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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713395/economic-and-environmental-assessment-of-seed-and-rhizome-propagated-miscanthus-in-the-uk
#1
Astley Hastings, Michal Mos, Jalil A Yesufu, Jon McCalmont, Kai Schwarz, Reza Shafei, Chris Ashman, Chris Nunn, Heinrich Schuele, Salvatore Cosentino, Giovanni Scalici, Danilo Scordia, Moritz Wagner, John Clifton-Brown
Growth in planted areas of Miscanthus for biomass in Europe has stagnated since 2010 due to technical challenges, economic barriers and environmental concerns. These limitations need to be overcome before biomass production from Miscanthus can expand to several million hectares. In this paper, we consider the economic and environmental effects of introducing seed based hybrids as an alternative to clonal M. x giganteus (Mxg). The impact of seed based propagation and novel agronomy was compared with current Mxg cultivation and used in 10 commercially relevant, field scale experiments planted between 2012 and 2014 in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Ukraine...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649444/reverse-engineering-highlights-potential-principles-of-large-gene-regulatory-network-design-and-learning
#2
Clément Carré, André Mas, Gabriel Krouk
Inferring transcriptional gene regulatory networks from transcriptomic datasets is a key challenge of systems biology, with potential impacts ranging from medicine to agronomy. There are several techniques used presently to experimentally assay transcription factors to target relationships, defining important information about real gene regulatory networks connections. These techniques include classical ChIP-seq, yeast one-hybrid, or more recently, DAP-seq or target technologies. These techniques are usually used to validate algorithm predictions...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497959/characterization-of-agronomy-grain-physicochemical-quality-and-nutritional-property-of-high-lysine-35r-transgenic-rice-with-simultaneous-modification-of-lysine-biosynthesis-and-catabolism
#3
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Qingqing Yang, Hongyu Wu, Qianfeng Li, Ruxu Duan, Changquan Zhang, Samuel Saiming Sun, Qiaoquan Liu
Lysine is the first limiting essential amino acid in rice. We previously constructed a series of transgenic rice lines to enhance lysine biosynthesis (35S), down-regulate its catabolism (Ri), or simultaneously achieve both metabolic effects (35R). In this study, nine transgenic lines, three from each group, were selected for both field and animal feeding trials. The results showed that the transgene(s) caused no obvious effects on field performance and main agronomic traits. Mature seeds of transgenic line 35R-17 contained 48-60-fold more free lysine than in wild type and had slightly lower apparent amylose content and softer gel consistency...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485012/genotype-environment-seeding-rate-and-top-dressed-nitrogen-effects-on-end-use-quality-of-modern-nebraska-winter-wheat
#4
Madhav Bhatta, Teshome Regassa, Devin J Rose, P Stephen Baenziger, Kent M Eskridge, Dipak K Santra, Rachana Poudel
BACKGROUND: Fine-tuning production inputs such as seeding rate, nitrogen (N), and genotypes may improve end-use quality of hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivium L.) when growing conditions are unpredictable. Studies were conducted at the Agronomy Research Farm (ARF; Lincoln) and the High Plains Agricultural Laboratory (HPAL; Sidney) in 2014 and 2015 in Nebraska, USA to determine the effects of genotype (6), environment (4), seeding rate (3), and flag leaf top-dressed N (0 and 34 kg N ha(-1) ) on the end-use quality of winter wheat...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475036/determinants-of-host-species-range-in-plant-viruses
#5
Benoît Moury, Frédéric Fabre, Eugénie Hébrard, Rémy Froissart
Prediction of pathogen emergence is an important field of research, both in human health and in agronomy. Most studies of pathogen emergence have focused on the ecological or anthropic factors involved rather than on the role of intrinsic pathogen properties. The capacity of pathogens to infect a large set of host species, i.e. to possess a large host range breadth (HRB), is tightly linked to their emergence propensity. Using an extensive plant virus database, we found that four traits related to virus genome or transmission properties were strongly and robustly linked to virus HRB...
