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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658701/functional-annotation-of-ligu-as-a-1-3-allylic-isomerase-during-the-degradation-of-lignin-in-the-protocatechuate-4-5-cleavage-pathway-from-the-soil-bacterium-sphingobium-sp-syk-6
#1
Tessily N Hogancamp, Frank M Raushel
Sphingobium sp. SYK-6 is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that contributes to the degradation of lignin. Lignin provides structural support and protection to plants as a complex aromatic heteropolymer. The lignin degradation pathway of guaiacyl moieties leads to the intermediate, protocatechuate (PCA), which is further degraded via the 4,5-cleavage pathway where PCA is ultimately metabolized to pyruvate and oxaloacetate. In this pathway, LigI has been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate (PDC) to (4E)-oxalomesaconate (OMA)...
April 16, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600656/-characterization-and-pathophysiological-changes-of-cerebral-infarction-rat-model-with-qi-deficiency-and-blood-stasis-syndrome
#2
Ying Li, Lei-Sha Wang, Jian-Xun Liu, Wen-Ting Song, Li Xu, Hong-Hai Li, Jun-Mei Li, Bin Yang, Xiao-Xia Dong, Guang-Rui Wang, Ming-Jiang Yao, Cheng-Ren Lin
This study aimed to observe the general state and changes in pathophysiological indexes of multiple cerebral infarction rat model with Qi-deficienty and Blood-stasis syndrome. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups(with 30 in each group): the normal group, the sham group, the model group and the Yiqi Huoxue recipe group. Rats in the model group and Yiqi Huoxue group were provided with interruptable sleep deprivation for 7 days before the multiple cerebral infarction operation, and followed by another 4 weeks of sleep deprivation; rats in the Yiqi Huoxue group were intragastrically administrated with drug at a dose of 26 g·kg⁻¹, once a day for 4 weeks...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563012/diabetes-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#3
Ralph Ziegler, Andreas Neu
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in childhood and adolescence is steadily rising and now stands at 22.9 new cases per year per 100 000 persons up to age 15. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective literature search, with special attention to the current German S3 guideline on diabetes in childhood and adolescence. RESULTS: Polydipsia, polyuria, and weight loss are the characteristic presenting symptoms of diabetes mellitus...
March 2, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560727/mimicking-a-new-2-phenylethanol-production-pathway-from-proteus-mirabilis-jn458-in-escherichia-coli
#4
Jinbin Liu, Jing Jiang, Yajun Bai, Tai-Ping Fan, Ye Zhao, Xiaohui Zheng, Yujie Cai
Bacteria rarely produce natural 2-phenylethanol. We verified a new pathway from Proteus mirabilis JN458 to produce 2-phenylethanol using Escherichia coli to co-express L-amino acid deaminase, α-keto acid decarboxylase, and alcohol dehydrogenase from P. mirabilis. Based on this pathway, a glucose dehydrogenase coenzyme regeneration system was constructed. The optimal conditions of biotransformation by the recombinant strain E-pAEAKaG were at 40°C and pH 7.0. Finally, the recombinant strain E-pAEAKaG produced 3...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516888/identification-of-potential-inhibitors-for-mycobacterial-uridine-diphosphogalactofuranose-galactopyranose-mutase-enzyme-a-novel-drug-target-through-in-silico-approach
#5
Tapaswini Nayak, Lingaraja Jena, Pranita Waghmare, Bhaskar C Harinath
Background: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) uridine diphosphogalactofuranose (UDP)-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) is an essential flavoenzyme for mycobacterial viability and an important component of cell wall. It catalyzes the interconversion of UDP-galactopyranose into UDP-galactofuranose, a key building block for cell wall construction, essential for linking the peptidoglycan and mycolic acid cell wall layers in MTB through a 2-keto intermediate. Further, as this enzyme is not present in humans, it is an excellent therapeutic target for MTB...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494888/in-vitro-phase-i-and-phase-ii-metabolism-of-the-new-designer-benzodiazepine-cloniprazepam-using-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#6
