Phen; 0.1, 1, 10 nmols, 50 nl), an α1-adrenoceptor agonist, injected into the SFO elicited little drinking in the rats tested (water volume, 0...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899739/impact-of-immune-deficiency-on-remodeling-of-maternal-resistance-vasculature-4-weeks-postpartum-in-mice
#6
Elizabeth A Bonney, Ann Howard, Kendall Krebs, Kelly Begin, Kelsey Veilleux, Natalia I Gokina
Pregnancy manifests changes in the vascular and immune systems that persist postpartum (PP), have important implications for future pregnancies, and may modify responses to cardiovascular stress in late life. The association between immune and vascular function and the generation or progression of cardiovascular disease beg the question of whether altered immunity modifies pregnancy-induced changes in the vasculature. Our objective was to compare changes in the function and remodeling of systemic resistance vessels 4 weeks PP in normal C57BL/6 (B6), and immunodeficient mice recombinase 1-deficient/B6 (Rag1(-/-))...
November 28, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896597/noradrenergic-inhibition-of-spinal-hyperexcitation-elicited-by-cutaneous-cold-stimuli-in-rats-with-oxaliplatin-induced-allodynia-electrophysiological-and-behavioral-assessments
#7
Seunghwan Choi, Akihiro Yamada, Woojin Kim, Sun Kwang Kim, Hidemasa Furue
We investigated the spinal action of noradrenaline on cold-elicited hyperexcitation detected in dorsal horn neurons of rats with allodynia induced by an oxaliplatin (6 mg/kg, i.p.) injection. In vivo extracellular recordings from the spinal dorsal horn showed that wide dynamic range neurons responded to cutaneous acetone (10 μl) stimulation in normal rats, and cold-elicited firings in oxaliplatin-administered rats were increased with a longer duration, correlated with behavioral responses. These responses were significantly attenuated by spinal administration (50 μM) of noradrenaline or its agonists, clonidine (α2), phenylephrine (α1) and isoprenaline (β), in descending order of efficacy...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895591/comparison-in-conscious-rabbits-of-the-baroreceptor-heart-rate-reflex-effects-of-chronic-treatment-with-rilmenidine-moxonidine-and-clonidine
#8
Monique L Parkin, Kyungjoon Lim, Sandra L Burke, Geoffrey A Head
We investigated the effects of chronic subcutaneous treatment with centrally-acting antihypertensive agents moxonidine, rilmenidine, and clonidine on the baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) in conscious normotensive rabbits over 3 weeks. Infusions of phenylephrine and nitroprusside were performed at week 0 and at weeks 1 and 3 of treatment to determine mean arterial pressure (MAP)-HR baroreflex relationships. A second curve was performed after intravenous methscopolamine to determine the sympathetic baroreflex relationship...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888581/vascular-toxicity-risk-assessment-of-mc18-and-mc70-novel-potential-diagnostic-tools-for-in-vivo-pet-studies
#9
Fabio Fusi, Miriam Durante, Claudia Sticozzi, Maria Frosini, Maria G Perrone, Nicola A Colabufo, Simona Saponara
The P-glicoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor MC18 has been recently proposed as a valuable PET tracer to measure P-gp expression in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic hazard towards the vasculature of MC18 along with the structurally related and more potent P-gp inhibitor MC70. Their effects on A7r5 and EA.hy926 cells viability, on the mechanical activity of fresh and cultured rat aorta rings as well as on Cav 1.2 channel current (ICa1.2 ) of A7r5 cells were studied. At concentrations >10 μM, MC18 and MC70 decreased cell viability causing evident morphological changes...
November 26, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885745/exaggerated-reactivity-of-parasympathetic-nerves-is-involved-in-ventricular-fibrillation-in-j-wave-syndrome
#10
Tetsuji Shinohara, Hidekazu Kondo, Toyokazu Otsubo, Akira Fukui, Kunio Yufu, Mikiko Nakagawa, Naohiko Takahashi
INTRODUCTION: Brugada syndrome (BrS) and early repolarization syndrome (ERS) are termed the J-wave syndrome. In most cases of J-wave syndrome, ventricular fibrillation (VF) often occurs around midnight or in the early morning when parasympathetic tone is augmented. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between VF and autonomic nervous activity in patients with J-wave syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 28 consecutive patients with J-wave syndrome (20 BrS and 8 ERS) in whom implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) were implanted between January 2002 and December 2014...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884871/simultaneous-liquid-chromatographic-determination-of-ebastine-with-two-sympathomimetic-drugs-using-a-monolithic-column
#11
F Ibrahim, M E K Wahba
Ebastine (EBS) has been assayed in its laboratory-prepared co-formulated tablets with either pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSU) or phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHR) using isocratic reversed-phase chromatography. Separation was conducted using a 50 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., Chromolith(®) SpeedROD RP-18 end-capped column at ambient temperature. A mobile phase composed of water:acetonitrile in a ratio of 25:75 having a pH of 3.2, has been utilized at 1 mL/min with UV detection at 254 nm for both EBS and PSU and 274 nm for PHR which in turn increased the sensitivity of the proposed method significantly...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872020/niclosamide-ethanolamine-inhibits-artery-constriction
#12
Shan-Liang Li, Jie Yan, Yan-Qiu Zhang, Chang-Lin Zhen, Ming-Yu Liu, Jing Jin, Jin-Lai Gao, Xiao-Lin Xiao, Xin Shen, Yu Tai, Nan Hu, Xin-Zi Zhang, Zhi-Jie Sun, De-Li Dong
We previously demonstrated that the typical mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) inhibited artery constriction, but CCCP was used only as a pharmacological tool. Niclosamide is an anthelmintic drug approved by FDA. Niclosamide ethanolamine (NEN) is a salt form of niclosamide and has been demonstrated to uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the vasoactivity of NEN and the potential mechanisms. Isometric tension of rat mesenteric artery and thoracic aorta was recorded by using multi-wire myograph system...