April 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371610/short-exogenous-peptides-regulate-expression-of-cle-knox1-and-grf-family-genes-in-nicotiana-tabacum
#6
L I Fedoreyeva, T A Dilovarova, V V Ashapkin, Yu Ts Martirosyan, V Kh Khavinson, P N Kharchenko, B F Vanyushin
Exogenous short biologically active peptides epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly), bronchogen (Ala-Glu-Asp-Leu), and vilon (Lys-Glu) at concentrations 10(-7)-10(-9) M significantly influence growth, development, and differentiation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) callus cultures. Epitalon and bronchogen, in particular, both increase growth of calluses and stimulate formation and growth of leaves in plant regenerants. Because the regulatory activity of the short peptides appears at low peptide concentrations, their action to some extent is like that of the activity of phytohormones, and it seems to have signaling character and epigenetic nature...
April 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228237/groundwater-nitrate-reduction-versus-dissolved-gas-production-a-tale-of-two-catchments
#7
E B McAleer, C E Coxon, K G Richards, M M R Jahangir, J Grant, Per E Mellander
At the catchment scale, a complex mosaic of environmental, hydrogeological and physicochemical characteristics combine to regulate the distribution of groundwater and stream nitrate (NO3(-)). The efficiency of NO3(-) removal (via denitrification) versus the ratio of accumulated reaction products, dinitrogen (excess N2) & nitrous oxide (N2O), remains poorly understood. Groundwater was investigated in two well drained agricultural catchments (10km(2)) in Ireland with contrasting subsurface lithologies (sandstone vs...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188423/photosynthetic-antenna-engineering-to-improve-crop-yields
#8
Henning Kirst, Stéphane T Gabilly, Krishna K Niyogi, Peggy G Lemaux, Anastasios Melis
Evidence shows that decreasing the light-harvesting antenna size of the photosystems in tobacco helps to increase the photosynthetic productivity and plant canopy biomass accumulation under high-density cultivation conditions. Decreasing, or truncating, the chlorophyll antenna size of the photosystems can theoretically improve photosynthetic solar energy conversion efficiency and productivity in mass cultures of algae or plants by up to threefold. A Truncated Light-harvesting chlorophyll Antenna size (TLA), in all classes of photosynthetic organisms, would help to alleviate excess absorption of sunlight and the ensuing wasteful non-photochemical dissipation of excitation energy...
May 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174583/accumulation-and-transport-of-1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid-acc-in-plants-current-status-considerations-for-future-research-and-agronomic-applications
#9
REVIEW
Lisa Vanderstraeten, Dominique Van Der Straeten
1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a non-protein amino acid acting as the direct precursor of ethylene, a plant hormone regulating a wide variety of vegetative and developmental processes. ACC is the central molecule of ethylene biosynthesis. The rate of ACC formation differs in response to developmental, hormonal and environmental cues. ACC can be conjugated to three derivatives, metabolized in planta or by rhizobacteria using ACC deaminase, and is transported throughout the plant over short and long distances, remotely leading to ethylene responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168282/nature-or-artifice-grafting-in-early-modern-surgery-and-agronomy
#10
Paolo Savoia
In 1597, Gaspare Tagliacozzi published a famous two-volume book on “plastic surgery.” The reconstructive technique he described was based on grafting skin taken from the arm onto the mutilated parts of the patient's damaged face – especially noses. This paper focuses on techniques of grafting, the “culture of grafting,” and the relationships between surgery and plant sciences in the sixteenth century. By describing the fascination with grafting in surgery, natural history, gardening, and agronomy the paper argues that grafting techniques were subject to delicate issues: to what extent it was morally acceptable to deceive the eye with artificial entities? and what was the status of the product of a surgical procedure that challenged the traditional natural/artificial distinction? Finally, this paper shows how in the seventeenth century grafting survived the crisis of Galenism by discussing the role it played in teratology and in controversies on the uses the new mechanistic anatomy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163993/herbicide-resistance-and-biodiversity-agronomic-and-environmental-aspects-of-genetically-modified-herbicide-resistant-plants
