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Rajeev K Varshney, Mahendar Thudi, Manish K Pandey, Francois Tardieu, Chris Ojiewo, Vincent Vadez, Anthony M Whitbread, Kadambot H M Siddique, Henry T Nguyen, Peter S Carberry, David Bergvinson
Grain legumes form an important component of the human diet, feed for livestock and replenish soil fertility through biological nitrogen fixation. Globally, the demand for food legumes is increasing as they complement cereals in protein requirements and possess a high percentage of digestible protein. Climate change has enhanced the frequency and intensity of drought stress that is posing serious production constraints, especially in rainfed regions where most legumes are produced. Genetic improvement of legumes, like other crops, is mostly based on pedigree and performance-based selection over the last half century...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Muhammad Awais, Aftab Wajid, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Wajid Nasim, Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Muhammad Usman Bashir, Muhammad Mubeen, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Muhammad Habib Ur Rahman, Umer Saeed, Muhammad Naveed Arshad, Jamshad Hussain
Growth, development, and economic yield of agricultural crops rely on moisture, temperature, light, and carbon dioxide concentration. However, the amount of these parameters is varying with time due to climate change. Climate change is factual and ongoing so, first principle of agronomy should be to identify climate change potential impacts and adaptation measures to manage the susceptibilities of agricultural sector. Crop models have ability to predict the crop's yield under changing climatic conditions. We used OILCROP-SUN model to simulate the influence of elevated temperature and CO2 on crop growth duration, maximum leaf area index (LAI), total dry matter (TDM), and achene yield of sunflower under semi-arid conditions of Pakistan (Faisalabad, Punjab)...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zia Mehrabi, Daniel Jimenez, Andy Jarvis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Nature
Monika Garg, Natasha Sharma, Saloni Sharma, Payal Kapoor, Aman Kumar, Venkatesh Chunduri, Priya Arora
Biofortification is an upcoming, promising, cost-effective, and sustainable technique of delivering micronutrients to a population that has limited access to diverse diets and other micronutrient interventions. Unfortunately, major food crops are poor sources of micronutrients required for normal human growth. The manuscript deals in all aspects of crop biofortification which includes-breeding, agronomy, and genetic modification. It tries to summarize all the biofortification research that has been conducted on different crops...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Aingeru Calderón, Antonio Sánchez-Guerrero, Ana Ortiz-Espín, Isabel Martínez-Alcalá, Daymi Camejo, Ana Jiménez, Francisca Sevilla
In a changing environment, plants are able to acclimate to the new conditions by regulating their metabolism through the antioxidant and redox systems involved in the stress response. Here we studied a mitochondrial thioredoxin in wild type (WT) Arabidopis thaliana and two Attrxo1 mutant lines grown in the absence or presence of 100 mM NaCl. Compared to WT plants, no evident phenotype was observed in the mutant plants in control condition, although they had higher number of stomata, loss of water, nitric oxide and carbonyl protein contents as well as higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase enzymes than WT plants...
February 15, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
F Judée, S Simon, C Bailly, T Dufour
Cold atmospheric plasmas are weakly ionized gases that can be generated in ambient air. They produce energetic species (e.g. electrons, metastables) as well as reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, UV radiations and local electric field. Their interaction with a liquid such as tap water can hence change its chemical composition. The resulting "plasma-activated liquid" can meet many applications, including medicine and agriculture. Consequently, a complete experimental set of analytical techniques dedicated to the characterization of long lifetime chemical species has been implemented to characterize tap water treated using cold atmospheric plasma process and intended to agronomy applications...
December 20, 2017: Water Research
R Russell M Paterson, Nelson Lima
Palm oil is used in various valued commodities and is a large global industry worth over US$ 50 billion annually. Oil palms (OP) are grown commercially in Indonesia and Malaysia and other countries within Latin America and Africa. The large-scale land-use change has high ecological, economic, and social impacts. Tropical countries in particular are affected negatively by climate change (CC) which also has a detrimental impact on OP agronomy, whereas the cultivation of OP increases CC. Amelioration of both is required...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jose Antonio Garrido-Cardenas, Concepción Mesa-Valle, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro
A deep bibliometric analysis has been carried out, obtaining valuable parameters that facilitate the understanding around the research in plant using molecular markers. The evolution of the improvement in the field of agronomy is fundamental for its adaptation to the new exigencies that the current world context raises. In addition, within these improvements, this article focuses on those related to the biotechnology sector. More specifically, the use of DNA markers that allow the researcher to know the set of genes associated with a particular quantitative trait or QTL...
December 14, 2017: Planta
Joseph A Braimah, Kilian N Atuoye, Siera Vercillo, Carrie Warring, Isaac Luginaah
This paper examines the highly contested and ongoing biotechnology (Bt) policy-making process in Ghana. We analyse media content on how Bt is viewed in the context of Ghana's parliamentary debate on the Plant Breeders Bill and within the broader public policy-making literature. This paper does not seek to take a position on Bt or the Bill, but to understand how policy actors influence the debate with political and scientific rhetoric in Ghana. The study reveals that in the midst of scientific uncertainties of Bt's potential for sustainable agriculture production and food security, policy decisions that encourage its future adoption are heavily influenced by health, scientific, economic, environmental and political factors dictated by different ideologies, values and norms...
