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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352548/prediction-of-psychosis-across-protocols-and-risk-cohorts-using-automated-language-analysis
#1
Cheryl M Corcoran, Facundo Carrillo, Diego Fernández-Slezak, Gillinder Bedi, Casimir Klim, Daniel C Javitt, Carrie E Bearden, Guillermo A Cecchi
Language and speech are the primary source of data for psychiatrists to diagnose and treat mental disorders. In psychosis, the very structure of language can be disturbed, including semantic coherence (e.g., derailment and tangentiality) and syntactic complexity (e.g., concreteness). Subtle disturbances in language are evident in schizophrenia even prior to first psychosis onset, during prodromal stages. Using computer-based natural language processing analyses, we previously showed that, among English-speaking clinical (e...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352472/the-bioequivalence-of-a-single-intravenous-administration-of-the-anesthetic-alfaxalone-in-cyclodextrin-versus-alfaxalone-in-cyclodextrin-plus-preservatives-in-cats
#2
K Pasloske, M G Ranasinghe, S Sauer, J Hare
To demonstrate the bioequivalence of alfaxalone in cyclodextrin (Reference Product) to a formulation of alfaxalone in cyclodextrin also containing the preservatives ethanol, chlorocresol, and benzethonium chloride (Test Product) when administered for the purpose of inducing anesthesia in the cat. Blinded, single-dose, randomized, two-period, two-sequence, cross-over bioequivalence study with a 7-day washout period between treatments. Twenty-four (12 neutered males and 12 intact females), healthy, adult cats weighing 4...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352440/the-limitations-of-standard-clinicopathologic-features-to-accurately-risk-stratify-prognosis-after-resection-of-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#3
Fabio Bagante, Katiuscha Merath, Malcolm H Squires, Matthew Weiss, Sorin Alexandrescu, Hugo P Marques, Luca Aldrighetti, Shishir K Maithel, Carlo Pulitano, Todd W Bauer, Feng Shen, George A Poultsides, Olivier Soubrane, Guillaume Martel, B Groot Koerkamp, Alfredo Guglielmi, Endo Itaru, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND: The ability to provide accurate prognostic data after hepatectomy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) remains poor. We sought to develop and validate a nomogram to predict survival, as well as investigate the clinical implications of underestimating patients' risk of recurrence. METHODS: Patients undergoing curative-intent resection of ICC between 1990 and 2015 at 14 major hepatobiliary centers were included. Variables significant on multivariable analysis were used to construct a nomogram to predict disease-free survival (DFS)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352006/machine-learning-in-cardiovascular-medicine-are-we-there-yet
#4
REVIEW
Khader Shameer, Kipp W Johnson, Benjamin S Glicksberg, Joel T Dudley, Partho P Sengupta
Artificial intelligence (AI) broadly refers to analytical algorithms that iteratively learn from data, allowing computers to find hidden insights without being explicitly programmed where to look. These include a family of operations encompassing several terms like machine learning, cognitive learning, deep learning and reinforcement learning-based methods that can be used to integrate and interpret complex biomedical and healthcare data in scenarios where traditional statistical methods may not be able to perform...
January 19, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351866/bioanalysis-of-a-panel-of-neurotransmitters-and-their-metabolites-in-plasma-samples-obtained-from-pediatric-patients-with-neuroblastoma-and-wilms-tumor
#5
Lucyna Konieczna, Anna Roszkowska, Teresa Stachowicz-Stencel, Anna Synakiewicz, Tomasz Bączek
This paper details the quantitative analysis of neurotransmitters, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and serotonin (5-HT), along with their respective precursors and metabolites in children with solid tumors: Wilms' tumor (WT) and neuroblastoma (NB). A panel of neurotransmitters was determined with the use of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique combined with liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in plasma samples obtained from a group of pediatric subjects with solid tumors and a control group of healthy children...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351734/eogd-the-euplotes-octocarinatus-genome-database
#6
Ruan-Lin Wang, Wei Miao, Wei Wang, Jie Xiong, Ai-Hua Liang
BACKGROUND: Euplotes, a ciliated protozoan, is a useful unicellular model organism. Studies on Euplotes have provided excellent insights into various basic biological principles. We have recently sequenced the macronuclear genome of the common freshwater species Euplotes octocarinatus to provide novel insights into Euplotes genetics and molecular biology. RESULTS: In this study, we present the E. octocarinatus Genome Database (EOGD), a functional annotation and analysis platform for the global study of the Euplotes genome...
