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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436935/tnf-superfamily-receptor-ox40-triggers-invariant-nkt-cell-pyroptosis-and-liver-injury
#1
Peixiang Lan, Yihui Fan, Yue Zhao, Xiaohua Lou, Howard P Monsour, Xiaolong Zhang, Yongwon Choi, Yaling Dou, Naoto Ishii, Rafik M Ghobrial, Xiang Xiao, Xian Chang Li
Tissue-resident immune cells play a key role in local and systemic immune responses. The liver, in particular, hosts a large number of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, which are involved in diverse immune responses. However, the mechanisms that regulate survival and homeostasis of liver iNKT cells are poorly defined. Here we have found that liver iNKT cells constitutively express the costimulatory TNF superfamily receptor OX40 and that OX40 stimulation results in massive pyroptotic death of iNKT cells, characterized by the release of potent proinflammatory cytokines that induce liver injury...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436184/delaying-cognitive-and-physical-decline-through-multidomain-interventions-for-residents-with-mild-to-moderate-dementia-in-dementia-care-units-in-taiwan-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Chih-Kuang Liang, Ming-Yueh Chou, Liang-Yu Chen, Kuei-Yu Wang, Shih-Yi Lin, Liang-Kung Chen, Yu-Te Lin, Tsung-Yun Liu, Ching-Hui Loh
AIM: To develop experimental multi-domain interventions for older people with mild-to-moderate dementia, and to evaluate the effect of delaying cognitive and physical decline, and improvement or prevention of geriatric syndromes during 1-year follow up. METHODS: Participants aged 65 years and older with mild-to-moderate dementia (clinical dementia rating [CDR] 1 or 2) were grouped as intervention in Jia-Li Veterans Home and usual care model in the community (Memory clinic)...
April 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436048/dealing-with-the-tension-how-residents-seek-autonomy-and-participation-in-the-workplace
#3
Francisco M Olmos-Vega, Diana H J M Dolmans, Nicolas Vargas-Castro, Renée E Stalmeijer
CONTEXT: The workplace can be a strenuous setting for residents: although it offers a wealth of learning opportunities, residents find themselves juggling their responsibilities. Even though supervisors regulate what is afforded to residents, the former find it difficult to strike the proper balance between residents' independence and support, which could create tensions. But what tensions do residents experience during clinical supervision and how do they cope with them to maximise their learning opportunities? Understanding how residents act on different affordances in the workplace is of paramount importance, as it influences their learning...
April 24, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435762/laboratory-diagnosis-of-scabies-using-a-simple-saline-mount-a-clinical-microbiologist-s-report
#4
Venkataramana Kandi
Scabies is a skin condition caused by infestation of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis is an arthropod member belonging to the order Acarina. Scabies is present throughout the world and is prevalent in all age groups, mostly involving people frequently in contact with animals, children, women, and elderly people. Predisposing factors for scabies include individuals with immunosuppressive conditions and people residing under low socioeconomic conditions. Skin lesions that occur during mite infestation closely resemble dermatological disorders caused by microbes, including fungi, parasites, and viruses...
March 19, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435680/adiposity-cvd-risk-factors-and-testosterone-variation-by-partnering-status-and-residence-with-children-in-us-men
#5
Lee T Gettler, Mallika S Sarma, Rieti G Gengo, Rahul C Oka, James J McKenna
Background and objectives: In many settings, partnered, invested fathers have lower testosterone than single men or fathers who are not involved in caregiving. Reduced testosterone has been identified as a risk factor for multiple chronic diseases, and men's health also commonly varies by life history status. There have been few tests of whether variation in testosterone based on partnering and parenting has implications for men's health. Methodology: We analysed data from a US population-representative sample (NHANES) of young-to-middle aged US men (n = 875; mean age: 29...
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435509/usmle-scores-predict-success-in-abem-initial-certification-a-multicenter-study
#6
Elie Harmouche, Nikhil Goyal, Ashley Pinawin, Jumana Nagarwala, Rahul Bhat
INTRODUCTION: There are no existing data on whether performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) predicts success in American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) certification. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of any association between USMLE scores and first-time success on the ABEM qualifying and oral certification examinations. METHODS: We retrospectively collected USMLE Step 1, Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores and pass/fail results from the first attempt at ABEM qualifying and oral examinations from residents graduating between 2009 and 2011 from nine EM programs...
April 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435488/clinician-performed-bedside-ultrasound-in-improving-diagnostic-accuracy-in-patients-presenting-to-the-ed-with-acute-dyspnea
#7
Dimitrios Papanagnou, Michael Secko, John Gullett, Michael Stone, Shahriar Zehtabchi
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosing acute dyspnea is a critical action performed by emergency physicians (EP). It has been shown that ultrasound (US) can be incorporated into the work-up of the dyspneic patient; but there is little data demonstrating its effect on decision-making. We sought to examine the impact of a bedside, clinician-performed cardiopulmonary US protocol on the clinical impression of EPs evaluating dyspneic patients, and to measure the change in physician confidence with the leading diagnosis before and after US...
