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Luke C Mullany, Shams El Arifeen, Subarna K Khatry, Joanne Katz, Rashed Shah, Abdullah H Baqui, James M Tielsch
Guidance is needed regarding potential extension of the WHO recommendation for cord cleansing with chlorhexidine to babies born in facilities. Among 3,223 facility-born babies from Nepal and Bangladesh, mortality was approximately halved among those allocated to the intervention clusters (10.5/1000 vs. 19.4/1000, RR=0.54; 95% CI: 0.30 - 0.97). In high-mortality settings, a single policy for home and facility births is warranted.
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Annalisa Patrizi, Iria Neri, Giampaolo Ricci, Francesca Cipriani, Giulia Maria Ravaioli
neonatal and infantile skin diseases are frequently encountered in the clinical practice and represent worldwide a socioeconomic issue. They encompass a wide range of acquired or congenital conditions, including infections, vascular lesions and inflammatory diseases and can present with different degrees of severity, leading in some cases to dramatic complications. Areas covered: In this paper we report the most recent evidences on the management of some common skin diseases in neonates and infants. Hemangiomas, viral, fungal and bacterial infections, omphalitis, atopic and seborrhoeic dermatitis, napkin disease will be treated and discussed...
April 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
E Rampacci, F Passamonti, M Bottinelli, V Stefanetti, M Cercone, S Nannarone, R Gialletti, F Beccati, M Coletti, M Pepe
This study aims to investigate the bacteria involved in equine omphalitis and their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs, and consequently to provide guidelines concerning the most suitable treatment protocol in accordance with the clinical, ultrasound and laboratory findings. Forty foals aged between one and 30 days were evaluated in the course of this investigation. An ultrasound examination of all umbilical remnants was carried out carefully in all foals; umbilical swabs were collected for bacteriological examination, and blood samples were collected for blood culture from 19 foals with fever and abnormal blood values...
March 17, 2017: Veterinary Record
Kazufumi Kasuya, Natsumi Shimokubo, Chieko Kosuge, Kou Takayama, Eiji Yoshida, Hiroyuki Osaka
Three outbreaks of colibacillosis have occurred in chicks during the quarantine period after importation to Japan. All three were derived from three different countries without epidemiologic relevance. Some birds from each infected flock were examined pathologically and bacteriologically. The characteristic histologic finding common to all three cases was severe bacterial meningitis in the central nervous system. Pericarditis, perihepatitis, and omphalitis with bacterial colonies were also observed. The bacterial colonies observed histologically were immunohistochemically positive for Escherichia coli antigens...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
Hulya Ozdemir, Hulya Bilgen, Ahmet Topuzoglu, Senay Coskun, Guner Soyletir, Mustafa Bakir, Eren Ozek
INTRODUCTION: There is still some uncertainty on cord care practices all around the world, especially in developing countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of six different umbilical cord care practices on the rate of colonization and cord separation time. METHODOLOGY: A total of 516 newborns were randomly allocated to the following six umbilical cord care groups: group 1 received dry care; groups 2-4 received a single application of 70% alcohol, 4% chlorhexidine, or povidon-iodine in the delivery room, respectively, which were discontinued thereafter; groups 5 and 6 received a single application of 70% alcohol or 4% chlorhexidine, respectively, starting in the delivery room and continuing every six hours until discharge...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
John M Adaska, Robert B Moeller, Patricia C Blanchard, Sharif S Aly
Cecal infarction is an uncommon lesion in calves that results in localized peritonitis and, on occasion, perforation with secondary diffuse peritonitis and death. This lesion in calves has not been described previously. We reviewed the postmortem cases of cecal infarction in dairy calves ≤30 d of age that had been submitted over the course of 5 y to the Tulare branch of the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System. The area of cecal infarction and the associated lesion margins were examined histologically...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Christèle Gras-Le Guen, Agnès Caille, Elise Launay, Cécile Boscher, Nathalie Godon, Christophe Savagner, Emmanuelle Descombes, Gisèle Gremmo-Feger, Patrick Pladys, Dominique Saillant, Arnaud Legrand, Jocelyne Caillon, Sébastien Barbarot, Jean Christophe Roze, Bruno Giraudeau
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In developed countries, where omphalitis has become rare and related mortality nil, benefits of antiseptic use in umbilical cord care have not been demonstrated. We aimed to assess the noninferiority of dry care compared with antiseptics in France where antiseptic use is widespread. METHODS: We conducted a noninferiority, cluster-randomized, 2-period crossover trial, in 6 French university maternity units including all infants born after 36 weeks' gestation...
