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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778808/maternal-treatment-with-a-placental-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-impacts-offspring-cardiovascular-function-in-a-rat-model-of-prenatal-hypoxia
#1
Mais M Aljunaidy, Jude S Morton, Raven Kirschenman, Tom Phillips, C Patrick Case, Christy-Lynn M Cooke, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction, a common consequence of prenatal hypoxia, is a leading cause of fetal morbidity and mortality with a significant impact on population health. Hypoxia may increase placental oxidative stress and lead to an abnormal release of placental-derived factors, which are emerging as potential contributors to developmental programming. Nanoparticle-linked drugs are emerging as a novel method to deliver therapeutics targeted to the placenta and avoid risking direct exposure to the fetus...
May 17, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771428/ampk-regulates-energy-metabolism-through-the-sirt1-signaling-pathway-to-improve-myocardial-hypertrophy
#2
H-W Dong, L-F Zhang, S-L Bao
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the correlations of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Silence information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and energy metabolism with myocardial hypertrophy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Myocardial hypertrophy experimental model was established via transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced myocardial hypertrophy and phenylephrine (PE)-induced hypertrophic myocardial cell culture. After activation of AMPK, the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expressions in myocardial tissue- and myocardial cell hypertrophy-related genes, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), were detected...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761924/decreased-hepatic-response-to-glucagon-adrenergic-agonists-and-camp-in-glycogenolysis-gluconeogenesis-and-glycolysis-in-tumor-bearing-rats
#3
Giuliana R Biazi, Isabele G Frasson, Daniele R Miksza, Hely de Morais, Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Gisele L Bertolini, Helenir M de Souza
The response to glucagon and adrenaline in cancer cachexia is poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate the response to glucagon, adrenergic agonists (α and β) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) on glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in liver perfusion of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats with advanced cachexia. Liver ATP content was also investigated. Rats without tumor (healthy) were used as controls. Agonists α (phenylephrine) and β (isoproterenol) adrenergic, instead of adrenaline, and cAMP, the second messenger of glucagon and isoproterenol, were used in an attempt to identify mechanisms involved in the responses...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756401/alpha-1-adrenergic-stimulation-selectively-enhances-endothelium-mediated-vasodilation-in-rat-cremaster-arteries
#4
Ramesh C Mishra, Mohammad M Rahman, Michael J Davis, Heike Wulff, Michael A Hill, Andrew P Braun
We have systematically investigated how vascular smooth muscle α1 -adrenoceptor activation impacts endothelium-mediated vasodilation in isolated, myogenically active, rat cremaster muscle 1A arteries. Cannulated cremaster arteries were pressurized intraluminally to 70 mmHg to induce myogenic tone, and exposed to vasoactive agents via bath superfusion at 34°C. Smooth muscle membrane potential was measured via sharp microelectrode recordings in pressurized, myogenic arteries. The α1 -adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (25-100 nmol/L) produced further constriction of myogenic arteries, but did not alter the vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine (0...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753230/nebivolol-prevents-vascular-oxidative-stress-and-hypertension-in-rats-chronically-treated-with-ethanol
#5
Gabriel T do Vale, Janaina A Simplicio, Natália A Gonzaga, Rodrigo Yokota, Amanda A Ribeiro, Dulce E Casarini, Bruno S de Martinis, Carlos R Tirapelli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic ethanol consumption is associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis. Vascular oxidative stress is described as an important mechanism whereby ethanol predisposes to atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that nebivolol would prevent ethanol-induced hypertension and vascular oxidative stress. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol 20% (vol./vol.) or nebivolol (10 mg/kg/day, p. o., gavage), a selective β1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist...
April 30, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753043/ska-31-an-activator-of-endothelial-ca-2-activated-k-channels-evokes-robust-vasodilation-in-rat-mesenteric-arteries
#6
Rayan Khaddaj-Mallat, Cini Mathew John, Andrew P Braun
It is now well recognized that endothelial KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel activities contribute to dilation of resistance arteries via endothelium-mediated hyperpolarization and vascular smooth muscle relaxation. In this study, we have investigated the functional effect of the KCa channel activator SKA-31 in third order rat mesenteric arteries using arterial pressure myography. Isolated arteries were cannulated, pressurized intraluminally to 70mmHg at 36°C and then constricted with 1μM phenylephrine. Acute bath exposure to SKA-31 evoked a robust and reversible inhibition of developed tone (IC50 = 0...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747759/limonin-alleviates-macro-and-micro-vascular-complications-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats-a-comparative-study-with-azelnidipine
#7
Noura A Hassan, Hany M El Bassossy, Ahmed Fahmy, Mona F Mahmoud
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a serious component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). HYPOTHESIS: This research investigates the potential protective effect of limonin against MetS-associated hypertension in comparison with azelnidipine, a common calcium channel blocker. STUDY DESIGN: MetS was induced in rats by 10% fructose in water and 3% salt in diet over a 16-week period. Limonin (50 mg/kg) and azelnidipine (5 mg/kg) were administered daily in the last four weeks METHODS: Non-invasive blood pressure (BP) was recorded in conscious animals...
