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pediatric cystography

M K Arevalo, J C Prieto, N Cost, G Nuss, B J Brown, L A Baker
INTRODUCTION: Symptomatic pediatric ureterocele has diverse manifestations, making evidence-based management impractical. Thus, detailed visualization of ureterocele anatomy prior to first surgical incision is invaluable. Retrograde ureterocelogram (RUC) is a simple, underutilized radiologic technique that can be performed during cystoscopy. This study sought to determine whether RUC changes surgical management by more accurately depicting the complex ureteral and ureterocele anatomy, compared with renal ultrasound (US) and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Yuval Bar-Yosef, Joseph Binyamini, Mario Sofer, Jacob Ben-Chaim
OBJECTIVE: Our institutional protocol for the treatment of exstrophy-epispadias complex includes routine endoscopic and cystographic evaluation of the bladder with the child under general anesthesia. The protocols briefly described in the literature include a cystographic evaluation and the measurement of bladder capacity, but there are no reports on concurrent endoscopic findings and the value of examinations in this setting. Our objective is to evaluate the role and necessity of our management protocol by reviewing the findings in our patients' medical charts...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
R Cohen, J Raymond, A Faye, Y Gillet, E Grimprel
Urine dipsticks have to be used more frequently for the screening of urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile infants and children (grade A). Confirmation of the UTI by urine culture should prefer other methods of sampling than the urine bag: sampling jet, urethral catheterization, or pubic puncture (grade A). The percentage of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in children accounts for less than 10 % in France and does not justify revising the 2007 recommendations (grade B)...
June 2015: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
N Bocquet, N Biebuyck, S Lortat Jacob, Y Aigrain, R Salomon, G Chéron
Pyelonephritis is a common bacterial disease in young children and is a serious infection because of its potential to produce renal scarring. One of the concerns of physicians is therefore the diagnosis of uropathy at risk for recurrence of pyelonephritis, especially high-grade reflux. There are no French recommendations on imaging evaluation after a first episode of pyelonephritis. Voiding cystography was systematically proposed years ago and recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics until 1999. This systematic strategy exposed all children to a painful, irradiating exam, and exposed them to urinary tract infection...
May 2015: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Bernhard Haid, Tanja Becker, Mark Koen, Christoph Berger, Werner Langsteger, Bernhard Gruy, Ernst Putz, Stephanie Haid, Josef Oswald
INTRODUCTION: Both, fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrography (fVCUG) and direct isotope cystography (DIC) are diagnostic tools commonly used in pediatric urology. Both methods can detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) with a high sensitivity. Whilst the possibility to depict anatomical details and important structures as for instance the urethra in boys or the detailed calyceal anatomy are advantages of fVCUG, a lower radiation burden is thought to be the main advantage of DIC. In the last decade, however, a rapid technical evolution has occurred in fluoroscopy by implementing digital grid-controlled, variable rate, pulsed acquisition technique...
February 2015: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Adamos Hadjipanayis, Zachi Grossman, Stefano Del Torso, Diego van Esso, Hans Juergen Dornbusch, Artur Mazur, Anna Drabik, Giovanni Montini
OBJECTIVE: To describe current practice among European paediatricians regarding diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections in children aged 1-36 months and to compare these practices with recently published guidelines. DESIGN: Web-based large scale survey evaluating knowledge of, attitudes towards and the methods for diagnosing, treating and managing urinary tract infections in children. SETTING: Primary and secondary care practices in Europe...
April 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Hans G Pohl, A Barry Belman
The upper urinary tract forms as a consequence of the reciprocal inductive signals between the metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud. A clue to the timing of events leading to an abnormality of the upper urinary tract can be the presence also of associated anomalies of internal genitalia since separation of these systems occurs at about the 10th week of gestation. Prenatal sonography has facilitated the detection of urological abnormalities presenting with hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis suggests obstruction, but by itself cannot be equated with it...
