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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746125/effects-of-organic-and-conventional-crop-nutrition-on-profiles-of-polar-metabolites-in-grain-of-wheat
#1
Peter R Shewry, Marianna Rakszegi, Alison Lovegrove, Dominic Amos, Delia-Irina Corol, Ahmed Tawfike, Peter Miko, Jane L Ward
The profiles of polar metabolites were determined in wholemeal flours of grain from the Broadbalk wheat experiment and from plants grown under organic and low input systems to study the effects of nutrition on composition. The Broadbalk samples showed increased amino acids, acetate and choline, and decreased fructose and succinate, with increasing nitrogen fertilisation. Samples receiving farm yard manure had similar grain nitrogen to those receiving 96kgN/Ha, but had higher contents of amino acids, sugars and organic acids...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692102/-soil-olsen-p-content-changing-trend-and-its-relationship-with-phosphorus-surplus-and-crop-yield-under-long-term-fertilization-in-loessial-soil-region-on-the-loess-plateau-china
#2
Sheng Zhe E, Zhi Qi Yang, Xi Bai Zeng, Ya Nan Wang, Zhao Xia Luo, Jin Hua Yuan, Zong Xian Che
The changing trend of soil available phosphorus (Olsen-P) content in soil and its relationship with soil phosphorus surplus and crop yield are fundamental when making appropriate phosphate fertilizer recommendations. In this paper, the influences of long-term fertilization on crops phosphorus uptake, soil phosphorus surplus, changing trend of soil available phosphorus content and relationships of soil available phosphorus content with soil phosphorus surplus and crop yield were investigated through 34 years (1981-2015) long-term trial in loessial soil region on the Loess Plateau...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669071/big-data-analytics-and-precision-animal-agriculture-symposium-data-to-decisions
#3
B J White, D E Amrine, R L Larson
Big data are frequently used in many facets of business and agronomy to enhance knowledge needed to improve operational decisions. Livestock operations collect data of sufficient quantity to perform predictive analytics. Predictive analytics can be defined as a methodology and suite of data evaluation techniques to generate a prediction for specific target outcomes. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the process of using big data and the predictive analytic framework to create tools to drive decisions in livestock production, health, and welfare...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514298/accelerating-genetic-gains-in-legumes-for-the-development-of-prosperous-smallholder-agriculture-integrating-genomics-phenotyping-systems-modelling-and-agronomy
#4
Rajeev K Varshney, Mahendar Thudi, Manish K Pandey, Francois Tardieu, Chris Ojiewo, Vincent Vadez, Anthony M Whitbread, Kadambot H M Siddique, Henry T Nguyen, Peter S Carberry, David Bergvinson
Grain legumes form an important component of the human diet, feed for livestock and replenish soil fertility through biological nitrogen fixation. Globally, the demand for food legumes is increasing as they complement cereals in protein requirements and possess a high percentage of digestible protein. Climate change has enhanced the frequency and intensity of drought stress that is posing serious production constraints, especially in rainfed regions where most legumes are produced. Genetic improvement of legumes, like other crops, is mostly based on pedigree and performance-based selection over the last half century...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508194/potential-impacts-of-climate-change-and-adaptation-strategies-for-sunflower-in-pakistan
#5
Muhammad Awais, Aftab Wajid, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Wajid Nasim, Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Muhammad Usman Bashir, Muhammad Mubeen, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Muhammad Habib Ur Rahman, Umer Saeed, Muhammad Naveed Arshad, Jamshad Hussain
Growth, development, and economic yield of agricultural crops rely on moisture, temperature, light, and carbon dioxide concentration. However, the amount of these parameters is varying with time due to climate change. Climate change is factual and ongoing so, first principle of agronomy should be to identify climate change potential impacts and adaptation measures to manage the susceptibilities of agricultural sector. Crop models have ability to predict the crop's yield under changing climatic conditions. We used OILCROP-SUN model to simulate the influence of elevated temperature and CO2 on crop growth duration, maximum leaf area index (LAI), total dry matter (TDM), and achene yield of sunflower under semi-arid conditions of Pakistan (Faisalabad, Punjab)...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493627/smallholders-need-access-to-big-data-agronomy-too
#6
Zia Mehrabi, Daniel Jimenez, Andy Jarvis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492405/biofortified-crops-generated-by-breeding-agronomy-and-transgenic-approaches-are-improving-lives-of-millions-of-people-around-the-world
#7
REVIEW
Monika Garg, Natasha Sharma, Saloni Sharma, Payal Kapoor, Aman Kumar, Venkatesh Chunduri, Priya Arora
Biofortification is an upcoming, promising, cost-effective, and sustainable technique of delivering micronutrients to a population that has limited access to diverse diets and other micronutrient interventions. Unfortunately, major food crops are poor sources of micronutrients required for normal human growth. The manuscript deals in all aspects of crop biofortification which includes-breeding, agronomy, and genetic modification. It tries to summarize all the biofortification research that has been conducted on different crops...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446456/lack-of-mitochondrial-thioredoxin-o1-is-compensated-by-antioxidant-components-under-salinity-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-plants
#8
Aingeru Calderón, Antonio Sánchez-Guerrero, Ana Ortiz-Espín, Isabel Martínez-Alcalá, Daymi Camejo, Ana Jiménez, Francisca Sevilla
In a changing environment, plants are able to acclimate to the new conditions by regulating their metabolism through the antioxidant and redox systems involved in the stress response. Here we studied a mitochondrial thioredoxin in wild type (WT) Arabidopis thaliana and two Attrxo1 mutant lines grown in the absence or presence of 100 mM NaCl. Compared to WT plants, no evident phenotype was observed in the mutant plants in control condition, although they had higher number of stomata, loss of water, nitric oxide and carbonyl protein contents as well as higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase enzymes than WT plants...