April 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728739/decreased-contraction-induced-by-endothelium-derived-contracting-factor-in-prolonged-treatment-of-rat-renal-artery-with-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-inducer
#8
Makoto Ando, Takayuki Matsumoto, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
Recent evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the regulation of various physiological functions, including those of the vascular system. However, the relationship between ER stress and vascular function is poorly understood. The endothelial cells control the vascular tone by releasing endothelium-derived relaxing factors and contracting factors (EDCFs). We hypothesized that tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, modifies endothelium-dependent contraction and prostaglandins (PGs), a major class of EDCFs, induced contractions in the rat renal artery in rats...
May 4, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727795/differential-effects-of-high-consumption-of-fructose-or-glucose-on-mesenteric-arterial-function-in-female-rats
#9
Sonali Shaligram, Gemma Sangüesa, Farjana Akther, Marta Alegret, Juan C Laguna, Roshanak Rahimian
We have recently shown that type of supplemented simple sugar, not merely calorie intake, determines adverse effects on metabolism and aortic endothelial function in female rats. The aim of the current study was to investigate and compare the effects of high consumption of glucose or fructose on mesenteric arterial reactivity and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Sprague-Dawley female rats were supplemented with 20% w/v glucose or fructose in drinking water for 8 weeks. Here, we show that both sugars alter insulin signaling in mesenteric arteries (MA), assessed by a reduction in phosphorylated Akt, and increase in SBP...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727218/activated-no-pathway-in-uterine-arteries-during-pregnancy-in-iugr-rat-model
#10
Emilie Bigonnesse, Benoit Sicotte, Michele Brochu
Insufficient development of the utero-placental circulation may contribute to the development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We developed a rat model of IUGR by administering a low-sodium diet. This diet reduces maternal blood volume expansion and uteroplacental perfusion. We hypothesized that an impaired endothelial function in radial arteries decreases vasorelaxation and lowers placental perfusion in this IUGR model. The objective was to assess radial uterine artery responses to vasoactive agents in the IUGR model, versus controls...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709439/vasodilator-effects-and-putative-guanylyl-cyclase-stimulation-by-2-nitro-1-phenylethanone-and-2-nitro-2-phenyl-propane-1-3-diol-on-rat-aorta
#11
Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos, Helder Veras Ribeiro Filho, Saad Lahlou, José Geraldo de Carvalho Pereira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes de Oliveira, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães
Compounds containing a nitro group may reveal vasodilator properties. Several nitro compounds have a NO2 group in a short aliphatic chain connected to an aromatic group. In this study, we evaluated in rat aorta the effects of two nitro compounds, with emphasis on a putative recruitment of a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) pathway to induce vasodilation. Isolated aortic rings were obtained from male Wistar rats to compare the effects induced by 2-nitro-1-phenylethanone (NPeth) or 2-nitro-2-phenyl-propane-1,3-diol (NPprop)...
April 27, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708589/impaired-modulation-of-postjunctional-%C3%AE-1-but-not-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-vasoconstriction-in-contracting-forearm-muscle-of-postmenopausal-women
#12
Nicholas T Kruse, William E Hughes, Kenichi Ueda, Satoshi Hanada, Andrew J Feider, Erika Iwamoto, Joshua M Bock, Darren P Casey
Contraction mediated blunting of postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction (functional sympatholysis) is attenuated in older males; however, direct confirmation of this effect remains unknown in postmenopausal women (PMW). The present study examined whether PMW exhibit augmented postjunctional α-adrenergic receptor vasoconstriction at rest and during forearm exercise compared to young women (YW). Eight YW (24 ± 1 yrs) and eight PMW (65 ± 1 yrs) completed a series of randomized experimental trials; 1) at rest 2) under high flow (adenosine infusion) conditions and 3) during 6-minutes of forearm exercise at relative (20% of maximum (MVC) and absolute (7 kg) intensities...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707746/chronic-cadmium-exposure-accelerates-the-development-of-atherosclerosis-and-induces-vascular-dysfunction-in-the-aorta-of-apoe-mice
#13
T F Oliveira, P R Batista, M A Leal, B P Campagnaro, B V Nogueira, D V Vassallo, S S Meyrelles, Alessandra Simão Padilha
Cadmium exposure is related to cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and specific biochemical changes induced by this metal. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether cadmium exposure induces endothelial dysfunction, accelerates atherosclerotic plaque formation in the aorta, and enhances oxidative stress in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/- ) mice. Experiments were performed in 14-week-old male wild-type and ApoE-/- mice. ApoE-/- mice received cadmium (CdCl2 100 mg/L in drinking water for 28 days) or vehicle (distilled water)...