2014: Current Pediatric Reviews
Mansik Jeon, Jeehyun Kim, Chulhong Kim
Conventional pediatric cystography, which is based on diagnostic X-ray using a radio-opaque dye, suffers from the use of harmful ionizing radiation. The risk of bladder cancers in children due to radiation exposure is more significant than many other cancers. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of nonionizing and noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) imaging of urinary bladders, referred to as photoacoustic cystography (PAC), using near-infrared (NIR) optical absorbents (i.e. methylene blue, plasmonic gold nanostructures, or single walled carbon nanotubes) as an optical-turbid tracer...
2013: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Claudio La Scola, Chiara De Mutiis, Ian K Hewitt, Giuseppe Puccio, Antonella Toffolo, Pietro Zucchetta, Francesca Mencarelli, Martino Marsciani, Roberto Dall'Amico, Giovanni Montini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the yield, economic, and radiation costs of 5 diagnostic algorithms compared with a protocol where all tests are performed (ultrasonography scan, cystography, and late technetium(99)dimercaptosuccinic acid scan) in children after the first febrile urinary tract infections. METHODS: A total of 304 children, 2 to 36 months of age, who completed the diagnostic follow-up (ultrasonography, cystourethrography, and acute and late technetium(99)dimercaptosuccinic acid scans) of a randomized controlled trial (Italian Renal Infection Study 1) were eligible...
March 2013: Pediatrics
S Leroy, A Gervaix
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common sources of bacterial infections among young febrile children. Accurate diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) and vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) are important because of their association with renal scarring, sometimes leading to long-term complications. However, the gold standard examinations are either a DMSA scan for APN and scarring, or cystography for VUR, but both present limitations (feasibility, pain, cost, etc.). Procalcitonin, a reliable marker of bacterial infections, was demonstrated to be a good predictor of renal parenchymal involvement in the acute phase and in late renal scars, as well as of high-grade VUR...
January 2013: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
R Cohen, Y Gillet, A Faye
Management of urinary tract infections (UTI) in children is at a crossroads both in regard to the diagnostic methods used, the need to detect vesico-ureteral reflux, the benefit of prophylactic antibiotics and the emergence strains of multiresistant E. coli. The Groupe de Pathologie Infectieuse Pédiatrique of French Society of Pediatrics takes position : (i) to utilize more frequently urinary dipsticks and for urinary cultures, other methods of urine sampling than bag (sample jet, urethral catheterization, supra-pubic puncture) ; (ii) do not alter the initial therapeutic proposals of the former AFSSAPS (despite the percentage of E...
November 2012: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Alberto Muñoz, María Martínez-León, Élida Vázquez, Sandra Pérez da Rosa, José Crespo
Residual giant-cystic craniopharyngiomas are amenable to intracavitary bleomycin treatment. Radiologic identification of potential cyst leaks is of paramount for treatment decisions. This report describes our experience in the use of intracystic Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced MR imaging to determine potential communications between the tumoral cysts and other intra-axial spaces in 4 pediatric patients with residual giant-cystic craniopharyngiomas in whom intracavitary bleomycin treatment was planned after the injection of ...
July 2014: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Jen-Hsi Wu, Yee-Hsuan Chiou, Jenn-Tzong Chang, Hsiao-Ping Wang, Ying-Yao Chen, Kai-Sheng Hsieh
BACKGROUND: This study summarized the epidemiology, etiology, and susceptibility of pathogens to antibiotics, and specific characteristics in infants aged less than 4 months diagnosed with urinary tract infection in the past decade in Taiwan. METHODS: The medical charts of patients aged less than 4 months admitted for urinary tract infection to Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital between January 2001 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 132 patients, with male predominance (68...
October 2012: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Vitor C Zanetta, Brian M Rosman, Bryan Bromley, Thomas D Shipp, Jeanne S Chow, Jeffrey B Campbell, C D Anthony Herndon, Carlo C Passerotti, Marc Cendron, Alan B Retik, Hiep T Nguyen
PURPOSE: There are no current guidelines for diagnosing and managing mild prenatal hydronephrosis. Variations in physician approach make it difficult to analyze outcomes and establish optimal management. We determined the variability of diagnostic approach and management regarding prenatal hydronephrosis among maternal-fetal medicine obstetricians, pediatric urologists and pediatric radiologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online surveys were sent to mailing lists for national societies for each specialty...