November 18, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871603/prophylactic-phenylephrine-infusion-for-the-prevention-of-hypotension-after-spinal-anesthesia-in-the-elderly-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#13
Fabrice Ferré, Philippe Marty, Laura Bruneteau, Virgine Merlet, Benoît Bataille, Anne Ferrier, Claude Gris, Matt Kurrek, Olivier Fourcade, Vincent Minville, Agnes Sommet
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Hypotension frequently occurs during spinal anesthesia (SA), especially in the elderly. Phenylephrine is effective to prevent SA-induced hypotension during cesarean delivery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic infusion of phenylephrine after SA for orthopedic surgery in the elderly. DESIGN: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study included 54 patients older than 60 years undergoing elective lower limb surgery under SA (injection of 10 mg of isobaric bupivacaine with 5 μg of sufentanyl)...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870968/the-cardiac-maladaptive-atf3-dependent-cross-talk-between-cardiomyocytes-and-macrophages-is-mediated-by-the-ifn%C3%AE-cxcl10-cxcr3-axis
#14
L Koren, U Barash, Y Zohar, N Karin, A Aronheim
RATIONAL: Pressure overload induces adaptive and maladaptive cardiac remodeling processes in the heart. Part of the maladaptive process is the cross-talk between cardiomyocytes and macrophages which is dependent on the function of the Activating Transcription Factor 3, ATF3. Yet, the molecular mechanism involved in cardiomyocytes-macrophages communication leading to macrophages recruitment to the heart and cardiac maladaptive remodeling is currently unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Isolated peritoneal macrophages from either wild type or ATF3-KO mice were cultured in serum free medium to collect conditioned medium (CM)...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870737/the-influence-of-body-mass-index-on-sensorimotor-block-and-vasopressor-requirement-during-spinal-anesthesia-for-elective-cesarean-delivery
#15
T C Ngaka, J F Coetzee, R A Dyer
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the dose requirement for spinal anesthesia (SA) is lower in obese patients for cesarean delivery (CD). In this prospective, observational, noninferiority study, we tested the hypothesis that obesity would not have a clinically important effect on vasopressor requirements or block height. METHODS: Two groups of 25 parturients, group O (body mass index [BMI] >40 kg/m) and group N (BMI <32 kg/m) requiring elective CD were recruited...
December 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862163/the-effects-of-high-sodium-intake-on-systemic-blood-pressure-and-vascular-responses-in-spontaneously-diabetic-wbn-kob-lepr-fa-fa-rats
#16
Yoshiichi Takagi, Haruno Kadowaki, Ikumi Kobayashi, Kaoru Ito, Katsuaki Ito, Mitsuyuki Shirai, Fumitoshi Asai
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension has markedly increased worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a high-salt intake on the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and vascular responses in WBN/Kob-Lepr(fa/fa) (WBKDF) rats, a new spontaneous animal model of T2DM. Male WBKDF rats and age-matched Wistar rats at 6 weeks of age were each divided into two groups and fed either a normal-sodium (0.26%, NS) diet or high-sodium (8%, HS) diet for 14 weeks: 1) Wistar rats on NS diet (Wistar-NS); 2) Wistar rats on HS diet (Wistar-HS); 3) WBKDF rats on NS diet (WBKDF-NS); 4) WBKDF rats on HS diets (WBKDF-HS)...
November 15, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849933/291-centhaquin-decreases-the-amount-of-phenylephrine-in-maintaining-blood-pressure-of-hemorrhaged-rats
#17
Anil Gulati, Zhong Zhang, Abhinav Singla, Seema Briyal, Birinder Marwah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847559/impaired-norepinephrine-regulation-of-monocyte-inflammatory-cytokine-balance-in-heart-failure
#18
Tien Mh Ng, Myron L Toews
AIM: To evaluate the effect of norepinephrine on inflammatory cytokine expression in ex vivo human monocytes and monocytic THP-1 cells. METHODS: For human monocyte studies, cells were isolated from 12 chronic heart failure (HF) (66 ± 12 years, New York Heart Association functional class III-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction 22% ± 9%) and 14 healthy subjects (66 ± 12 years). Monocytes (1 × 10(6)/mL) were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 100 ng/mL, LPS + norepinephrine (NE) 10(-6) mol/L or neither (control) for 4 h...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832832/a-pilot-goal-directed-perfusion-initiative-is-associated-with-less-acute-kidney-injury-after-cardiac-surgery
#19
J Trent Magruder, Todd C Crawford, Herbert Lynn Harness, Joshua C Grimm, Alejandro Suarez-Pierre, Chad Wierschke, Jim Biewer, Charles Hogue, Glenn R Whitman, Ashish S Shah, Viachaslau Barodka
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine whether a pilot goal-directed perfusion initiative could reduce the incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. METHODS: On the basis of the available literature, we identified goals to achieve during cardiopulmonary bypass (including maintenance of oxygen delivery >300 mL O2/min/m(2) and reduction in vasopressor use) that were combined into a goal-directed perfusion initiative and implemented as a quality improvement measure in patients undergoing cardiac surgery at Johns Hopkins during 2015...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828918/reply-re-the-effect-of-ptosis-surgery-on-brow-position-and-the-utility-of-preoperative-phenylephrine-testing
#20
Daniel B Rootman, Justin Karlin, Grant Moore, Robert Goldberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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