April 29, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705696/microrna-139-5p-suppresses-myosin-heavy-chain-i-and-iia-expression-via-inhibition-of-the-calcineurin-nfat-signaling-pathway
#14
Meng Xu, Xiaoling Chen, Zhiqing Huang, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Hong Chen, Jun He, Ping Zheng, Junqiu Luo, Jie Yu, Yuheng Luo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that are widely involved in a variety of biological processes. Different skeletal muscle fiber type composition exhibits characteristic differences in functional properties and energy metabolism of skeletal muscle. However, the molecular mechanism by which miRNAs control the different type of muscle fiber formation is still not fully understood. In the present study, we characterized the role of microRNA-139-5p (miR-139-5p) in the regulation of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform expression and its underlying mechanisms...
April 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704028/contractile-responses-in-intact-and-mucosa-denuded-human-ureter-a-comparison-with-urinary-bladder-detrusor-preparations
#15
Melanie Roedel, Ursula Ravens, Michael Kasper, Manfred P Wirth, Thomas A Jepps, Stefan Propping
Human proximal and distal ureter tissues were studied to clarify whether the presence of mucosa affects contractile responses. In histological studies, human ureter was compared with urinary bladder (detrusor). Contractions in response to high KCl solution, phenylephrine, and carbachol were measured in intact and mucosa-denuded strips of human ureter. Tissue sections of human bladder and ureter were used for histological staining. Thirty-four percent of the ureter strips contracted spontaneously with highly variable patterns, and this was affected neither by mucosa nor by proximal or distal tissue origin...
April 28, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698717/inhibition-of-prostatic-smooth-muscle-contraction-by-the-inhibitor-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-2-3-cmpd101
#16
Qingfeng Yu, Christian Gratzke, Yiming Wang, Annika Herlemann, Frank Strittmatter, Beata Rutz, Christian G Stief, Martin Hennenberg
Alpha1-adrenoceptors induce prostate smooth muscle contraction, and hold a prominent role for pathophysiology and therapy of lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia. G protein-coupled receptors are regulated by posttranslational regulation, including phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 (GRK2/3). Although posttranslational adrenoceptor regulation has been recently suggested to occur in the prostate, this is still marginally understood. With the newly developed CMPD101, a small molecule with assumed specificity for GRK2/3 is now available...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693944/unexpected-systolic-anterior-motion-of-the-mitral-valve-diagnosed-by-transthoracic-echocardiography-after-the-induction-of-general-anesthesia
#17
Toshiyuki Nakanishi, Manabu Yoshimura, Seishi Sakamoto, Takashi Toriumi
We report an 87-year-old woman who presented with unexpected systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve after the induction of general anesthesia. She was receiving medication for hypertension and cerebral infarction. There were no abnormal findings on her preoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examination. After the induction of general anesthesia, she presented with refractory hypotension. We performed TTE and diagnosed SAM of the mitral valve. Her hemodynamic state was improved by fluid infusion and administering intravenous phenylephrine...
May 2017: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691266/stability-of-extemporaneously-prepared-ophthalmic-solutions-for-mydriasis
#18
Nicole A Camp, Jennifer T Nadra, Susan E Hughes, Justine M Gilbert, Fang Zhao
PURPOSE: Results of an evaluation of the physical and chemical stability of extemporaneously prepared adult and pediatric ophthalmic solutions containing combinations of phenylephrine, tropicamide, and cyclopentolate are reported. METHODS: A stability study was conducted to help determine the feasibility of innovative formulations to meet an unmet clinical need for combination mydriatic ophthalmic eyedrops. An adult mydriatic ophthalmic solution containing phenylephrine hydrochloride 2...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685512/causes-and-outcomes-of-finger-ischemia-in-hospitalized-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#19
Gregory J Landry, Courtney J Mostul, Daniel S Ahn, Bryant J McLafferty, Timothy K Liem, Erica L Mitchell, Enjae Jung, Cherrie Z Abraham, Amir F Azarbal, Robert B McLafferty, Gregory L Moneta
OBJECTIVE: Vascular surgeons may be consulted to evaluate hospitalized patients with finger ischemia. We sought to characterize causes and outcomes of finger ischemia in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: All ICU patients who underwent evaluation for finger ischemia from 2008 to 2015 were reviewed. All were evaluated with finger photoplethysmography. The patients' demographics, comorbidities, ICU care (ventilator status, arterial lines, use of vasoactive medications), finger amputations, and survival were also recorded...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683007/perioperative-noninvasive-cardiac-output-monitoring-in-parturients-undergoing-cesarean-delivery-with-spinal-anesthesia-and-prophylactic-phenylephrine-drip-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#20
Sharon Orbach-Zinger, Ilya Bizman, Shlomo Firman, Shaul Lev, Roi Gat, Eran Ashwal, Mordehay Vaturi, Eitan Razinski, Atara Davis, Anat Shmueli, Leonid A Eidelman
INTRODUCTION: Spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery is associated with high incidence of hypotension and is most often prevented by a prophylactic phenylephrine infusion (PPI). In this study, we aimed to identify maternal hemodynamic changes both intraoperatively and postoperatively with the use of the NICaS noninvasive cardiac output monitor in healthy singleton parturients undergoing cesarean delivery (CD) with spinal anesthesia and PPI. METHODS: Healthy term women undergoing spinal anesthesia for singleton CD were enrolled...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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