2017: Global Bioethics, Problemi di Bioetica
Emiliano D Primo, Lisandro H Otero, Francisco Ruiz, Sebastián Klinke, Walter Giordano
The bacterial cell wall, a structural unit of peptidoglycan polymer comprised of glycan strands consisting of a repeating disaccharide motif [N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramylpentapeptide (NAM pentapeptide)], encases bacteria and provides structural integrity and protection. Lysozymes are enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall and disrupt the bacterial life cycle by cleaving the linkage between the NAG and NAM carbohydrates. Lab exercises focused on the effects of lysozyme on the bacterial cell wall are frequently incorporated in biochemistry classes designed for undergraduate students in diverse fields as biology, microbiology, chemistry, agronomy, medicine, and veterinary medicine...
November 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Robert L Baker, Wen Fung Leong, Nan An, Marcus T Brock, Matthew J Rubin, Stephen Welch, Cynthia Weinig
We develop Bayesian function-valued trait models that mathematically isolate genetic mechanisms underlying leaf growth trajectories by factoring out genotype-specific differences in photosynthesis. Remote sensing data can be used instead of leaf-level physiological measurements. Characterizing the genetic basis of traits that vary during ontogeny and affect plant performance is a major goal in evolutionary biology and agronomy. Describing genetic programs that specifically regulate morphological traits can be complicated by genotypic differences in physiological traits...
October 20, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Ryan Scarrow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Plants
Bin Tean Teh, Kevin Lim, Chern Han Yong, Cedric Chuan Young Ng, Sushma Ramesh Rao, Vikneswari Rajasegaran, Weng Khong Lim, Choon Kiat Ong, Ki Chan, Vincent Kin Yuen Cheng, Poh Sheng Soh, Sanjay Swarup, Steven G Rozen, Niranjan Nagarajan, Patrick Tan
Durian (Durio zibethinus) is a Southeast Asian tropical plant known for its hefty, spine-covered fruit and sulfury and onion-like odor. Here we present a draft genome assembly of D. zibethinus, representing the third plant genus in the Malvales order and first in the Helicteroideae subfamily to be sequenced. Single-molecule sequencing and chromosome contact maps enabled assembly of the highly heterozygous durian genome at chromosome-scale resolution. Transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of sulfur-, ethylene-, and lipid-related pathways in durian fruits...
November 2017: Nature Genetics
Kathryn Dumschott, Andreas Richter, Wayne Loescher, Andrew Merchant
The occurrence of sugar alcohols is ubiquitous among plants. Physiochemical properties of sugar alcohols suggest numerous primary and secondary functions in plant tissues and are often well documented. In addition to functions arising from physiochemical properties, the synthesis of sugar alcohols may have significant influence over photosynthetic, respiratory, and developmental processes owing to their function as a large sink for photosynthates. Sink strength is demonstrated by the high concentrations of sugar alcohols found in plant tissues and their ability to be readily transported...
December 2017: Phytochemistry
Evelyne Kolb, Valérie Legue, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot
Plant root system development is highly modulated by the physical properties of the soil and especially by its mechanical resistance to penetration. The interplay between the mechanical stresses exerted by the soil and root growth is of particular interest for many communities, in agronomy and soil science as well as in biomechanics and plant morphogenesis. In contrast to shoots, roots apices must exert a growth pressure to penetrate strong soils and reorient their growth trajectory to cope with obstacles like stones or hardpans or to follow the tortuous paths of the soil porosity...
October 4, 2017: Physical Biology
Sangam L Dwivedi, Armin Scheben, David Edwards, Charles Spillane, Rodomiro Ortiz
There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Cristina Santín, Stefan H Doerr, Agustin Merino, Thomas D Bucheli, Rob Bryant, Philippa Ascough, Xiaodong Gao, Caroline A Masiello
Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), produced naturally (wildfire charcoal) and anthropogenically (biochar), is extensively studied due to its importance in several disciplines, including global climate dynamics, agronomy and paleosciences. Charcoal and biochar are commonly used as analogues for each other to infer respective carbon sequestration potentials, production conditions, and environmental roles and fates. The direct comparability of corresponding natural and anthropogenic PyC, however, has never been tested. Here we compared key physicochemical properties (elemental composition, δ(13)C and PAHs signatures, chemical recalcitrance, density and porosity) and carbon sequestration potentials of PyC materials formed from two identical feedstocks (pine forest floor and wood) under wildfire charring- and slow-pyrolysis conditions...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Changhua Fan, Bo Li, Zhengqin Xiong
Nitrification inhibitors, a promising tool for reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) losses and promoting nitrogen use efficiency by slowing nitrification, have gained extensive attention worldwide. However, there have been few attempts to explore the broad responses of multiple reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions of N2O, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) and vegetable yield to nitrification inhibitor applications across intensive vegetable soils in China. A greenhouse pot experiment with five consecutive vegetable crops was performed to assess the efficacies of two nitrification inhibitors, namely, nitrapyrin and dicyandiamide on reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions, vegetable yield and reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity in four typical vegetable soils representing the intensive vegetable cropping systems across mainland China: an Acrisol from Hunan Province, an Anthrosol from Shanxi Province, a Cambisol from Shandong Province and a Phaeozem from Heilongjiang Province...
January 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jameel R Al-Obaidi, Mohammed Farouq Halabi, Nasser S AlKhalifah, Shanavaskhan Asanar, Abdulrahman A Al-Soqeer, M F Attia
Jojoba is considered a promising oil crop and is cultivated for diverse purposes in many countries. The jojoba seed produces unique high-quality oil with a wide range of applications such as medical and industrial-related products. The plant also has potential value in combatting desertification and land degradation in dry and semi-dry areas. Although the plant is known for its high-temperature and high-salinity tolerance growth ability, issues such as its male-biased ratio, relatively late flowering and seed production time hamper the cultivation of this plant...
August 24, 2017: Biological Research
Minzhong Zou, Jun Niu, Shaozhong Kang, Xiaolin Li, Hongna Lu
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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