Olivier Mortelé, Philippe Vervliet, Celine Gys, Maarten Degreef, Matthias Cuykx, Kristof Maudens, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Foon Yin Lai
Designer benzodiazepines have recently emerged as a class of new psychoactive substances. These substances are used in recreational settings and as alternatives to prescription benzodiazepines as self-medication for patients suffering from anxiety or other mental disorders. Due to the limited information available on the metabolic fate of these new substances, it is challenging to reliably detect their usage in bioanalytical (e.g. clinical and forensic) settings. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro Phase I and Phase II metabolism of the new designer benzodiazepine cloniprazepam and identify potential biomarkers for its detection in human biological fluids...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485881/a-computational-study-of-the-reactivity-of-3-5-oxo-thioxo-derivatives-of-2-7-dimethyl-1-2-4-triazepines-keto-enol-tautomerization-and-potential-for-hydrogen-storage
#7
M'hamed Esseffar, Carol A Parish, Rachid Jalal, Al Mokhtar Lamsabhi
The G4-level of theory has been used to evaluate the acidity of a series of triazepines, i.e. 3-thioxo-5-oxo-, 5-thioxo-3-oxo-, 3,5-dioxo-, and 3,5-dithioxo- derivatives of 2,7-dimethyl-[1,2,4]-triazepine. The ability of their available nitrogen lone pair to form a dative bond with BH3 has also been studied to highlight the resulting changes in acidity and to understand the behavior of the complexes formed. The effect of the substitution of sulfur by oxygen on the stability of the complex and the activation barrier of dehydrogenation has also been evaluated...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460974/significant-alterations-of-6-keto-prostaglandin-f-1a-and-no-levels-in-spermatic-vein-plexus-patients-with-varicocele
#8
L Tian, H Han, H-E Lei, X-S Qian, S-J Feng, X-D Zhang
To investigate the level variation of correlative factors between the spermatic vein plexus and peripheral blood in patients with varicocele, a total of 22 patients diagnosed with varicocele were enrolled in the study. All patients were performed a testicular artery-sparing microsurgical varicocelectomy. During the operation, a blood sample from the left spermatic vein plexus and a peripheral blood sample were collected. A radioimmunoassay was used to determine the 6-keto prostaglandin F1a (6-keto-PGF1a ). A colorimetric method was performed to determine the NO...
February 20, 2018: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438900/sperm-quality-biomarkers-complement-reproductive-and-endocrine-parameters-in-investigating-environmental-contaminants-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-from-the-lake-mead-national-recreation-area
#9
Jill A Jenkins, Michael R Rosen, Rassa O Draugelis-Dale, Kathy R Echols, Leticia Torres, Carla M Wieser, Constance A Kersten, Steven L Goodbred
Lake Mead National Recreational Area (LMNRA) serves as critical habitat for several federally listed species and supplies water for municipal, domestic, and agricultural use in the Southwestern U.S. Contaminant sources and concentrations vary among the sub-basins within LMNRA. To investigate whether exposure to environmental contaminants is associated with alterations in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) gamete quality and endocrine- and reproductive parameters, data were collected among sub-basins over 7 years (1999-2006)...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435719/adaptation-of-the-secretome-of-echinostoma-caproni-may-contribute-to-parasite-survival-in-a-th1-milieu
#10
Alba Cortés, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, María Álvarez-Izquierdo, Javier Sotillo, J Guillermo Esteban, Rafael Toledo
Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) is an intestinal trematode, broadly employed to study the host-dependent mechanisms that govern the evolution of intestinal helminth infections. Resistance against E. caproni homologous secondary infections has been reported in mice and appears to be related to the generation of a local Th2 response, whereas Th1 responses promote the development of chronic primary infections. Herein, the ability of E. caproni to modulate its secretome according to the host environment is investigated...
