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Nicotine replacement therapy

Tania D Dean, Wendy Cross, Ian Munro
CONTEXT: In Adult Mental Health Inpatient Units, it is not unexpected that leadership of Associate Nurse Unit Managers contributes to successful implementation of smoke-free policies. AIM: In light of challenges facing mental health nursing, and limited research describing their leadership and the role it plays in addressing smoke-free policy implementation, the aim of this study is to explore Associate Nurse Unit Managers perspectives' regarding the implementation of smoke-free policies, which were introduced on 1 July, 2015...
February 13, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Alex J Adams, Karen Suchanek Hudmon
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the status of state laws regarding the expansion of pharmacists' prescriptive authority for smoking cessation medications and to summarize frequently asked questions and answers that arose during the associated legislative debates. DATA SOURCES: Legislative language was reviewed and summarized for all states with expanded authority, and literature supporting the pharmacist's capacity for an expanded role in smoking cessation is described...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
James F Thrasher, Farahnaz Islam, Rachel E Davis, Lucy Popova, Victoria Lambert, Yoo Jin Cho, Ramzi G Salloum, Jordan Louviere, David Hammond
This study assessed smokers' responses to different smoking cessation topics and imagery for cigarette package inserts. Adult smokers from Canada (n = 1000) participated in three discrete choice experiments (DCEs): DCE 1 assessed five cessation benefit topics and five imagery types; DCE 2 assessed five messages with tips to improve cessation success and five imagery types; DCE 3 assessed four reproductive health benefits of cessation topics and four imagery types. In each DCE, participants evaluated four or five sets of four inserts, selecting the most and least motivating (DCEs 1 & 3) or helpful (DCE 2) for quitting...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Chang Yue Chui, Dennis Thomas, Simone Taylor, Billie Bonevski, Michael J Abramson, Eldho Paul, Susan G Poole, Gregory R Weeks, Michael J Dooley, Johnson George
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is recommended as a smoking cessation aid for hospitalised smokers. We examined factors associated with NRT use during hospitalisation and after discharge, and NRT uptake when systematically offered free of cost. DESIGN AND METHODS: A nested analysis was conducted using data from a clinical trial that evaluated the effectiveness of a pharmacist-led smoking cessation intervention in 600 hospitalised smokers...
February 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Christine L Baker, Guilhem Pietri
Background: The cost-effectiveness of varenicline has been demonstrated in the US health care setting using the Benefits of Smoking Cessation on Outcomes (BENESCO) model to simulate the lifetime direct costs and consequences of a hypothetical cohort of US adult smokers who make a single attempt to quit. The aim of this study was to undertake an updated cost-effectiveness analysis, using current epidemiology inputs and recently published smoking cessation data from the Evaluating Adverse Events in a Global Smoking Cessation Study (EAGLES), the largest clinical trial of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies conducted to date...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
Nafeesa N Dhalwani, Lisa Szatkowski, Tim Coleman, Linda Fiaschi, Laila J Tata
Objective: To compare risk of stillbirth between maternal smokers and those prescribed NRT during pregnancy. Design: Cross-sectional analysis nested in a pregnancy cohort with longitudinal routinely-recorded medical data. Setting: United Kingdom primary care; The Health Improvement Network (THIN) general practice database. Population: 220,630 singleton pregnancies ending in live or stillbirth, 2001-2012. Methods: Women were categorised into three groups: NRT (prescribed during pregnancy or one month before conception); smokers; controls (non-smokers without a pregnancy NRT prescription)...
January 31, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Scott Rasmussen, Kathleen Halabuk Horkan, Mitchell Kotler
Smoking continues to be a major preventable cause of early mortality worldwide, and nicotine replacement therapy has been demonstrated to increase rates of abstinence among smokers attempting to quit. Nicotine transdermal systems (also known as nicotine patches) attach to the skin via an adhesive layer composed of a mixture of different-molecular-weight polyisobutylenes (PIBs) in a specific ratio. This randomized, single-dose, 2-treatment, crossover pharmacokinetic (PK) trial assessed the bioequivalence of nicotine patches including a replacement PIB adhesive (test) compared with the PIB adhesive historically used on marketed patches (reference)...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
Alison J Wright, Stephen Sutton, David Armstrong, Paul Aveyard, Ann Louise Kinmonth, Theresa M Marteau
Pharmacogenomics may improve health outcomes in two ways: by more precise and therefore more effective prescribing, tailored to genotype, and by increasing perceived effectiveness of treatments and so motivation for adherence. Little is known about patients' experiences of, and reactions to, receiving pharmacogenomically tailored treatments. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of pharmacogenomic prescribing of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on smokers' initial expectations of quit success, adherence, and perceived important differences from previous quit attempts...
January 29, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Behrooz Behbod, Mohit Sharma, Ruchi Baxi, Robert Roseby, Premila Webster
BACKGROUND: Children's exposure to other people's tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS) is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes for children. Parental smoking is a common source of children's exposure to ETS. Older children in child care or educational settings are also at risk of exposure to ETS. Preventing exposure to ETS during infancy and childhood has significant potential to improve children's health worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce exposure of children to environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS...
January 31, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a major healthcare problem worldwide. Tobacco smoking remains the most important risk factor for both cancer and heart diseases. This study was initiated due to the lack of published data concerning the real progress in research output in the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for tobacco cessation. This study was aimed to use bibliometric analysis to estimate the NRT literature indexed in Scopus database at global level. METHODS: Core of the search strategy was the documents that contained specific words or phrases regarding NRT as keywords in the title...