#11
REVIEW
Gesine Schütte, Michael Eckerstorfer, Valentina Rastelli, Wolfram Reichenbecher, Sara Restrepo-Vassalli, Marja Ruohonen-Lehto, Anne-Gabrielle Wuest Saucy, Martha Mertens
Farmland biodiversity is an important characteristic when assessing sustainability of agricultural practices and is of major international concern. Scientific data indicate that agricultural intensification and pesticide use are among the main drivers of biodiversity loss. The analysed data and experiences do not support statements that herbicide-resistant crops provide consistently better yields than conventional crops or reduce herbicide amounts. They rather show that the adoption of herbicide-resistant crops impacts agronomy, agricultural practice, and weed management and contributes to biodiversity loss in several ways: (i) many studies show that glyphosate-based herbicides, which were commonly regarded as less harmful, are toxic to a range of aquatic organisms and adversely affect the soil and intestinal microflora and plant disease resistance; the increased use of 2,4-D or dicamba, linked to new herbicide-resistant crops, causes special concerns...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965685/nitrogen-source-and-rate-management-improve-maize-productivity-of-smallholders-under-semiarid-climates
#12
Amanullah, Asif Iqbal, Ashraf Ali, Shah Fahad, Brajendra Parmar
Nitrogen is one of the most important factor affecting maize (Zea mays L.) yield and income of smallholders under semiarid climates. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of different N-fertilizer sources [urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), and ammonium sulfate (AS)] and rates (50, 100, 150, and 200 kg ha(-1)) on umber of rows ear(-1) (NOR ear(-1)), number of seeds row(-1) (NOS row(-1)), number of seeds ear(-1) (NOS ear(-1)), number of ears per 100 plants (NOEP 100 plants(-1)), grain yield plant(-1), stover yield (kg ha(-1)), and shelling percentage (%) of maize genotypes "Local cultivars (Azam and Jalal) vs...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909444/smallholder-farms-and-the-potential-for-sustainable-intensification
#13
Leah M Mungai, Sieglinde Snapp, Joseph P Messina, Regis Chikowo, Alex Smith, Erin Anders, Robert B Richardson, Guiying Li
The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754365/an-in-vitro-procedure-for-phenotypic-screening-of-growth-parameters-and-symbiotic-performances-in-lotus-corniculatus-cultivars-maintained-in-different-nutritional-conditions
#14
Vladimir Totev Valkov, Maurizio Chiurazzi
The establishment of legumes crops with phenotypic traits that favour their persistence and competitiveness in mixed swards is a pressing task in sustainable agriculture. However, to fully exploit the potential benefits of introducing pasture-based grass-legume systems, an increased scientific knowledge of legume agronomy for screening of favourable traits is needed. We exploited a short-cut phenotypic screening as a preliminary step to characterize the growth capacity of three different Lotus corniculatus cvs cultivated in different nutritional conditions as well as the evaluation of their nodulation capacities...
October 13, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721815/overcoming-phosphorus-deficiency-in-west-african-pearl-millet-and-sorghum-production-systems-promising-options-for-crop-improvement
#15
Dorcus C Gemenet, Willmar L Leiser, Francesca Beggi, Ludger H Herrmann, Vincent Vadez, Henry F W Rattunde, Eva Weltzien, Charles T Hash, Andreas Buerkert, Bettina I G Haussmann
West Africa (WA) is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P) is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, often unaffordable to resource-poor subsistence farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716103/root-morphology-and-seed-and-leaf-ionomic-traits-in-a-brassica-napus-l-diversity-panel-show-wide-phenotypic-variation-and-are-characteristic-of-crop-habit
#16
C L Thomas, T D Alcock, N S Graham, R Hayden, S Matterson, L Wilson, S D Young, L X Dupuy, P J White, J P Hammond, J M C Danku, D E Salt, A Sweeney, I Bancroft, M R Broadley
BACKGROUND: Mineral nutrient uptake and utilisation by plants are controlled by many traits relating to root morphology, ion transport, sequestration and translocation. The aims of this study were to determine the phenotypic diversity in root morphology and leaf and seed mineral composition of a polyploid crop species, Brassica napus L., and how these traits relate to crop habit. Traits were quantified in a diversity panel of up to 387 genotypes: 163 winter, 127 spring, and seven semiwinter oilseed rape (OSR) habits, 35 swede, 15 winter fodder, and 40 exotic/unspecified habits...
