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Meng Xin, Yang Sun, Haijiao Chen, Quancai Li, Yunlou Dun, Huashi Guan, Jiejie Hao, Chunxia Li
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the No. 1 cause of death worldwide. Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors for CVD. Maintaining lipid homeostasis is an effective way to prevent CVD. We prepared propylene glycol guluronate sulfate (PGGS), a sulfated polysaccharide, and investigated its effect on lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. We found that total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were significantly decreased in the cells after PGGS treatment. We have also shown that the AMPK signaling is activated after PGGS treatment as evidenced by changes in the expression of many AMPK downstream targets including SREBP-1c, SIRT-1, CPT1, PPARα, and FAS...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Hayley E Billingsley, Salvatore Carbone
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading global cause of death. Diet is known to be important in the prevention of CVD. The PREDIMED trial tested a relatively low-fat diet versus a high-fat Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) for the primary prevention of CVD. The resulting reduction of the CV composite outcome resulted in a paradigm shift in CV nutrition. Though many dietary factors likely contributed to this effect, this review focuses on the influence of the MedDiet on endogenous antioxidant systems and the effect of dietary polyphenols...
March 9, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Matthew J Gurka, Stephanie L Filipp, Mark D DeBoer
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes remain significant public health concerns. Targeting of prevention efforts by geographical location has been suggested by the Institute of Medicine to coincide with the presence of area-based risk. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a stronger risk factor than is obesity for the prediction of future CVD and diabetes, yet its prevalence has not previously been described geographically. Our objective is to determine geographical variation in the prevalence of obesity, MetS, and diabetes among US adults...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Ayesha Fawad, Andreas Bergmann, Joachim Struck, Peter M Nilsson, Marju Orho-Melander, Olle Melander
Context: The gut hormone neurotensin promotes fat absorption, diet-induced weight gain and liver steatosis. Its stable precursor-hormone fragment "proneurotensin" predicts cardiometabolic disease in middle-aged populations, especially in women. Objective: To test if proneurotensin predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes development in an elderly population and whether there are gender differences in this respect. Design, Setting and Participants: Fasting proneurotensin was measured in plasma from 4804 participants (mean age 69±6 years) of the Malmö Preventive Project (MPP) and subjects were followed up for development of CVD and diabetes during 5...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Catriona Crossan, Hakim-Moulay Dehbi, Hilarie Williams, Neil Poulter, Anthony Rodgers, Stephen Jan, Simon Thom, Joanne Lord
INTRODUCTION: The 'Use of a Multi-drug Pill in Reducing cardiovascular Events' (UMPIRE) trial was a randomised controlled clinical trial evaluating the impact of a polypill strategy on adherence to indicated medication in a population with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) of or at high risk thereof. The aim of Researching the UMPIRE Processes for Economic Evaluation in the National Health Service (RUPEE NHS) is to estimate the potential health economic impact of a polypill strategy for CVD prevention within the NHS using UMPIRE trial and other relevant data...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Anum Saeed, Vijay Nambi, Wensheng Sun, Salim S Virani, George Taffet, Anita Deswal, Elizabeth Selvin, Kunihiro Matsushita, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Ron Hoogeveen, Josef Coresh, James A de Lemos, Christie M Ballantyne
BACKGROUND: Current prevention guidelines recommend using the Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE) for 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment. However, the PCE has serious limitations in older adults: it excludes heart failure (HF) hospitalization, estimates 10-year risk which may not be the most relevant time frame, and is not indicated for individuals aged >79 years. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether adding biomarkers to PCE variables improves global CVD (coronary heart disease [CHD], stroke, and HF) risk prediction in older adults over a shorter time period...
March 3, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Chaitanya Gopalrao Chinawale, Dipak V Parmar, Parth Kavathia, Twinkle Rangnani, Jainy Thakkar, Girija Kartha
Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder and a major health concern in developing countries. Data on MetS in Indian population show multiplicity. There are no published reports about the prevalence of MetS in population of Saurashtra region, Gujarat. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in adult population of this region. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was carried out among 473 participants who attended free health checkup camps...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Samantha Sabo, Catalina Denman Champion, Melanie L Bell, Elsa Cornejo Vucovich, Maia Ingram, Celina Valenica, Maria Del Carmen Castro Vasquez, Eduardo Gonzalez-Fagoaga, Jill Geurnsey de Zapien, Cecilia B Rosales
INTRODUCTION: Northern Mexico has among the highest rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes in the world. This research addresses core gaps in implementation science to develop, test and scale-up CVD risk-reduction interventions in diabetics through a national primary care health system. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Meta Salud Diabetes (MSD) research project is a parallel two-arm cluster-randomised clinical behavioural trial based in 22 (n=22) health centres in Sonora, Mexico...
March 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Sedigheh Asgary, Ali Rastqar, Mahtab Keshvari
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology and treatment of CVD. Functional foods based on their basic nutritional functions can decrease the risk of many chronic diseases and have some physiological benefits. They contain physiologically active components either from plant or animal sources, marketed with the claim of their ability to reduce heart disease risk, focusing primarily on established risk factors, which are hyperlipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity/overweight, elevated lipoprotein A level, small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and elevated inflammatory marker levels...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Lutz E Kraushaar, Alexander Dressel, Alexander Maßmann
Undetected high risk for premature death of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with low-to-moderate risk factor scores is an acknowledged obstacle to CVD prevention. The vasculature's functional robustness against risk factor derailment may serve as a novel discriminator of mortality risk under similar risk factor loads. To test this assumption, we hypothesized that the expected inverse robustness-mortality association is verifiable as a significant trend along the age spectrum of risk factor-challenged cohorts...
