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L I Fedoreyeva, T A Dilovarova, V V Ashapkin, Yu Ts Martirosyan, V Kh Khavinson, P N Kharchenko, B F Vanyushin
Exogenous short biologically active peptides epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly), bronchogen (Ala-Glu-Asp-Leu), and vilon (Lys-Glu) at concentrations 10(-7)-10(-9) M significantly influence growth, development, and differentiation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) callus cultures. Epitalon and bronchogen, in particular, both increase growth of calluses and stimulate formation and growth of leaves in plant regenerants. Because the regulatory activity of the short peptides appears at low peptide concentrations, their action to some extent is like that of the activity of phytohormones, and it seems to have signaling character and epigenetic nature...
April 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
E B McAleer, C E Coxon, K G Richards, M M R Jahangir, J Grant, Per E Mellander
At the catchment scale, a complex mosaic of environmental, hydrogeological and physicochemical characteristics combine to regulate the distribution of groundwater and stream nitrate (NO3(-)). The efficiency of NO3(-) removal (via denitrification) versus the ratio of accumulated reaction products, dinitrogen (excess N2) & nitrous oxide (N2O), remains poorly understood. Groundwater was investigated in two well drained agricultural catchments (10km(2)) in Ireland with contrasting subsurface lithologies (sandstone vs...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Henning Kirst, Stéphane T Gabilly, Krishna K Niyogi, Peggy G Lemaux, Anastasios Melis
Evidence shows that decreasing the light-harvesting antenna size of the photosystems in tobacco helps to increase the photosynthetic productivity and plant canopy biomass accumulation under high-density cultivation conditions. Decreasing, or truncating, the chlorophyll antenna size of the photosystems can theoretically improve photosynthetic solar energy conversion efficiency and productivity in mass cultures of algae or plants by up to threefold. A Truncated Light-harvesting chlorophyll Antenna size (TLA), in all classes of photosynthetic organisms, would help to alleviate excess absorption of sunlight and the ensuing wasteful non-photochemical dissipation of excitation energy...
February 10, 2017: Planta
Lisa Vanderstraeten, Dominique Van Der Straeten
1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a non-protein amino acid acting as the direct precursor of ethylene, a plant hormone regulating a wide variety of vegetative and developmental processes. ACC is the central molecule of ethylene biosynthesis. The rate of ACC formation differs in response to developmental, hormonal and environmental cues. ACC can be conjugated to three derivatives, metabolized in planta or by rhizobacteria using ACC deaminase, and is transported throughout the plant over short and long distances, remotely leading to ethylene responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Paolo Savoia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Gesine Schütte, Michael Eckerstorfer, Valentina Rastelli, Wolfram Reichenbecher, Sara Restrepo-Vassalli, Marja Ruohonen-Lehto, Anne-Gabrielle Wuest Saucy, Martha Mertens
Farmland biodiversity is an important characteristic when assessing sustainability of agricultural practices and is of major international concern. Scientific data indicate that agricultural intensification and pesticide use are among the main drivers of biodiversity loss. The analysed data and experiences do not support statements that herbicide-resistant crops provide consistently better yields than conventional crops or reduce herbicide amounts. They rather show that the adoption of herbicide-resistant crops impacts agronomy, agricultural practice, and weed management and contributes to biodiversity loss in several ways: (i) many studies show that glyphosate-based herbicides, which were commonly regarded as less harmful, are toxic to a range of aquatic organisms and adversely affect the soil and intestinal microflora and plant disease resistance; the increased use of 2,4-D or dicamba, linked to new herbicide-resistant crops, causes special concerns...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
Amanullah, Asif Iqbal, Ashraf Ali, Shah Fahad, Brajendra Parmar
Nitrogen is one of the most important factor affecting maize (Zea mays L.) yield and income of smallholders under semiarid climates. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of different N-fertilizer sources [urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), and ammonium sulfate (AS)] and rates (50, 100, 150, and 200 kg ha(-1)) on umber of rows ear(-1) (NOR ear(-1)), number of seeds row(-1) (NOS row(-1)), number of seeds ear(-1) (NOS ear(-1)), number of ears per 100 plants (NOEP 100 plants(-1)), grain yield plant(-1), stover yield (kg ha(-1)), and shelling percentage (%) of maize genotypes "Local cultivars (Azam and Jalal) vs...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Leah M Mungai, Sieglinde Snapp, Joseph P Messina, Regis Chikowo, Alex Smith, Erin Anders, Robert B Richardson, Guiying Li
The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vladimir Totev Valkov, Maurizio Chiurazzi
The establishment of legumes crops with phenotypic traits that favour their persistence and competitiveness in mixed swards is a pressing task in sustainable agriculture. However, to fully exploit the potential benefits of introducing pasture-based grass-legume systems, an increased scientific knowledge of legume agronomy for screening of favourable traits is needed. We exploited a short-cut phenotypic screening as a preliminary step to characterize the growth capacity of three different Lotus corniculatus cvs cultivated in different nutritional conditions as well as the evaluation of their nodulation capacities...
