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Nicotine replacement therapy

Johannes Thrul, Danielle E Ramo
BACKGROUND: Young adults underutilize current evidence-based smoking cessation strategies; yet social media are widely used and accepted among this population. A better understanding of whether and how young adults try to quit smoking in the context of a social media smoking cessation intervention could inform future intervention improvements. OBJECTIVES: We examined frequency, strategies used, and predictors of self-initiated 24-hour quit attempts among young adults participating in a Facebook intervention...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Erin C Quinn, Rachel Sacks, Shannon M Farley, Sayone Thihalolipavan
Approximately 80,000 New York City smokers are Chinese or Russian speakers. To increase utilization of smoking cessation services among these populations, the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed linguistically and culturally tailored outreach strategies to promote and enhance its annual Nicotine Patch and Gum Program. In 2010, online web applications in Chinese and Russian were introduced. In 2011, input was sought from the community to develop Russian-language radio and newspaper ads, and a Russian-speaking liaison provided phone-assisted online enrollment support...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Community Health
Joan S Tucker, William G Shadel, Frank H Galvan, Diana Naranjo, Christian Lopez, Claude Setodji
Nicotine replacement therapy is an effective intervention for smoking cessation, but adherence tends to be low. This article presents results from a pilot evaluation of a brief smoking cessation treatment to improve adherence to the nicotine patch among Latino smokers living with HIV/AIDS. Forty smokers were randomized to receive either a standard 5 As counseling session and 8-week treatment of nicotine patch, or a similar intervention that added a 10-min module to the 5 As counseling that focused on improving adherence to the nicotine patch...
October 13, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Sharon Lawn, Teri Lucas
BACKGROUND: Smoking rates for people with severe mental illness have remained high despite significant declines in smoking rates in the general population, particularly for residents of community supported residential facilities (SRFs) where smoking has been largely neglected and institutionalized. METHODS: Two studies undertaken 10 years apart (2000 and 2010) with SRFs in Adelaide, Australia looked at historical trends to determine whether any progress has been made to address smoking for this population...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nicola Lindson-Hawley, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Thomas R Fanshawe, Rachna Begh, Amanda Farley, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is currently the only guaranteed way to reduce the harm caused by tobacco smoking, a reasonable secondary tobacco control approach may be to try and reduce the harm from continued tobacco use amongst smokers unable or unwilling to quit. Possible approaches to reduce the exposure to toxins from smoking include reducing the amount of tobacco used, and using less toxic products, such as pharmaceutical, nicotine and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs), as an alternative to cigarettes...
October 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Marita Hefler, Robyn Hopkins, David P Thomas
OBJECTIVES: In 2013, the Northern Territory was the first Australian jurisdiction to introduce a smoke-free policy for all correctional facilities. We report on a process evaluation to identify what worked well, key challenges and unintended consequences. METHODS: We interviewed 87 people, comprising remand, medium-security and low-security prisoners; visiting family members; and prison staff (including prison management and health workers). A realist evaluation approach was used...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Kathirvel Gopalakrishnan, Amar S More, Gary D Hankins, Tatiana N Nanovskaya, Sathish Kumar
Approximately 20% of pregnant women smoke despite intentions to quit. Smoking cessation drugs, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, are recommended treatments. Adverse cardiovascular outcomes in offspring have raised concerns about NRT's safety during pregnancy. However, the effect of bupropion is unknown. Using a rat model, we determined whether NRT and bupropion interventions during pregnancy are safer than continued smoking on offspring's cardiovascular function. Male offspring of controls and dams exposed to cigarette smoke (1...
October 12, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
N J Walker, H C van Woerden, V Kiparoglou, Y Yang, H Robinson, E Croghan
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation services are available in England to provide assistance to those wishing to quit smoking. Data from one such service were analysed in order to investigate differences in quit rate between males and females prescribed with different treatments. METHODS: A logistic regression model was fitted to the data using the binary response of self-reported quit (failed attempt = 0, successful attempt = 1), validated by Carbon Monoxide (CO) monitoring, 4 weeks after commencing programme...
October 3, 2016: BMC Public Health
Ratika Sharma, Coral E Gartner, Wayne D Hall
The high prevalence of smoking in people with serious mental illness contributes substantially to the disproportionately high morbidity and premature mortality in this population. There is an urgent need to help people with serious mental illness to quit smoking. We discuss competing explanations for the high prevalence of smoking in people with serious mental illness and the effectiveness of available smoking cessation interventions. We propose trials of harm reduction options, such as nicotine replacement therapy and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), as long-term substitutes for cigarettes in smokers with serious mental illness who are unable to quit smoking...
October 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Obinna C Okeke, Joshua S Boateng
Composite wafers and films comprising HPMC and sodium alginate (SA) were formulated for nicotine (NIC) replacement therapy via the buccal route. Magnesium aluminium silicate (MAS) was added in different concentration ratios (0.25, 0.5, 0.75) to stabilize NIC and its effect on mechanical properties, internal and surface morphology, physical form, thermal properties, swelling, mucoadhesion, drug content and release behaviour of the formulations was investigated. MAS changed the physico-mechanical properties of the composite formulations causing a decrease in mechanical hardness, collapsed wafer pores, increased roughness of film surface, increase in crystallinity and decreased mucoadhesion of the wafers...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Peter N Lee, Marc W Fariss
We conducted a systematic literature review to identify and critically evaluate studies of serious adverse health effects (SAHEs) in humans using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products. Serious adverse health effects refer to adverse events, leading to substantial disruption of the ability to conduct normal life functions. Strength of evidence evaluations and conclusions were also determined for the identified SAHEs. We evaluated 34 epidemiological studies and clinical trials, relating NRT use to cancer, reproduction/development, CVD, stroke and/or other SAHEs in patients, and four meta-analyses on effects in healthy populations...