February 12, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435611/electrophilic-derivatives-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-counteract-lung-cancer-cell-growth
#11
Liboria Siena, Chiara Cipollina, Serena Di Vincenzo, Maria Ferraro, Andreina Bruno, Mark Gjomarkaj, Elisabetta Pace
PURPOSE: 17-oxo-DHA is an electrophilic keto-derivative of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) endogenously generated by cyclooxygenase-2 and a cellular dehydrogenase. 17-oxo-DHA displays anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions. DHA, alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy, displays antitumor activity. However, the effects of electrophilic keto-derivatives of DHA on cancer growth have never been evaluated. We investigated whether 17-oxo-DHA, alone or in combination with gemcitabine, displayed antitumor effects...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378089/impaired-sperm-function-in-infertile-men-relies-on-the-membrane-sterol-pattern
#12
A Garolla, I Šabović, S Tescari, L De Toni, M Menegazzo, I Cosci, V De Filippis, M Giarola, C Foresta
Membrane cholesterol removal appears a key step for the gain of fertility potential during sperm maturation. However, the membrane sterol pattern in sperm cells from infertile patients, with impaired sperm parameters, has been poorly investigated. To elucidate a causative link between sperm membrane composition in male fertility, here we have investigated the levels of cholesterol and its oxidized derivatives 7β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-keto-cholesterol in sixteen infertile patients with oligo-asthenozoospermia and 16 normozoospermic (N) fertile subjects...
January 29, 2018: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361712/protective-mechanism-of-the-antioxidant-baicalein-toward-hydroxyl-radical-treated-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Yage Tian, Xican Li, Hong Xie, Xiaozhen Wang, Yulu Xie, Chuanbing Chen, Dongfeng Chen
Our study explores the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of baicalein and further discusses the possible mechanisms. A methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay revealed that baicalein could considerably enhance the viability of hydroxyl radical-treated bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) at 37-370 µM. The highest viability rate was 120.4%. In subsequent studies, baicalein was observed to effectively scavenge hydroxyl radical and PTIO• radicals, reducing Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions. In the Fe2+ -chelating UV-vis spectra, mixing of baicalein with Fe2+ yielded two evident redshifts (275 → 279 nm and 324 → 352 nm) and a broad absorption peak (λmax ≈ 650 nm, ε = 1...
January 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297772/assessment-of-drug-drug-interaction-potential-and-pbpk-modeling-of-cc-223-a-potent-inhibitor-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-kinase
#14
Zeen Tong, Rangaraj Narayanan, Christian Atsriku, Jim Nissel, Yan Li, Hong Liu, Xiaomin Wang, Sekhar Surapaneni
1. CC-223 was studied in vitro for metabolism and drug-drug interactions (DDI), and in clinic for interaction with ketoconazole. 2. In vitro, human metabolites of CC-223 included O-desmethyl CC-223 (M1), keto (M2), N-oxide (M3) and imine (M13), with M1 being the most prominent metabolite. 3. CC-223 was metabolized by CYP2C9 and CYP3A, while metabolism of M1 was mediated by CYP2C8 and CYP3A. Ketoconazole increased CC-223 and M1 exposure by 60-70% in healthy volunteers. 4. CC-223 (IC50  ≥ 27 µM) and M1 (IC50  ≥ 46 µM) were inhibitors of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in human liver microsomes...
January 17, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283703/growth-of-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-strains-at-different-temperatures-ph-values-and-nacl-and-ethanol-concentrations
#15
Riikka Keto-Timonen, Anna Pöntinen, Mariella Aalto-Araneda, Hannu Korkeala
Maximum growth temperature and growth limits in Luria-Bertani broth at different pH values and NaCl and ethanol concentrations were determined for 49 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains representing serotypes O:1, O:2, O:3, O:4, and O:5. In addition, the ability of the strains to grow at 0°C and the growth parameters at 1°C were determined. The maximum growth temperatures measured by Gradiplate temperature incubator varied between 42.2 and 43.7°C. All strains were able to grow at 0°C in Luria-Bertani broth within 17 days of incubation...