October 4, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694964/potassium-management-for-improving-growth-and-grain-yield-of-maize-zea-mays-l-under-moisture-stress-condition
#17
Amanullah, Asif Iqbal, Irfanullah, Zeeshan Hidayat
Potassium (K) fertilizer management is beneficial for improving growth, yield and yield components of field crops under moisture stress condition in semiarid climates. Field experiments were conducted to study the response of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam) to foliar and soil applied K during summer 2013 and 2014. The experiments were carried out at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Northwest Pakistan under limited irrigation (moisture stress) condition. It was concluded from the results that application of foliar K at the rate of 1-3% and foliar Zn at the rate of 0...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664130/the-environment-ontology-in-2016-bridging-domains-with-increased-scope-semantic-density-and-interoperation
#18
Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Evangelos Pafilis, Suzanna E Lewis, Mark P Schildhauer, Ramona L Walls, Christopher J Mungall
BACKGROUND: The Environment Ontology (ENVO; http://www.environmentontology.org/ ), first described in 2013, is a resource and research target for the semantically controlled description of environmental entities. The ontology's initial aim was the representation of the biomes, environmental features, and environmental materials pertinent to genomic and microbiome-related investigations. However, the need for environmental semantics is common to a multitude of fields, and ENVO's use has steadily grown since its initial description...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527392/transcriptomic-analysis-of-heteromorphic-stamens-in-cassia-biscapsularis-l
#19
Zhonglai Luo, Jin Hu, Zhongtao Zhao, Dianxiang Zhang
Hermaphroditic flowers have evolved primarily under the selection on male function. Evolutionary modification often leads to stamen differentiation within flowers, or "heteranthery", a phenomenon intrigued scientists since the 18(th) century until recently. However, the genetic basis and molecular regulation mechanism has barely been touched. Here we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling in Cassia biscapsularis L., a heterantherous species with representative patterns of stamen differentiation. Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the staminodes (the degenerated stamens) and fertile stamens, while much fewer genes differentially expressed among the three sets of fertile stamens...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423772/the-precos-framework-measuring-the-impacts-of-the-global-changes-on-soils-water-agriculture-on-territories-to-better-anticipate-the-future
#20
Fabienne Trolard, Guilhem Bourrié, Antoine Baillieux, Samuel Buis, André Chanzy, Philippe Clastre, Jean-François Closet, Dominique Courault, Marie-Lorraine Dangeard, Nicola Di Virgilio, Philippe Dussouilliez, Jules Fleury, Jérémy Gasc, Ghislain Géniaux, Rachel Jouan, Catherine Keller, Patrice Lecharpentier, Jean Lecroart, Claude Napoleone, Gihan Mohammed, Albert Olioso, Suzanne Reynders, Federica Rossi, Mike Tennant, Javier de Vicente Lopez
In a context of increased land and natural resources scarcity, the possibilities for local authorities and stakeholders of anticipating evolutions or testing the impact of envisaged developments through scenario simulation are new challenges. PRECOS's approach integrates data pertaining to the fields of water and soil resources, agronomy, urbanization, land use and infrastructure etc. It is complemented by a socio-economic and regulatory analysis of the territory illustrating its constraints and stakes. A modular architecture articulates modeling software and spatial and temporal representations tools...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
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