February 15, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407714/plasma-activation-of-tap-water-using-dbd-for-agronomy-applications-identification-and-quantification-of-long-lifetime-chemical-species-and-production-consumption-mechanisms
#9
F Judée, S Simon, C Bailly, T Dufour
Cold atmospheric plasmas are weakly ionized gases that can be generated in ambient air. They produce energetic species (e.g. electrons, metastables) as well as reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, UV radiations and local electric field. Their interaction with a liquid such as tap water can hence change its chemical composition. The resulting "plasma-activated liquid" can meet many applications, including medicine and agriculture. Consequently, a complete experimental set of analytical techniques dedicated to the characterization of long lifetime chemical species has been implemented to characterize tap water treated using cold atmospheric plasma process and intended to agronomy applications...
April 15, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321885/climate-change-affecting-oil-palm-agronomy-and-oil-palm-cultivation-increasing-climate-change-require-amelioration
#10
REVIEW
R Russell M Paterson, Nelson Lima
Palm oil is used in various valued commodities and is a large global industry worth over US$ 50 billion annually. Oil palms (OP) are grown commercially in Indonesia and Malaysia and other countries within Latin America and Africa. The large-scale land-use change has high ecological, economic, and social impacts. Tropical countries in particular are affected negatively by climate change (CC) which also has a detrimental impact on OP agronomy, whereas the cultivation of OP increases CC. Amelioration of both is required...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243155/trends-in-plant-research-using-molecular-markers
#11
REVIEW
Jose Antonio Garrido-Cardenas, Concepción Mesa-Valle, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro
A deep bibliometric analysis has been carried out, obtaining valuable parameters that facilitate the understanding around the research in plant using molecular markers. The evolution of the improvement in the field of agronomy is fundamental for its adaptation to the new exigencies that the current world context raises. In addition, within these improvements, this article focuses on those related to the biotechnology sector. More specifically, the use of DNA markers that allow the researcher to know the set of genes associated with a particular quantitative trait or QTL...
March 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147107/debated-agronomy-public-discourse-and-the-future-of-biotechnology-policy-in-ghana
#12
Joseph A Braimah, Kilian N Atuoye, Siera Vercillo, Carrie Warring, Isaac Luginaah
This paper examines the highly contested and ongoing biotechnology (Bt) policy-making process in Ghana. We analyse media content on how Bt is viewed in the context of Ghana's parliamentary debate on the Plant Breeders Bill and within the broader public policy-making literature. This paper does not seek to take a position on Bt or the Bill, but to understand how policy actors influence the debate with political and scientific rhetoric in Ghana. The study reveals that in the midst of scientific uncertainties of Bt's potential for sustainable agriculture production and food security, policy decisions that encourage its future adoption are heavily influenced by health, scientific, economic, environmental and political factors dictated by different ideologies, values and norms...
2017: Global Bioethics, Problemi di Bioetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131507/the-disruptive-effect-of-lysozyme-on-the-bacterial-cell-wall-explored-by-an-in-silico-structural-outlook
#13
Emiliano D Primo, Lisandro H Otero, Francisco Ruiz, Sebastián Klinke, Walter Giordano
The bacterial cell wall, a structural unit of peptidoglycan polymer comprised of glycan strands consisting of a repeating disaccharide motif [N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramylpentapeptide (NAM pentapeptide)], encases bacteria and provides structural integrity and protection. Lysozymes are enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall and disrupt the bacterial life cycle by cleaving the linkage between the NAG and NAM carbohydrates. Lab exercises focused on the effects of lysozyme on the bacterial cell wall are frequently incorporated in biochemistry classes designed for undergraduate students in diverse fields as biology, microbiology, chemistry, agronomy, medicine, and veterinary medicine...