April 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433120/additional-cost-because-of-pneumonia-in-nursing-home-residents-results-from-the-incidence-of-pneumonia-and-related-consequences-in-nursing-home-resident-study
#8
Nadège Costa, Emiel O Hoogendijk, Michael Mounié, Robert Bourrel, Yves Rolland, Bruno Vellas, Laurent Molinier, Matteo Cesari
OBJECTIVES: Pneumonia is a frequent condition in older people. Our aim was to examine the total healthcare cost related to pneumonia in nursing home (NH) residents over a 1-year follow-up period. DESIGN: This was a prospective, longitudinal, observational, and multicenter study that was a part of the Incidence of Pneumonia and related Consequences in Nursing Home Resident study. SETTING: Thirteen NHs located in Languedoc Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées regions in France were included...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432172/why-tuberculosis-control-programmes-fail-role-of-microlevel-and-macrolevel-factors-an-analysis-from-india
#9
Sudip Bhattacharya, Amarjeet Singh
India accounts for one-fourth of the global tuberculosis (TB) burden. The National TB Program was started in 1962. Over a period of time, some lacunae such as poor case detection rate and incomplete treatment were observed. Later, the government formulated the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), which achieved a case detection rate of 70% and a cure rate of 85%. Still, the problem of relapse and defaulter cases persists. In 2014, 6% defaulter cases were reported from India. RNTCP has also focused on microlevel aspects, that is, newer diagnostics such as GenXpert, line probe assay and medicines such as bedaquiline for drug-resistant TB...
April 21, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431817/pneumococcal-carriage-among-children-after-four-years-of-routine-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-use-in-brazil-the-emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-serotype-6c
#10
Felipe P G Neves, Nayara T Cardoso, Robert E Snyder, Mariel A Marlow, Claudete A A Cardoso, Lúcia M Teixeira, Lee W Riley
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced free of charge in Brazil as part of the public immunization program. Here we investigated the carriage prevalence, colonization risk factors, capsular types, and antimicrobial resistance among pneumococcal isolates obtained from children in Brazil four years after routine PCV10 use. METHODS: Between September and December 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional study among children<6years old who attended one public and two private clinics in Niterói, RJ, Brazil to evaluate pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage...
April 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431511/validation-of-the-short-version-of-the-10-66-dementia-diagnosis-in-multiethnic-asian-older-adults-in-singapore
#11
Edimansyah Abdin, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Louisa Picco, Boon Yiang Chua, Martin Prince, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: To validate the short version of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis against the standard version of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis and clinical diagnosis and examine concurrent validity with the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment schedule and care needs in a multiethnic Asian older adult population in Singapore. METHODS: Data from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study, a nationally representative survey of the older Singapore Resident population aged 60 years and above was used...
April 21, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431446/-vitamin-d-in-clinic-and-practice
#12
Armin Zittermann, Stefan Pilz
Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins, since its major source is skin synthesis by solar UVB exposure, whereas dietary intake plays only a minor role. In the general population, cutaneous vitamin D synthesis is clearly below the recommended amount. Dietary vitamin D does not fill this gap. Severe vitamin D deficiency results in rickets in infants and osteomalacia in adults. In the absence of endogenous vitamin D synthesis (e. g. during winter), oral supplements should ensure adequate daily vitamin D intake, where appropriate...
April 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431420/generative-retrieval-improves-learning-and-retention-of-cardiac-anatomy-using-transesophageal-echocardiography
#13
Amanda M Kleiman, Katherine T Forkin, Allison J Bechtel, Stephen R Collins, Jennie Z Ma, Edward C Nemergut, Julie L Huffmyer
BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a valuable monitor for patients undergoing cardiac and noncardiac surgery as it allows for evaluation of cardiovascular compromise in the perioperative period. It is challenging for anesthesiology residents and medical students to learn to use and interpret TEE in the clinical environment. A critical component of learning to use and interpret TEE is a strong grasp of normal cardiovascular ultrasound anatomy. METHODS: Fifteen fourth-year medical students and 15 post-graduate year (PGY) 1 and 2 anesthesiology residents without prior training in cardiac anesthesia or TEE viewed normal cardiovascular anatomy TEE video clips; participants were randomized to learning cardiac anatomy in generative retrieval (GR) and standard practice (SP) groups...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431270/clinicians-conflicting-emotional-responses-to-high-suicide-risk-patients-association-with-short-term-suicide-behaviors-a-prospective-pilot-study
#14
Zimri S Yaseen, Igor I Galynker, Lisa J Cohen, Jessica Briggs
BACKGROUND: Clinician's emotional responses to patients have been recognized as potentially relating to treatment outcome, however they have received little attention in the literature on suicide risk. We examine the relationship between a novel targeted measure of clinicians' emotional responses to high-risk psychiatric inpatients and their short-term post-discharge suicide behavior. METHODS: First-year psychiatry residents' emotional responses to their patients were assessed anonymously with the novel self-report 'Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form' (TRQ-SF)...