January 2017: Pediatrics
M Wieland, S Mann, C L Guard, D V Nydam
The objectives were to investigate the effect of 3 navel dips on (1) umbilical infection, (2) health events (pneumonia, diarrhea, and arthritis), and (3) average daily gain (ADG) in newborn dairy calves. A secondary aim was to compare the agreement of standardized ultrasonographic examination with clinical examination for the diagnosis of umbilical infection. In a randomized block design, newborn calves were assigned by birth order to 3 treatment groups: Navel Guard (NG; SCG-Solutions Inc., McDonough, GA), 7% iodine tincture (SI), and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CH)...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Shobhan Sivathanu, Sowmya Sampath, Indhumathi Sridhar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pediatrics in Review
Mallika Sengupta, Sayantan Banerjee, Pritam Banerjee, Partha Guchhait
INTRODUCTION: Omphalitis is the infection of the umbilical cord stump, which can lead to septicaemia and significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Very little data is available on the aetiology of neonatal omphalitis in India. AIM: To identify the causative agents of omphalitis in neonates and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at ESI-PGIMSR and ESIC Medical College, Joka, a tertiary care teaching hospital in Eastern India for a period of four months (from 1st January 2016 to 30th April 2016)...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Alicia Iglesias-Deus, Alejandro Pérez-Muñuzuri, Adela Urisarri, Adolfo Bautista-Casasnovas, Maria-Luz Couce
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord hemangioma is very rare and may not be detected prenatally. However, it should be considered in differential diagnosis with other umbilical masses because it can cause significant morbidity. METHODS: We report the case of a newborn referred with suspected omphalitis and umbilical hernia. RESULTS: Physical examination showed an irreducible umbilical tumor, the size of olive, with dubious secretion. The initial suspected diagnosis was urachal or omphalomesenteric duct remnants...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sunil Sazawal, Usha Dhingra, Said M Ali, Arup Dutta, Saikat Deb, Shaali M Ame, Mkasha H Mkasha, Ashish Yadav, Robert E Black
BACKGROUND: In low-income countries, including the east African region, a third of neonatal deaths are due to infections. A substantial proportion of these have been attributed to sepsis, which can result from umbilical cord infections. Evidence from Asia suggests that chlorhexidine application to the neonatal umbilical cord reduces mortality, but no data from Africa are available. We aimed to assess the effect of umbilical cord cleansing with 4% chlorhexidine solution on neonatal mortality and omphalitis in rural settings of sub-Saharan Africa...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
Mickaël Robert, Gwenola Touzot-Jourde, Olga Nikolayenkova-Topie, Nora Cesbron, Borhane Fellah, Caroline Tessier, Olivier Gauthier
OBJECTIVE: To describe a laparoscopic technique for evaluating umbilical disorders in calves, including feasibility, visualization of umbilical structures, and related complications. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. ANIMALS: Male calves (15 Holstein, 2 Montbeliard) with umbilical disorders (n=17). METHODS: Calves <2 months old with obvious umbilical disease were assessed by clinical examination and ultrasonography of the umbilical structures...
November 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Dan Stewart, William Benitz
Postpartum infections remain a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A high percentage of these infections may stem from bacterial colonization of the umbilicus, because cord care practices vary in reflection of cultural traditions within communities and disparities in health care practices globally. After birth, the devitalized umbilical cord often proves to be an ideal substrate for bacterial growth and also provides direct access to the bloodstream of the neonate. Bacterial colonization of the cord not infrequently leads to omphalitis and associated thrombophlebitis, cellulitis, or necrotizing fasciitis...
September 2016: Pediatrics
J A Shariff, K C Lee, A Leyton, S Abdalal
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of topical chlorhexidine as an intervention on neonatal umbilical cord stumps and its association with neonatal mortality and omphalitis. STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHOD: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, IMSEAR, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register and were screened until September 1, 2015 to identify RCTs that met the inclusion criteria...
October 2016: Public Health
L Lorefice, G Fenu, F Cabras, J Frau, G C Coghe, L Loi, M G Marrosu, E Cocco
BACKGROUND: Notoriously the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) is based on the use of several different drugs, characterized by a diverse mechanism of action, efficacy and safety. Recently, progress has been made towards developing new oral immunotherapies, and dimethyl fumarate is the third oral agent approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting forms. CASE: A 24-year-old patient, affected by relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, started treatment in December 2014 with dimethyl fumarate...
May 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
M J Sankar, A Chandrasekaran, A Ravindranath, R Agarwal, V K Paul
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy of chlorhexidine application to the umbilical cord in neonates. We searched MEDLINE and other electronic databases, and included all RCTs that evaluated the effect of single or multiple chlorhexidine cord applications on the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and/or the incidence of systemic sepsis and omphalitis. A total of six RCTs-four community-based cluster RCTs and two hospital-based trials-were included in the review...
May 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Qian Zhao, Yan Chen, Yang Wang, Dou-Dou Xu
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features and hospital costs of neonatal sepsis caused by Gram-positive (G(+)) bacteria, Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria, and fungi. METHODS: The clinical data of 236 neonates with sepsis were analyzed retrospectively. Among these neonates, 110 had sepsis caused by G(+) bacteria, 68 had sepsis caused by G(-) bacteria, and 58 had sepsis caused by fungi. RESULTS: Full-term infants accounted for 62% and 38%, respectively, in the G(+) bacteria and G(-) bacteria groups, and preterm infants accounted for 86% in the fungi group...
April 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Prashant Deshpande, Kotteeswari Kathirvel, Ansu Abu Alex, Anu Korula, Biju George, R V Shaji, Vikram Mathews
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and flow cytometric immunophenotyping details of 26 patients of Leukocyte adhesion deficiency-I (LAD-I) along with molecular characterization of 7 patients. METHODS: Diagnosis of LAD-I was suspected on the basis of clinical features, white blood cell count and absolute neutrophil counts and flow cytometric assessment of expression of CD18 and CD11(a, b, c) on leukocytes. Mutation analysis was performed using DNA PCR and conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) technique followed by sequencing...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Sarah Pace, Jonathan Bingham, Michael Royer
We describe a case of Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD) also known as Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D Syndrome (HIDS) presenting as a Sweet-like syndrome in a 5-week-old with multiple erythematous plaques, fever, aseptic meningitis, and bronchiolitis. The locations of the predominant plaques were periumbilical and periocular, which originally prompted concern for omphalitis and preseptal cellulitis. Histopathology demonstrated a neutrophilic and histiocytic dermatitis with prominent squamous syringometaplasia and leukocytoclasis in the absence of a vasculitis...
December 2015: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
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