January 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282829/electrochemical-oxidation-of-phosphatidylethanolamines-studied-by-mass-spectrometry
#16
Simone Colombo, Giulia Coliva, Agnieszka Kraj, Jean-Pierre Chervet, Maria Fedorova, Pedro Domingues, M Rosário Domingues
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277660/properties-and-mechanism-of-d-glucosaminate-6-phosphate-ammonia-lyase-an-aminotransferase-family-enzyme-with-d-amino-acid-specificity
#17
Robert S Phillips, Samuel C Ting, Ange G Tetsadjio, Kaitlin L Anderson, Kyle M Friez, Katherine A Miller, Timothy R Hoover
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium utilizes a wide range of growth substrates, some of which are relatively novel. One of these unusual substrates is d-glucosaminate, which is metabolized by the enzymes encoded in the dga operon. d-Glucosaminate is transported and converted to d-glucosaminate-6-phosphate (G6P) by a phosphotransferase system, composed of DgaABCD. The protein product of dgaE, d-glucosaminate-6-phosphate ammonia lyase (DGL), converts G6P to 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate-6-phosphate, which undergoes a retroaldol reaction catalyzed by the DgaF protein to give d-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and pyruvate...
December 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248502/a-continuous-assay-for-l-talarate-galactarate-dehydratase-using-circular-dichroism
#18
Nicole M Easton, Sarah A E Aboushawareb, Stephen L Bearne
l-Talarate/galactarate dehydratase (TGD) is a member of the enolase superfamily of enzymes and catalyzes the dehydration of either meso-galactarate or l-talarate to form 5-keto-4-deoxy-d-glucarate (5-KDG). To facilitate study of this enzyme and other galactarate dehydratases, a continuous circular dichroism-based assay has been developed. Using recombinant enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium (StTGD), the rates of StTGD-catalyzed conversion of m-galactarate to 5-KDG were determined by following the change in ellipticity at 323 nm...
March 1, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191105/curcumin-and-its-derivatives-inhibit-2-3-7-8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin-induced-expression-of-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-through-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-mediated-pathway
#19
Rika Nakai, Shun Fukuda, Masaya Kawase, Yoko Yamashita, Hitoshi Ashida
Certain dioxins, including 2,3,7,8,-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), are exogenous ligands for an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induces various drug-metabolizing enzymes. In this study, we examined the effect of curcumin on expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes through the AhR and NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathways. Curcumin dose-dependently inhibited TCDD-induced expression of phase I enzyme cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and phase II enzymes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) but not tert-butyl hydroquinone-induced NQO1 and HO-1, suggesting that curcumin inhibited only AhR pathway, but not Nrf2 one directly...
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183124/new-triterpenoid-saponins-from-green-vegetable-soya-beans-and-their-anti-inflammatory-activities
#20
Xiuhua Lan, Kejun Deng, Jianping Zhao, Yiyi Chen, Xuhui Xin, Yanli Liu, Ikhlas A Khan, Shilin Yang, Taoyun Wang, Qiongming Xu
Ten compounds were isolated and identified from green vegetable soya beans, of which five are new triterpenoid saponins (1-5) and five are known compounds (6-10). The chemical structures of the five triterpenoid saponins (1-5) were elucidated to be 3β,24-dihydroxy-22β,30-epoxy-30-oxoolean-12-en 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 1; 3β,24-dihydroxy-22β,30-epoxy-30-oxoolean-12-en 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-(3″-O-formyl)-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 2; 22-keto-3β,24-dihydroxy oleanane-12-ene 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-(3″-O-formyl)-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 3; 3β,22β,24-trihydroxy oxyolean-18(19)-ene-29-acid 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 4; and punicanolic acid 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, 5 from the spectroscopic data (IR, GTC/FID, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR)...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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