October 3, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Mary Ellen Wewers, Abigail Shoben, Sara Conroy, Elana Curry, Amy K Ferketich, David M Murray, Julianna Nemeth, Amy Wermert
INTRODUCTION: Community health workers (CHW) may be effective in the delivery of tobacco dependence treatment with underserved groups. This study evaluated two evidence-based CHW models of treatment. It was hypothesized that smokers assigned to a CHW face-to-face condition would have higher abstinence at 12 months post-treatment than smokers enrolled in CHW referral to a state-sponsored quit line condition. Intrapersonal and treatment-related factors associated with abstinence at 12 months were determined...
September 30, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Lion Shahab, Fiona Dobbie, Rosemary Hiscock, Ann McNeill, Linda Bauld
BACKGROUND: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was licensed for harm reduction in the United Kingdom in 2005, and guidance to UK Stop-Smoking Services (SSS) to include long-term partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with NRT was issued in 2013. Yet, NRT prevalence data and data on changes in biomarkers associated with long-term NRT use among SSS clients are scarce. METHODS: SSS clients abstinent 4 weeks postquit date were followed up at 12 months. At baseline standard sociodemographic, smoking and SSS use characteristics were collected and of those eligible, 60...
September 24, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Reto Auer, Baris Gencer, Rodrigo Tango, David Nanchen, Christian M Matter, Thomas Felix Lüscher, Stephan Windecker, François Mach, Jacques Cornuz, Jean-Paul Humair, Nicolas Rodondi
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of a proactive approach with a reactive approach to offer intensive smoking cessation intervention using motivational interviewing (MI). DESIGN: Before-after comparison in 2 academic hospitals with parallel comparisons in 2 control hospitals. SETTING: Academic hospitals in Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS: Smokers hospitalised for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). INTERVENTION: In the intervention hospitals during the intervention phase, a resident physician trained in MI systematically offered counselling to all smokers admitted for ACS, followed by 4 telephone counselling sessions over 2 months by a nurse trained in MI...
September 20, 2016: BMJ Open
Lucinda J England, Van T Tong, Amber Koblitz, Julia Kish-Doto, Molly M Lynch, Brian G Southwell
The increasing availability of emerging non-combusted tobacco products (snus, dissolvables, and electronic nicotine delivery systems or ENDS) may have implications for pregnant women and women of reproductive age. We conducted 15 focus groups to explore how women perceive emerging non-combusted tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in general, and during pregnancy. Sessions were held in 2013 in four U.S. cities. Participants were 18-40 years old and were pregnant smokers, pregnant quitters, or smokers planning a pregnancy...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Christine D Czoli, Geoffrey T Fong, Darren Mays, David Hammond
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature regarding relative risk perceptions (RRPs) across non-combustible nicotine products. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles published up to October 2014. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 5266 records identified, articles not published in English that did not quantitatively assess RRPs across categories of non-combustible nicotine products were excluded, yielding 55 records...
September 13, 2016: Tobacco Control
Emma Beard, Robert West, Susan Michie, Jamie Brown
OBJECTIVES:  To estimate how far changes in the prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in England have been associated with changes in quit success, quit attempts, and use of licensed medication and behavioural support in quit attempts. DESIGN:  Time series analysis of population trends. PARTICIPANTS:  Participants came from the Smoking Toolkit Study, which involves repeated, cross sectional household surveys of individuals aged 16 years and older in England...
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Sarah B Windle, Kristian B Filion, Joseph G Mancini, Lauren Adye-White, Lawrence Joseph, Genevieve C Gore, Bettina Habib, Roland Grad, Louise Pilote, Mark J Eisenberg
CONTEXT: Treatment guidelines recommend the use of combination therapies for smoking cessation, particularly behavioral therapy (BT) as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. However, these guidelines rely on previous reviews with important limitations. This study's objective was to evaluate the efficacy of combination therapies compared with monotherapies, using the most rigorous data available. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs of pharmacotherapies, BTs, or both were conducted...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Anna Hansson, Thomas Rasmussen, Holger Kraiczi
INTRODUCTION: Under-dosing is a recognized problem with current nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Therefore, a new 6mg nicotine gum has been developed. To compare the nicotine uptake from the 6mg gum versus currently available NRT products, two pharmacokinetic studies were performed. METHODS: In one randomized crossover study, 44 healthy adult smokers received single doses of 6, 4, and 2mg nicotine gum, and 4mg nicotine lozenge on separate occasions. In a separate randomized crossover multiple-dose study over 11 hours, 50 healthy adult smokers received one 6mg gum every hour and 90 minutes, respectively, one 4mg gum every hour, and one 4mg lozenge every hour...
September 7, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Ziyad Ben Taleb, Kenneth D Ward, Taghrid Asfar, Rana Jaber, Raed Bahelah, Wasim Maziak
BACKGROUND: In high-income countries, quitting cigarette smoking is associated with weight gain, which can reduce motivation to abstain. Whether smoking cessation is associated with weight gain in a low-income country context has never been investigated. We aimed to determine the post-cessation changes in body mass index (BMI) and its predictors among smokers who received a smoking cessation intervention in a low-income country setting. METHODS: We performed post hoc analyses of data from 269 smokers who participated in a two-group, parallel-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of combined nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and behavioral counseling in primary care clinics in Aleppo, Syria...
September 9, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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