October 13, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Dorcus C Gemenet, Willmar L Leiser, Francesca Beggi, Ludger H Herrmann, Vincent Vadez, Henry F W Rattunde, Eva Weltzien, Charles T Hash, Andreas Buerkert, Bettina I G Haussmann
West Africa (WA) is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P) is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, often unaffordable to resource-poor subsistence farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
C L Thomas, T D Alcock, N S Graham, R Hayden, S Matterson, L Wilson, S D Young, L X Dupuy, P J White, J P Hammond, J M C Danku, D E Salt, A Sweeney, I Bancroft, M R Broadley
BACKGROUND: Mineral nutrient uptake and utilisation by plants are controlled by many traits relating to root morphology, ion transport, sequestration and translocation. The aims of this study were to determine the phenotypic diversity in root morphology and leaf and seed mineral composition of a polyploid crop species, Brassica napus L., and how these traits relate to crop habit. Traits were quantified in a diversity panel of up to 387 genotypes: 163 winter, 127 spring, and seven semiwinter oilseed rape (OSR) habits, 35 swede, 15 winter fodder, and 40 exotic/unspecified habits...
October 4, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Amanullah, Asif Iqbal, Irfanullah, Zeeshan Hidayat
Potassium (K) fertilizer management is beneficial for improving growth, yield and yield components of field crops under moisture stress condition in semiarid climates. Field experiments were conducted to study the response of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam) to foliar and soil applied K during summer 2013 and 2014. The experiments were carried out at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Northwest Pakistan under limited irrigation (moisture stress) condition. It was concluded from the results that application of foliar K at the rate of 1-3% and foliar Zn at the rate of 0...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Evangelos Pafilis, Suzanna E Lewis, Mark P Schildhauer, Ramona L Walls, Christopher J Mungall
BACKGROUND: The Environment Ontology (ENVO; ), first described in 2013, is a resource and research target for the semantically controlled description of environmental entities. The ontology's initial aim was the representation of the biomes, environmental features, and environmental materials pertinent to genomic and microbiome-related investigations. However, the need for environmental semantics is common to a multitude of fields, and ENVO's use has steadily grown since its initial description...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
Zhonglai Luo, Jin Hu, Zhongtao Zhao, Dianxiang Zhang
Hermaphroditic flowers have evolved primarily under the selection on male function. Evolutionary modification often leads to stamen differentiation within flowers, or "heteranthery", a phenomenon intrigued scientists since the 18(th) century until recently. However, the genetic basis and molecular regulation mechanism has barely been touched. Here we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling in Cassia biscapsularis L., a heterantherous species with representative patterns of stamen differentiation. Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the staminodes (the degenerated stamens) and fertile stamens, while much fewer genes differentially expressed among the three sets of fertile stamens...
