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Vladimir Totev Valkov, Maurizio Chiurazzi
The establishment of legumes crops with phenotypic traits that favour their persistence and competitiveness in mixed swards is a pressing task in sustainable agriculture. However, to fully exploit the potential benefits of introducing pasture-based grass-legume systems, an increased scientific knowledge of legume agronomy for screening of favourable traits is needed. We exploited a short-cut phenotypic screening as a preliminary step to characterize the growth capacity of three different Lotus corniculatus cvs cultivated in different nutritional conditions as well as the evaluation of their nodulation capacities...
October 13, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Dorcus C Gemenet, Willmar L Leiser, Francesca Beggi, Ludger H Herrmann, Vincent Vadez, Henry F W Rattunde, Eva Weltzien, Charles T Hash, Andreas Buerkert, Bettina I G Haussmann
West Africa (WA) is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P) is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, often unaffordable to resource-poor subsistence farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
C L Thomas, T D Alcock, N S Graham, R Hayden, S Matterson, L Wilson, S D Young, L X Dupuy, P J White, J P Hammond, J M C Danku, D E Salt, A Sweeney, I Bancroft, M R Broadley
BACKGROUND: Mineral nutrient uptake and utilisation by plants are controlled by many traits relating to root morphology, ion transport, sequestration and translocation. The aims of this study were to determine the phenotypic diversity in root morphology and leaf and seed mineral composition of a polyploid crop species, Brassica napus L., and how these traits relate to crop habit. Traits were quantified in a diversity panel of up to 387 genotypes: 163 winter, 127 spring, and seven semiwinter oilseed rape (OSR) habits, 35 swede, 15 winter fodder, and 40 exotic/unspecified habits...
October 4, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Amanullah, Asif Iqbal, Irfanullah, Zeeshan Hidayat
Potassium (K) fertilizer management is beneficial for improving growth, yield and yield components of field crops under moisture stress condition in semiarid climates. Field experiments were conducted to study the response of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam) to foliar and soil applied K during summer 2013 and 2014. The experiments were carried out at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Northwest Pakistan under limited irrigation (moisture stress) condition. It was concluded from the results that application of foliar K at the rate of 1-3% and foliar Zn at the rate of 0...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Evangelos Pafilis, Suzanna E Lewis, Mark P Schildhauer, Ramona L Walls, Christopher J Mungall
BACKGROUND: The Environment Ontology (ENVO; ), first described in 2013, is a resource and research target for the semantically controlled description of environmental entities. The ontology's initial aim was the representation of the biomes, environmental features, and environmental materials pertinent to genomic and microbiome-related investigations. However, the need for environmental semantics is common to a multitude of fields, and ENVO's use has steadily grown since its initial description...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
Zhonglai Luo, Jin Hu, Zhongtao Zhao, Dianxiang Zhang
Hermaphroditic flowers have evolved primarily under the selection on male function. Evolutionary modification often leads to stamen differentiation within flowers, or "heteranthery", a phenomenon intrigued scientists since the 18(th) century until recently. However, the genetic basis and molecular regulation mechanism has barely been touched. Here we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling in Cassia biscapsularis L., a heterantherous species with representative patterns of stamen differentiation. Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the staminodes (the degenerated stamens) and fertile stamens, while much fewer genes differentially expressed among the three sets of fertile stamens...
2016: Scientific Reports
Fabienne Trolard, Guilhem Bourrié, Antoine Baillieux, Samuel Buis, André Chanzy, Philippe Clastre, Jean-François Closet, Dominique Courault, Marie-Lorraine Dangeard, Nicola Di Virgilio, Philippe Dussouilliez, Jules Fleury, Jérémy Gasc, Ghislain Géniaux, Rachel Jouan, Catherine Keller, Patrice Lecharpentier, Jean Lecroart, Claude Napoleone, Gihan Mohammed, Albert Olioso, Suzanne Reynders, Federica Rossi, Mike Tennant, Javier de Vicente Lopez
In a context of increased land and natural resources scarcity, the possibilities for local authorities and stakeholders of anticipating evolutions or testing the impact of envisaged developments through scenario simulation are new challenges. PRECOS's approach integrates data pertaining to the fields of water and soil resources, agronomy, urbanization, land use and infrastructure etc. It is complemented by a socio-economic and regulatory analysis of the territory illustrating its constraints and stakes. A modular architecture articulates modeling software and spatial and temporal representations tools...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Xiang-cheng Zhu, Zhen-ping Zhang, Jun Zhang, Ai-xing Deng, Wei-jian Zhang
The traditional rice growing practice has to change to save resource and protect environment, and it' s necessary to develop new technology in rice cultivation. Therefore, a two-year field experiment of Japonica rice (Liaoxing 1) was conducted in Northeast China in 2012 and 2013 to investigate the integrated effects of dense planting with less basal nitrogen (N) and unchanged top-dressing N (IR) on rice yield, N use efficiency (NUE) and greenhouse gas emissions. Compared with traditional practice (CK), we increased the rice seedling density by 33...
February 2016: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Alain Pierret, Jean-Luc Maeght, Corentin Clément, Jean-Pierre Montoroi, Christian Hartmann, Santimaitree Gonkhamdee
BACKGROUND: Deep roots are a common trait among a wide range of plant species and biomes, and are pivotal to the very existence of ecosystem services such as pedogenesis, groundwater and streamflow regulation, soil carbon sequestration and moisture content in the lower troposphere. Notwithstanding the growing realization of the functional significance of deep roots across disciplines such as soil science, agronomy, hydrology, ecophysiology or climatology, research efforts allocated to the study of deep roots remain incommensurate with those devoted to shallow roots...