March 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Xiaolei Xie, Tianhua He, Jian Kang, David S Siscovick, Yan Li, José A Pagán
China has the largest population of adults with hypertension in the world. Recent clinical trials have shown that intensive hypertension control can help patients achieve lower blood pressure and reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but this level of hypertension control also incurs additional costs to patients and society and may result in a substantial increase in adverse events. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of intensive hypertension control to inform health policymakers and health care delivery systems in China in their decision-making regarding hypertension treatment strategies...
March 8, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Robert A Phillips, Jiaqiong Xu, Leif E Peterson, Ryan M Arnold, Joseph A Diamond, Adam E Schussheim
BACKGROUND: The lower rate of primary outcome events in the intensive treatment group in SPRINT (Systolic Pressure Intervention Trial) was associated with increased clinically significant serious adverse events (SAEs). In 2017, the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association issued risk-based blood pressure treatment guidelines. The authors hypothesized that stratification of the SPRINT population by degree of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk might identify a group which could benefit the most from intensive treatment...
March 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Tamer M Abdelghany, Raed S Ismail, Fatma A Mansoor, Joseph R Zweier, Frazer Lowe, Jay L Zweier
Cigarette smoking (CS) is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Endothelial dysfunction (ED) with loss of nitric oxide (NO) production is a central mechanism leading to the advent of CVD. Despite many prior studies of this major health problem, the exact mechanism by which CS induces ED is not well understood. This study examines the mechanism by which CS induces ED with altered endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) function in aortic endothelial cells (AECs). Exposure of AECs to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) resulted in a marked decrease in NO production with concomitant increase in superoxide (O2 ...
March 7, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Tatiana Vagašová, Beáta Gavurová
AIM: The purpose of this paper is to determine how many years a person could be expected to live if a specific cause of death was eliminated, and to compare potential gains in life expectancy (PGLEs) between Slovakia (SVK) and the Czech Republic (CZE). METHODS: PGLEs were computed from mortality reports (1996-2013) for deaths from the main groups of chronic diseases, namely ischaemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), cancer (CA), diabetes mellitus (DM), and chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) for the Slovak and Czech populations in five-year age groups...
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Verônica Colpani, Cristina P Baena, Loes Jaspers, Gabriella M van Dijk, Ziba Farajzadegan, Klodian Dhana, Myrte J Tielemans, Trudy Voortman, Rosanne Freak-Poli, Gilson G V Veloso, Rajiv Chowdhury, Maryam Kavousi, Taulant Muka, Oscar H Franco
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, incidence and death increases from around the time of menopause comparing to women in reproductive age. A healthy lifestyle can prevent CVD, but it is unclear which lifestyle factors may help maintain and improve cardiovascular health for women after menopausal transition. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the association between modifiable lifestyle factors (specifically smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, and obesity), with CVD and mortality in middle-aged and elderly women...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Maria Giner-Soriano, Gerard Sotorra Figuerola, Jordi Cortés, Helena Pera Pujadas, Ana Garcia-Sangenis, Rosa Morros
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral artery disease. CVD is the leading threat to global health, whether measured by mortality, morbidity, or economic cost. Long-term administration of aspirin, statins, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers improves survival in patients with stablished coronary heart disease...
March 9, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Sophie I Mavrogeni, Petros P Sfikakis, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, Gikas Katsifis, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Genovefa Kolovou, George D Kitas
Life expectancy in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) remains lower compared to the general population, due to various comoborbidities. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the main contributor to premature mortality. Conventional and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have considerably improved long-term outcomes in ARDs not only by suppressing systemic inflammation but also by lowering CVD burden. Regarding atherosclerotic disease prevention, EULAR has recommended tight disease control accompanied by regular assessment of traditional CVD risk factors and lifestyle changes...
March 7, 2018: Rheumatology International
M Kaye Kramer, Karl K Vanderwood, Vincent C Arena, Rachel G Miller, Rebecca Meehan, Yvonne L Eaglehouse, Gerald Schafer, Elizabeth M Venditti, Andrea M Kriska
Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle program, DPP Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB), delivered in 3 economically diverse senior/community centers. Methods The DPP-GLB was implemented in 3 senior/community centers in Allegheny County, PA. A 6-month delayed control intervention design was used. Participants were randomized to begin the DPP-GLB immediately (immediate) or after a 6-month delay (delayed). Adults (n = 134; mean age = 62...
March 1, 2018: Diabetes Educator
R Ivanovs, A Kivite, D Ziedonis, I Mintale, J Vrublevska, E Rancans
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Globally, there is a growing interest in understanding and addressing modifiable psychosocial risk factors, particularly depression and anxiety, to prevent CVDs and to reduce morbidity and mortality. Despite the high premature mortality rate from CVDs in Latvia, this is the first Latvian study to examine the association of depression and anxiety with CVD morbidity in a primary care population...
March 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
Camilla I Hatleberg, Lene Ryom, Wafaa El-Sadr, Amanda Mocroft, Peter Reiss, Stephane De Wit, Francois Dabis, Christian Pradier, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Helen Kovari, Matthew Law, Jens D Lundgren, Caroline A Sabin
INTRODUCTION: There is paucity of data related to potential gender differences in the use of interventions to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-positive individuals. We investigated whether such differences exist in the observational D:A:D cohort study. METHODS: Participants were followed from study enrolment until the earliest of death, six months after last visit or February 1, 2015. Initiation of CVD interventions [lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), anti-hypertensives, invasive cardiovascular procedures (ICPs) were investigated and Poisson regression models calculated whether rates were lower among women than men, adjusting for potential confounders...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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