2016: Scientific Reports
Fabienne Trolard, Guilhem Bourrié, Antoine Baillieux, Samuel Buis, André Chanzy, Philippe Clastre, Jean-François Closet, Dominique Courault, Marie-Lorraine Dangeard, Nicola Di Virgilio, Philippe Dussouilliez, Jules Fleury, Jérémy Gasc, Ghislain Géniaux, Rachel Jouan, Catherine Keller, Patrice Lecharpentier, Jean Lecroart, Claude Napoleone, Gihan Mohammed, Albert Olioso, Suzanne Reynders, Federica Rossi, Mike Tennant, Javier de Vicente Lopez
In a context of increased land and natural resources scarcity, the possibilities for local authorities and stakeholders of anticipating evolutions or testing the impact of envisaged developments through scenario simulation are new challenges. PRECOS's approach integrates data pertaining to the fields of water and soil resources, agronomy, urbanization, land use and infrastructure etc. It is complemented by a socio-economic and regulatory analysis of the territory illustrating its constraints and stakes. A modular architecture articulates modeling software and spatial and temporal representations tools...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Xiang-cheng Zhu, Zhen-ping Zhang, Jun Zhang, Ai-xing Deng, Wei-jian Zhang
The traditional rice growing practice has to change to save resource and protect environment, and it' s necessary to develop new technology in rice cultivation. Therefore, a two-year field experiment of Japonica rice (Liaoxing 1) was conducted in Northeast China in 2012 and 2013 to investigate the integrated effects of dense planting with less basal nitrogen (N) and unchanged top-dressing N (IR) on rice yield, N use efficiency (NUE) and greenhouse gas emissions. Compared with traditional practice (CK), we increased the rice seedling density by 33...
February 2016: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Alain Pierret, Jean-Luc Maeght, Corentin Clément, Jean-Pierre Montoroi, Christian Hartmann, Santimaitree Gonkhamdee
BACKGROUND: Deep roots are a common trait among a wide range of plant species and biomes, and are pivotal to the very existence of ecosystem services such as pedogenesis, groundwater and streamflow regulation, soil carbon sequestration and moisture content in the lower troposphere. Notwithstanding the growing realization of the functional significance of deep roots across disciplines such as soil science, agronomy, hydrology, ecophysiology or climatology, research efforts allocated to the study of deep roots remain incommensurate with those devoted to shallow roots...
July 6, 2016: Annals of Botany
Yu Jiang, Xiaomin Huang, Xin Zhang, Xingyue Zhang, Yi Zhang, Chengyan Zheng, Aixing Deng, Jun Zhang, Lianhai Wu, Shuijin Hu, Weijian Zhang
Rice paddies are a major source of anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, especially under alternate wetting-drying irrigation and high N input. Increasing photosynthate allocation to the grain in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has been identified as an effective strategy of genetic and agronomic innovation for yield enhancement; however, its impacts on N2O emissions are still unknown. We conducted three independent but complementary experiments (variety, mutant study, and spikelet clipping) to examine the impacts of rice plant photosynthate allocation on paddy N2O emissions...
2016: Scientific Reports
S Guimaraes, M Pruvost, J Daligault, E Stoetzel, E A Bennett, N M-L Côté, V Nicolas, A Lalis, C Denys, E-M Geigl, T Grange
We present a cost-effective metabarcoding approach, aMPlex Torrent, which relies on an improved multiplex PCR adapted to highly degraded DNA, combining barcoding and next-generation sequencing to simultaneously analyze many heterogeneous samples. We demonstrate the strength of these improvements by generating a phylochronology through the genotyping of ancient rodent remains from a Moroccan cave whose stratigraphy covers the last 120,000 years. Rodents are important for epidemiology, agronomy and ecological investigations and can act as bioindicators for human- and/or climate-induced environmental changes...
July 4, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Séverine Thys, Kabemba E Mwape, Pierre Lefèvre, Pierre Dorny, Andrew M Phiri, Tanguy Marcotty, Isaac K Phiri, Sarah Gabriël
Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement...
July 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
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