January 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351322/influence-of-multiplicative-stochastic-variation-on-translational-elongation-rates
#7
Sandip Datta, Brian Seed
Experimental data indicate that stochastic effects exerted at the level of translation contribute substantially to the variation in abundance of proteins expressed at moderate to high levels. This study analyzes the theoretical consequences of fluctuations in residue-specific elongation rates during translation. A simple analytical framework shows that rate variation during elongation gives rise to protein production rates that consist of sums of products of random variables. Simulations show that because the contribution to total variation of products of random variables greatly exceeds that of sums of random variables, the overall distribution exhibits approximately log-normal behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351271/risk-factors-for-low-birth-weight-according-to-the-multiple-logistic-regression-model-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-jos%C3%A3-mar%C3%A3-a-morelos-municipality-quintana-roo-mexico
#8
José Franco Monsreal, Miriam Del Ruby Tun Cobos, José Ricardo Hernández Gómez, Lidia Esther Del Socorro Serralta Peraza
INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight has been an enigma for science over time. There have been many researches on its causes and its effects. Low birth weight is an indicator that predicts the probability of a child surviving. In fact, there is an exponential relationship between weight deficit, gestational age, and perinatal mortality. Multiple logistic regression is one of the most expressive and versatile statistical instruments available for the analysis of data in both clinical and epidemiology settings, as well as in public health...
January 17, 2018: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350506/electronic-health-record-super-users-and-under-users-in-ambulatory-care-practices
#9
Juliet Rumball-Smith, Paul Shekelle, Cheryl L Damberg
OBJECTIVES: This study explored variation in the extent of use of electronic health record (EHR)-based health information technology (IT) functionalities across US ambulatory care practices. Use of health IT functionalities in ambulatory care is important for delivering high-quality care, including that provided in coordination with multiple practitioners. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from the 2014 Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society Analytics survey...
January 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350255/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-and-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-techniques-for-the-characterization-of-bioactive-compounds-from-humulus-lupulus-l-hop
#10
Davide Bertelli, Virginia Brighenti, Lucia Marchetti, Anna Reik, Federica Pellati
Humulus lupulus L. (hop) represents one of the most cultivated crops, it being a key ingredient in the brewing process. Many health-related properties have been described for hop extracts, making this plant gain more interest in the field of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical research. Among the analytical tools available for the phytochemical characterization of plant extracts, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) represents a new and powerful technique. In this ambit, the present study was aimed at the development of a new, simple, and efficient qNMR method for the metabolite fingerprinting of bioactive compounds in hop cones, taking advantage of the novel ERETIC 2 tool...
January 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349895/men-s-views-and-experiences-of-infant-feeding-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#11
Sarah Earle, Robin Hadley
Although the advantages of breastfeeding are well documented, rates for breastfeeding often fall short of international and national targets. Increasing attention has been paid to the role of men in infant feeding, but a lot of the research about men has been elicited from women, rather than from men themselves. To explore these issues further, a systematic review of the qualitative research on infant feeding was carried out, focusing specifically on men's own views and experiences. Evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (CINAL, Cochrane, PubMed, and Scopus), manually searching citations, and by searching the grey literature...
January 19, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349798/small-area-estimation-of-proportions-with-different-levels-of-auxiliary-data
#12
Hukum Chandra, Sushil Kumar, Kaustav Aditya
Binary data are often of interest in many small areas of applications. The use of standard small area estimation methods based on linear mixed models becomes problematic for such data. An empirical plug-in predictor (EPP) under a unit-level generalized linear mixed model with logit link function is often used for the estimation of a small area proportion. However, this EPP requires the availability of unit-level population information for auxiliary data that may not be always accessible. As a consequence, in many practical situations, this EPP approach cannot be applied...
January 19, 2018: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349610/ligand-binding-dynamics-for-pre-dimerised-g-protein-coupled-receptor-homodimers-linear-models-and-analytical-solutions
#13
Carla White, Lloyd J Bridge
Evidence suggests that many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are bound together forming dimers. The implications of dimerisation for cellular signalling outcomes, and ultimately drug discovery and therapeutics, remain unclear. Consideration of ligand binding and signalling via receptor dimers is therefore required as an addition to classical receptor theory, which is largely built on assumptions of monomeric receptors. A key factor in developing theoretical models of dimer signalling is cooperativity across the dimer, whereby binding of a ligand to one protomer affects the binding of a ligand to the other protomer...