November 2012: Journal of Urology
Sandrine Leroy, François Bouissou, Anna Fernandez-Lopez, Metin K Gurgoze, Kyriaki Karavanaki, Tim Ulinski, Silvia Bressan, Geogios Vaos, Pierre Leblond, Yvon Coulais, Carlos Luaces Cubells, A Denizmen Aygun, Constantinos J Stefanidis, Albert Bensman, Liviana Da Dalt, Liviana DaDalt, Stefanos Gardikis, Sandra Bigot, Dominique Gendrel, Gérard Bréart, Martin Chalumeau
BACKGROUND: Predicting vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) ≥3 at the time of the first urinary tract infection (UTI) would make it possible to restrict cystography to high-risk children. We previously derived the following clinical decision rule for that purpose: cystography should be performed in cases with ureteral dilation and a serum procalcitonin level ≥0.17 ng/mL, or without ureteral dilatation when the serum procalcitonin level ≥0.63 ng/mL. The rule yielded a 86% sensitivity with a 46% specificity...
2011: PloS One
Granelli Pietro, Frattini Antonio, Ferretti Stefania, Salsi Paolo, Campobasso Davide, Moretti Matteo, Capocasale Enzo, Mazzoni Patrizia, Cortellini Pietro, Pietro Granelli, Antonio Frattini, Stefania Ferretti, Paolo Salsi, Davide Campobasso, Matteo Moretti, Enzo Capocasale, Patrizia Mazzoni, Pietro Cortellini
BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is a frequent complication in a heterotopic reservoir and the surgical management could be a difficult problem. Open surgery is not recommended in patients with multiple previous surgeries. A less invasive technique, such as the endourologic procedures, would allow high stone-free rate and low surgical morbidity. INTRODUCTION: Stone formation in the reservoir is a well-known complication of urinary diversion. The incidence of lithiasis in patients with continent urinary diversion is reported as 12-52...
October 2011: Urologia
Aurelia Masca, L L Indrei, Klara Brânzaniuc
Posterior urethral valves represent a congenital barrier at the level of the posterior urethra, which opposes miction. They are located near the prostatic urethra, originating at the verumontanum level, affecting male patients. The ureters are inconstantly dilated; vesicoureteral reflux is met in 2/3 of the cases. The reflux can be secondary to the sub-bladder barrier, but it can also be considered primitive, determined by the intra bladder ectopy of the ureter. The presence of the reflux is interpreted as a severe associated factor...
July 2011: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
Heather J Lambert, Aisling Stewart, Ambrose M Gullett, Heather J Cordell, Sue Malcolm, Sally A Feather, Judith A Goodship, Timothy H J Goodship, Adrian S Woolf
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Primary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) can coexist with reflux nephropathy (RN) and impaired renal function. VUR appears to be an inherited condition and is reported in approximately one third of siblings of index cases. The objective was to establish a DNA collection and clinical database from U.K. families containing affected sibling pairs for future VUR genetics studies. The cohort's clinical characteristics have been described. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Most patients were identified from tertiary pediatric nephrology centers; each family had an index case with cystography-proven primary, nonsyndromic VUR...
April 2011: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Anton J Bueschen, Mark E Lockhart
The evolution of urological imaging has had a major impact on the diagnosis and treatment of urological diseases since the discovery of the X-ray by Roentgen in 1895. Early developments included plain films of the abdomen, retrograde urographic techniques, development of contrast media, excretory urography, renal mass puncture, renal angiography, cystography and nuclear medicine procedures. These procedures led to the maturation of the specialties of diagnostic radiology and urology, and the development of the subspecialties of pediatric urology and urological radiology during the first seven decades of the 20th century...
February 2011: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Kassa Darge
Voiding urosonography (VUS) entails the intravesical administration of US contrast agent (USCA) for the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). VUS is now recognized as a practical, safe, radiation-free modality with comparable or higher sensitivity than direct radionuclide cystography (DRNC) and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), respectively. An extensive review of the literature regarding both the procedural aspects and comparative diagnostic values of VUS has been published (Darge Pediatr Radiol 38:40-63, 2008a, b)...
June 2010: Pediatric Radiology
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