January 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058049/bayesian-estimation-and-use-of-high-throughput-remote-sensing-indices-for-quantitative-genetic-analyses-of-leaf-growth
#14
Robert L Baker, Wen Fung Leong, Nan An, Marcus T Brock, Matthew J Rubin, Stephen Welch, Cynthia Weinig
We develop Bayesian function-valued trait models that mathematically isolate genetic mechanisms underlying leaf growth trajectories by factoring out genotype-specific differences in photosynthesis. Remote sensing data can be used instead of leaf-level physiological measurements. Characterizing the genetic basis of traits that vary during ontogeny and affect plant performance is a major goal in evolutionary biology and agronomy. Describing genetic programs that specifically regulate morphological traits can be complicated by genotypic differences in physiological traits...
February 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046522/geography-drives-agronomy
#15
Ryan Scarrow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991254/the-draft-genome-of-tropical-fruit-durian-durio-zibethinus
#16
Bin Tean Teh, Kevin Lim, Chern Han Yong, Cedric Chuan Young Ng, Sushma Ramesh Rao, Vikneswari Rajasegaran, Weng Khong Lim, Choon Kiat Ong, Ki Chan, Vincent Kin Yuen Cheng, Poh Sheng Soh, Sanjay Swarup, Steven G Rozen, Niranjan Nagarajan, Patrick Tan
Durian (Durio zibethinus) is a Southeast Asian tropical plant known for its hefty, spine-covered fruit and sulfury and onion-like odor. Here we present a draft genome assembly of D. zibethinus, representing the third plant genus in the Malvales order and first in the Helicteroideae subfamily to be sequenced. Single-molecule sequencing and chromosome contact maps enabled assembly of the highly heterozygous durian genome at chromosome-scale resolution. Transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of sulfur-, ethylene-, and lipid-related pathways in durian fruits...
November 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985572/post-photosynthetic-carbon-partitioning-to-sugar-alcohols-and-consequences-for-plant-growth
#17
REVIEW
Kathryn Dumschott, Andreas Richter, Wayne Loescher, Andrew Merchant
The occurrence of sugar alcohols is ubiquitous among plants. Physiochemical properties of sugar alcohols suggest numerous primary and secondary functions in plant tissues and are often well documented. In addition to functions arising from physiochemical properties, the synthesis of sugar alcohols may have significant influence over photosynthetic, respiratory, and developmental processes owing to their function as a large sink for photosynthates. Sink strength is demonstrated by the high concentrations of sugar alcohols found in plant tissues and their ability to be readily transported...
December 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976363/physical-root-soil-interactions
#18
Evelyne Kolb, Valérie Legue, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot
Plant root system development is highly modulated by the physical properties of the soil and especially by its mechanical resistance to penetration. The interplay between the mechanical stresses exerted by the soil and root growth is of particular interest for many communities, in agronomy and soil science as well as in biomechanics and plant morphogenesis. In contrast to shoots, roots apices must exert a growth pressure to penetrate strong soils and reorient their growth trajectory to cope with obstacles like stones or hardpans or to follow the tortuous paths of the soil porosity...
October 4, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900432/assessing-and-exploiting-functional-diversity-in-germplasm-pools-to-enhance-abiotic-stress-adaptation-and-yield-in-cereals-and-food-legumes
#19
REVIEW
Sangam L Dwivedi, Armin Scheben, David Edwards, Charles Spillane, Rodomiro Ortiz
There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894167/carbon-sequestration-potential-and-physicochemical-properties-differ-between-wildfire-charcoals-and-slow-pyrolysis-biochars
#20
Cristina Santín, Stefan H Doerr, Agustin Merino, Thomas D Bucheli, Rob Bryant, Philippa Ascough, Xiaodong Gao, Caroline A Masiello
Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), produced naturally (wildfire charcoal) and anthropogenically (biochar), is extensively studied due to its importance in several disciplines, including global climate dynamics, agronomy and paleosciences. Charcoal and biochar are commonly used as analogues for each other to infer respective carbon sequestration potentials, production conditions, and environmental roles and fates. The direct comparability of corresponding natural and anthropogenic PyC, however, has never been tested. Here we compared key physicochemical properties (elemental composition, δ(13)C and PAHs signatures, chemical recalcitrance, density and porosity) and carbon sequestration potentials of PyC materials formed from two identical feedstocks (pine forest floor and wood) under wildfire charring- and slow-pyrolysis conditions...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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