January 18, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349273/the-contribution-of-three-dimensions-of-allostatic-load-to-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-poor-fair-self-rated-health
#14
Alexis R Santos-Lozada, Jonathan Daw
Objective: This study evaluates whether different dimensions of physiological dysregulation, modeled individually rather than additively mediate racial/ethnic disparities in self-reported health. Methods: Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2010) and the Karlson, Hold, and Breen (KHB) mediation model, this paper explores what operationalization of biomarker data most strongly mediate racial/ethnic disparities in poor/fair self-rated health (SRH) among adults in the United States, net of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and medication controls...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348883/spatial-habitats-from-multiparametric-mr-imaging-are-associated-with-signaling-pathway-activities-and-survival-in-glioblastoma
#15
Katherine Dextraze, Abhijoy Saha, Donnie Kim, Shivali Narang, Michael Lehrer, Anita Rao, Saphal Narang, Dinesh Rao, Salmaan Ahmed, Venkatesh Madhugiri, Clifton David Fuller, Michelle M Kim, Sunil Krishnan, Ganesh Rao, Arvind Rao
Glioblastoma (GBM) show significant inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity, impacting response to treatment and overall survival time of 12-15 months. To study glioblastoma phenotypic heterogeneity, multi-parametric magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 85 glioblastoma patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed to characterize tumor-derived spatial habitats for their relationship with outcome (overall survival) and to identify their molecular correlates (i.e., determine associated tumor signaling pathways correlated with imaging-derived habitat measurements)...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348406/active-state-organization-of-spontaneous-behavioral-patterns
#16
C Hillar, G Onnis, D Rhea, L Tecott
We report the development and validation of a principled analytical approach to reveal the manner in which diverse mouse home cage behaviors are organized. We define and automate detection of two mutually-exclusive low-dimensional spatiotemporal units of behavior: "Active" and "Inactive" States. Analyses of these features using a large multimodal 16-strain behavioral dataset provide a series of novel insights into how feeding, drinking, and movement behaviors are coordinately expressed in Mus Musculus. Moreover, we find that patterns of Active State expression are exquisitely sensitive to strain, and classical supervised machine learning incorporating these features provides 99% cross-validated accuracy in genotyping animals using behavioral data alone...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347916/cost-effectiveness-of-prostate-cancer-screening-a-systematic-review-of-decision-analytical-models
#17
Sabina Sanghera, Joanna Coast, Richard M Martin, Jenny L Donovan, Syed Mohiuddin
BACKGROUND: There is ongoing debate about the harms and benefits of a national prostate cancer screening programme. Several model-based cost-effectiveness analyses have been developed to determine whether the benefits of prostate cancer screening outweigh the costs and harms caused by over-detection and over-treatment, and the different approaches may impact results. METHODS: To identify models of prostate cancer used to assess the cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer screening strategies, a systematic review of articles published since 2006 was conducted using the NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Medline, EMBASE and HTA databases...
January 18, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347761/analytical-mesoscale-modeling-of-aeolian-sand-transport
#18
Marc Lämmel, Klaus Kroy
The mesoscale structure of aeolian sand transport determines a variety of natural phenomena studied in planetary and Earth science. We analyze it theoretically beyond the mean-field level, based on the grain-scale transport kinetics and splash statistics. A coarse-grained analytical model is proposed and verified by numerical simulations resolving individual grain trajectories. The predicted height-resolved sand flux and other important characteristics of the aeolian transport layer agree remarkably well with a comprehensive compilation of field and wind-tunnel data, suggesting that the model robustly captures the essential mesoscale physics...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347594/cell-size-distribution-and-scaling-in-a-one-dimensional-kolmogorov-johnson-mehl-avrami-lattice-model-with-continuous-nucleation
#19
Zoltán Néda, Ferenc Járai-Szabó, Szilárd Boda
The Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) growth model is considered on a one-dimensional (1D) lattice. Cells can grow with constant speed and continuously nucleate on the empty sites. We offer an alternative mean-field-like approach for describing theoretically the dynamics and derive an analytical cell-size distribution function. Our method reproduces the same scaling laws as the KJMA theory and has the advantage that it leads to a simple closed form for the cell-size distribution function. It is shown that a Weibull distribution is appropriate for describing the final cell-size distribution...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347533/model-of-chromosomal-loci-dynamics-in-bacteria-as-fractional-diffusion-with-intermittent-transport
#20
Marco Gherardi, Ludovico Calabrese, Mikhail Tamm, Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino
The short-time dynamics of bacterial chromosomal loci is a mixture of subdiffusive and active motion, in the form of rapid relocations with near-ballistic dynamics. While previous work has shown that such rapid motions are ubiquitous, we still have little grasp on their physical nature, and no positive model is available that describes them. Here, we propose a minimal theoretical model for loci movements as a fractional Brownian motion subject to a constant but intermittent driving force, and compare simulations and analytical calculations to data from high-resolution dynamic tracking in E...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
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