April 6, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430820/cardiovascular-safety-of-tiotropium-respimat-vs-handihaler-in-the-routine-clinical-practice-a-population-based-cohort-study
#15
Francesco Trotta, Stefania Spila-Alegiani, Roberto Da Cas, Maja Rajevic, Valentino Conti, Mauro Venegoni, Mariangela Rossi, Giuseppe Traversa
The cardiovascular safety of tiotropium Respimat formulation in the routine clinical practice is still an open issue. Our aim was to compare the risk of acute myocardial infarction and heart rhythm disorders in incident users of either tiotropium Respimat or HandiHaler. The study population comprises patients aged ≥45 years, resident in two Italian regions with a first prescription of tiotropium (HandiHaler or Respimat) between 01/07/2011-30/11/2013. The cohort was identified through the database of prescriptions reimbursed by the Italian National Health Service...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430725/awareness-regarding-perineal-protection-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injury-and-episiotomy-among-obstetrics-and-gynecology-residents-effects-of-an-educational-workshop
#16
Anna M Stecher, Jennifer Yeung, Catrina C Crisp, Rachel N Pauls
OBJECTIVES: Appropriate perineal protection may reduce rates of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). We sought to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of obstetrics and gynecology residents concerning perineal protection, OASIS, and episiotomy before and after an educational workshop. METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved cross-sectional survey study of obstetrics and gynecology residents. Two experts in perineal protection, whose methods have been shown to reduce OASIS by 50%, provided 1 week of education...
April 20, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430591/poly-adenosine-diphosphate-ribose-polymerase-as-therapeutic-target-lessons-learned-from-its-inhibitors
#17
REVIEW
Anna Mária Cseh, Zsolt Fábián, Balázs Sümegi, Luca Scorrano
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases are a family of DNA-dependent nuclear enzymes catalyzing the transfer of ADP-ribose moieties from cellular nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide to a variety of target proteins. Although they have been considered as resident nuclear elements of the DNA repair machinery, recent works revealed a more intricate physiologic role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases with numerous extranuclear activities. Indeed, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases participate in fundamental cellular processes like chromatin remodelling, transcription or regulation of the cell-cycle...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429376/daily-crying-prevalence-and-associated-factors-in-older-adult-persons-living-in-nursing-homes-findings-from-a-regional-study
#18
Alvisa Palese, Arianna Simeoni, Antonio Ranieri Zuttion, Barbara Ferrario, Sandra Ponta, Elisa Ambrosi
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of nursing home (NH) resident crying and associated factors at the individual and NH levels. DESIGN: A regional retrospective study design has been used. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 8875 residents, living in 105 NHs, were included. MEASUREMENTS: The occurrence of an episode of crying on at least a daily basis in the last month was the dependent variable; independent variables were set at individual and at the NH levels as reported in the Val...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428145/prior-treadmill-exercise-promotes-resilience-to-vicarious-trauma-in-rats
#19
Camila Kochi, Hesong Liu, Safiyya Zaidi, Fatin Atrooz, Phoebe Dantoin, Samina Salim
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychological condition, which can develop both from physically experiencing and also from witnessing traumatic events. There is evidence that physical exercise can have a positive impact on the symptoms of PTSD. Relevant to this, in our previous pre-clinical work, beneficial effects of treadmill exercise were reported on PTSD-like behaviors in a social defeat paradigm, a rat model of direct physical trauma. However, the role of exercise on vicariously acquired PTSD-like phenotype was not examined...
April 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427944/creating-a-global-acute-care-surgery-fellowship-to-meet-international-need
#20
Amina I Merchant, Camila B Walters, Julie Valenzuela, Kelly A McQueen, Addison K May
INTRODUCTION: Existing Acute Care Surgery (ACS) fellowships are positioned to develop well-trained surgeons with specific skills to facilitate improvements in care delivery in Global ACS. Many resident and fellowship programs offer clinical electives that expose trainees to operative experiences, exposing trainees to the needs in resource-challenged settings. However, most lack a focus on long-term development and research designed to enhance the country's local skills, capability, and capacity...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
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