January 30, 2018: Globalization and Health
Siti Balkis Budin, Jia Hui Kho, Jia Hui Lee, Anand Ramalingam, Fatin Farhana Jubaidi, Elda Surhaida Latif, Satirah Zainalabidin, Izatus Shima Taib, Jamaludin Mohamed
Background: Nicotine is a major toxic and hazardous component of cigarette smoke, and it has been widely used in nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). This study was aimed to investigate the effects of chronic low-dose nicotine on sperm characteristics and reproductive organ integrity in adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Twelve rats were equally divided into two groups. Group I received normal saline, and group II received 0.6 mg/kg body weight nicotine intraperitoneally for 28 consecutive days...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
Laura J Rosen, Tal Galili, Jeffrey Kott, Mark Goodman, Laurence S Freedman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although smoking cessation medications have shown effectiveness in increasing abstinence in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), it is unclear to what extent benefits persist over time. This paper assesses whether the benefits of smoking cessation medications decline over the first year. METHODS: We selected studies from three systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Collaboration. RCTs of first-line smoking cessation medications, with 6- and 12-month follow-up, were eligible for inclusion...
January 29, 2018: Addiction
Miłosz Knura, Jonasz Dragon, Krzysztof Łabuzek, Bogusław Okopień
The exponetial growth in popularity of electronic cigarettes in the world markets intensifies the debate about their health effects. The smoking of traditional tabacoo products is a factor associated with the endothelium damage and progression of atherosclerosis. The elimination of the combustion process in electronic cigarettes allows to conclude that they are less harmful to a vascular endothelium than traditional tobacco products. E-cigarette aerosol contains many compounds that have an influence on initiation and progression of atherosclerosis...
January 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Smita Pakhale, Tina Kaur, Catherine Charron, Kelly Florence, Tiffany Rose, Sadia Jama, Robert Boyd, Joanne Haddad, Gonzalo Alvarez, Mark Tyndall
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of a Community-Based Participatory Tobacco Dependence Strategy (PROMPT) in the inner city population of Ottawa (Canada). DESIGN: A feasibility mixed methods prospective cohort study following principles of community-based participatory action research. INTERVENTION: Recruited 80 people whouse drugs, followed them for 6 months while providing access to counselling, nicotine replacement therapy and peer-support in a community setting...
January 25, 2018: BMJ Open
Jaimee L Heffner, Noreen L Watson, Jennifer B McClure, Robert M Anthenelli, Sarah Hohl, Jonathan B Bricker
OBJECTIVE: Smokers with bipolar disorder (BD) have low rates of successful quitting, yet no prior studies have evaluated the process of quitting among these smokers in the context of a current quit attempt. To facilitate development of more effective interventions, we conducted a qualitative exploration of challenges and facilitators of quitting in an intervention study for smokers with BD. METHODS: Participants were adult daily smokers with BD (n = 10) who completed a 10-week smoking cessation intervention consisting of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and nicotine patch...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Manpreet Sukhija, Reena Srivastava, Aditya Kaushik
OBJECTIVE: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) increases the probability of smoking cessation. This study was conducted to determine if three prototype 4-mg nicotine lozenges produced locally in India were bioequivalent to a globally marketed reference product, Nicorette® 4-mg nicotine lozenge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy adult smokers (N = 39) were treated with three prototype 4-mg nicotine lozenges in comparison with a reference 4-mg lozenge in this single-center, randomized, open-label, single-dose, 4-way crossover study...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mark W Vander Weg, Mace Coday, Michelle B Stockton, Barbara McClanahan, George Relyea, Mary C Read, Nancy Wilson, Stephanie Connelly, Phyllis Richey, Karen C Johnson, Kenneth D Ward
Despite advances in behavioral and pharmacological treatment for tobacco use and dependence, quit rates remain suboptimal. Increasing physical activity has shown some promise as a strategy for improving cessation outcomes. However, initial efficacy studies focused on intensive, highly structured exercise programs that may not be applicable to the general population of smokers. We describe the rationale and study design and report baseline participant characteristics from the Lifestyle Enhancement Program (LEAP), a two-group, randomized controlled trial...
March 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Jenifer Liang, Michael J Abramson, Nicholas A Zwar, Grant M Russell, Anne E Holland, Billie Bonevski, Ajay Mahal, Kirsten Phillips, Paula Eustace, Eldho Paul, Sally Wilson, Johnson George
OBJECTIVES: To review the accuracy of diagnoses of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care in Australia, and to describe smokers' experiences with and preferences for smoking cessation. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients were invited to participate if they were at least 40 years old and had visited participating general practice clinics in Melbourne at least twice during the previous 12 months, reported being current or ex-smokers with a smoking history of at least 10 pack-years, or were being managed for COPD...
January 15, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Yael Bar-Zeev, Ling Li Lim, Billie Bonevski, Maree Gruppetta, Gillian S Gould
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is recommended in current Australian clinical guidelines for pregnant women who are unable to quit smoking unassisted. Clinicians report low levels of prescribing NRT during pregnancy, due to safety concerns and low levels of confidence in their ability to prescribe NRT. Animal models show that nicotine is harmful to the fetus, especially for brain and lung development, but human studies have not found any harmful effects on fetal and pregnancy outcomes. Studies of efficacy and effectiveness in the real world suggest that NRT use during pregnancy increases smoking cessation rates...
January 15, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Kelly M Latimer
Smoking cessation for patients who smoke should be a top priority for physicians. Nicotine dependence should be considered a chronic disease, with the expectation that relapse is normal. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that physicians screen all adults for tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions and Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for cessation to adults who use tobacco. It also recommends use of the 5 As (ie, Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) in discussing tobacco use with patients...
January 2018: FP Essentials
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