July 6, 2016: Annals of Botany
Yu Jiang, Xiaomin Huang, Xin Zhang, Xingyue Zhang, Yi Zhang, Chengyan Zheng, Aixing Deng, Jun Zhang, Lianhai Wu, Shuijin Hu, Weijian Zhang
Rice paddies are a major source of anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, especially under alternate wetting-drying irrigation and high N input. Increasing photosynthate allocation to the grain in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has been identified as an effective strategy of genetic and agronomic innovation for yield enhancement; however, its impacts on N2O emissions are still unknown. We conducted three independent but complementary experiments (variety, mutant study, and spikelet clipping) to examine the impacts of rice plant photosynthate allocation on paddy N2O emissions...
2016: Scientific Reports
S Guimaraes, M Pruvost, J Daligault, E Stoetzel, E A Bennett, N M-L Côté, V Nicolas, A Lalis, C Denys, E-M Geigl, T Grange
We present a cost-effective metabarcoding approach, aMPlex Torrent, which relies on an improved multiplex PCR adapted to highly degraded DNA, combining barcoding and next-generation sequencing to simultaneously analyze many heterogeneous samples. We demonstrate the strength of these improvements by generating a phylochronology through the genotyping of ancient rodent remains from a Moroccan cave whose stratigraphy covers the last 120,000 years. Rodents are important for epidemiology, agronomy and ecological investigations and can act as bioindicators for human- and/or climate-induced environmental changes...
July 4, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Séverine Thys, Kabemba E Mwape, Pierre Lefèvre, Pierre Dorny, Andrew M Phiri, Tanguy Marcotty, Isaac K Phiri, Sarah Gabriël
Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement...
July 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Laura E Christianson, Louis A Schipper
Denitrifying bioreactors are organic carbon-filled excavations designed to enhance the natural process of denitrification for the simple, passive treatment of nitrate-nitrogen. Research on and installation of these bioreactors has accelerated within the past 10 years, particularly in watersheds concerned about high nonpoint-source nitrate loads and also for tertiary wastewater treatment. This special section, inspired by the meeting of the Managing Denitrification in Agronomic Systems Community at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, aims to firmly establish that denitrifying bioreactors for treatment of nitrate in drainage waters, groundwater, and some wastewaters have moved beyond the proof of concept...
May 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Séverine Charrière, Claire Aumond
The quality of raw water is problematic in France, largely polluted by nitrates and pesticides (Mueller and Helsel, Nutrients in the nation's waters-too much of a good thing? Geological Survey (U.S.), 1996; European Environment Agency, European waters-assessment of status and pressures, 2012).This type of pollution, even though not always due to agriculture (example of the catchment of Ambleville, county 95, France where the nitrate pollution is mainly due to sewers (2012)), has been largely related to the agricultural practices (Sci Total Environ 407:6034-6043, 2009)...
June 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fiorela L Nievas, Pablo C Bogino, Walter Giordano
Biochemistry courses in the Department of Molecular Biology at the National University of Río Cuarto, Argentina, are designed for undergraduate students in biology, microbiology, chemistry, agronomy, and veterinary medicine. Microbiology students typically have previous coursework in general, analytical, and organic chemistry. Programmed sequences of lab experiments allow these students to investigate biochemical problems whose solution is feasible within the context of their knowledge and experience. We previously designed and reported a programmed lab experiment that familiarizes microbiology students with techniques for detection and characterization of quorum-sensing (QS) and quorum-quenching (QQ) signal molecules...
May 6, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Nadine Stebler, Gertraud Schuepbach-Regula, Peter Braam, Laura Cristina Falzon
Disease prioritization exercises have been used by several organizations to inform surveillance and control measures. Though most methodologies for disease prioritization are based on expert opinion, it is becoming more common to include different stakeholders in the prioritization exercise. This study was performed to compare the weighting of disease criteria, and the consequent prioritization of zoonoses, by both health professionals and students in Switzerland using a Conjoint Analysis questionnaire. The health professionals comprised public health and food safety experts, cantonal physicians and cantonal veterinarians, while the student group comprised first-year veterinary and agronomy students...
2016: PloS One
Andrei Santos Siqueira, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo Lima, Leonardo Teixeira Dall'Agnol, Juliana Simão Nina de Azevedo, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves Vianez, Evonnildo Costa Gonçalves
Rubisco catalyzes the first step reaction in the carbon fixation pathway, bonding atmospheric CO2/O2 to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate; it is therefore considered one of the most important enzymes in the biosphere. Genetic modifications to increase the carboxylase activity of rubisco are a subject of great interest to agronomy and biotechnology, since this could increase the productivity of biomass in plants, algae and cyanobacteria and give better yields in crops and biofuel production. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize in silico the catalytic domain of the rubisco large subunit (rbcL gene) of Cyanobium sp...
March 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Sachin Gathani, Maria Paula Gomez, Ricardo Sabates, Dimitri Stoelinga
BACKGROUND: The impact of surveying on individuals' behavior and decision making has been widely studied in academic literature on market research but not so much the impact of monitoring on economic development interventions. OBJECTIVES: To estimate whether different monitoring strategies lead to improvement in participation levels and adoption of best practices for coffee production for farmer who participated in TechnoServe Agronomy Training Program in Rwanda...
December 2015: Evaluation Review
Eduardo B Rodrigues, Rosane G Collevatti, Lázaro J Chaves, Lucas R Moreira, Mariana P C Telles
Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian "Cerrados" (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees...
April 2016: Genetica
Zhenling Cui, Peter M Vitousek, Fusuo Zhang, Xinping Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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