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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637262/qualitative-exploration-of-a-smoking-cessation-trial-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#1
Nandita Krishnan, Joel Gittelsohn, Alexandra Ross, Jessica Elf, Sandy Chon, Raymond Niaura, Neil Martinson, Jonathan E Golub
Introduction: In South Africa, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a high prevalence of smoking, which undermines the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, little is known about barriers to smoking cessation and what interventions work for PLWH in this setting. Methods: A randomized trial comparing intensive anti-smoking counseling versus counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was recently concluded in Klerksdorp, South Africa. In a post-trial follow-up, 23 in-depth interviews with patients and one focus group discussion with counselors from the trial were conducted...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624760/how-do-smoking-cessation-medicines-compare-with-respect-to-their-neuropsychiatric-safety-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-network-meta-analysis-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#2
Kyla H Thomas, Deborah Caldwell, Michael N Dalili, David Gunnell, Marcus R Munafò, Matt Stevenson, Nicky J Welton
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of early death in the UK and worldwide. Public health guidance recommends the use of varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) as smoking cessation aids in the UK. Additionally, the first electronic cigarette has been licensed for use as a smoking cessation medicine. However, there are ongoing concerns about the safety of these medicines. We present a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to determine how these smoking cessation medicines compare to each other with respect to their neuropsychiatric safety in adult smokers...
June 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610482/randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-healthy-lifestyle-intervention-among-smokers-with-psychotic-disorders-outcomes-to-36%C3%A2-months
#3
Amanda L Baker, Robyn Richmond, Frances J Kay-Lambkin, Sacha L Filia, David Castle, Jill M Williams, Terry J Lewin, Vanessa Clark, Robin Callister, Kerrin Palazzi
OBJECTIVE: People living with psychotic disorders (schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders) have high rates of cardiovascular disease risk behaviours, including smoking, physical inactivity and poor diet. We report cardiovascular disease risk, smoking cessation and other risk behaviour outcomes over 36 months following recruitment into a two-arm randomised controlled trial among smokers with psychotic disorders. METHODS: Participants ( N = 235) drawn from three sites were randomised to receive nicotine replacement therapy plus (1) a Healthy Lifestyles intervention delivered over approximately 9 months or (2) a largely telephone-delivered intervention (designed to control for nicotine replacement therapy provision, session frequency and other monitoring)...
June 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593499/in-utero-exposure-to-nicotine-alters-the-development-of-the-rabbit-cardiac-conduction-system-and-provides-a-potential-mechanism-for-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#4
Anh Tuan Ton, Michael Biet, Jean-Francois Delabre, Nathalie Morin, Robert Dumaine
In-utero exposure to tobacco smoke remains the highest risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To alleviate the risks, nicotine replacement therapies are often prescribed to women who wish to quit smoking during their pregnancy. Cardiac arrhythmias is considered the final outcome leading to sudden death. Our goal in this study was to determine if exposing rabbit fetus to nicotine altered the cardiac conduction system of newborn kittens in a manner susceptible to cause SIDS. Using neuronal markers and a series of immunohistological and electrophysiological techniques we found that nicotine delayed the development of the cardiac pacemaker center (sinoatrial node) and decreased its innervation...
June 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577210/-distal-femoral-osteotomy-using-a-lateral-opening-wedge-technique
#5
M J Feucht, J Mehl, P Forkel, A B Imhoff, S Hinterwimmer
OBJECTIVE: To shift the weight-bearing axis of the lower limb medially by opening a lateral-based metaphyseal osteotomy at the distal femur. INDICATIONS: Femoral-based valgus malalignment and symptomatic lateral unicompartimental osteoarthritis, lateral hyperpression syndrome, cartilage therapy of the lateral compartment, lateral meniscal replacement/transplantation, medial instability with valgus thrust, reconstruction of the medial collateral ligament, patellar instability and/or maltracking...
June 2, 2017: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576892/study-protocol-of-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-pilot-trial-clinical-effectiveness-on-smoking-cessation-of-traditional-and-complementary-medicine-interventions-including-acupuncture-and-aromatherapy-in-combination-with-nicotine-replacement-therapy
#6
Soobin Jang, Sunju Park, Bo-Hyoung Jang, Yu Lee Park, Ju Ah Lee, Chung-Sik Cho, Ho-Yeon Go, Yong Cheol Shin, Seong-Gyu Ko
INTRODUCTION: Nicotine dependence is a disease, and tobacco use is related to 6 million deaths annually worldwide. Recently, in many countries, there has been growing interest in the use of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) methods, especially acupuncture, as therapeutic interventions for smoking cessation. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of T&CM interventions on smoking cessation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The STOP (Stop Tobacco Programme using traditional Korean medicine) study is designed to be a pragmatic, open-label, randomised pilot trial...
June 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556464/tobacco-harms-nicotine-pharmacology-and-pharmacologic-tobacco-cessation-interventions-for-women
#7
REVIEW
L Kim Baraona, Dawn Lovelace, Julie L Daniels, Linda McDaniel
Firsthand and secondhand tobacco use is linked to a multitude of harmful illnesses, adverse perinatal outcomes, and death. Cessation attempts among women may be hampered by their unique biologic response to nicotine. Current research has revealed epigenetic changes from intrauterine nicotine exposure that have intergenerational consequences. Multiple studies have demonstrated the efficacy of various pharmacologic tobacco cessation interventions in conjunction with behavioral counseling. Based on this evidence, the US Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) 2015 guideline recommends pharmacologic therapy for all nonpregnant persons who smoke in addition to behavioral counseling...
May 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551588/feasibility-of-biochemical-verification-in-a-web-based-smoking-cessation-study
#8
Sarah Cha, Ollie Ganz, Amy M Cohn, Sarah J Ehlke, Amanda L Graham
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cogent arguments have been made against the need for biochemical verification in population-based studies with low-demand characteristics. Despite this fact, studies involving digital interventions (low-demand) are often required in peer review to report biochemically verified abstinence. To address this discrepancy, we examined the feasibility and costs of biochemical verification in a web-based study conducted with a national sample. METHODS: Participants were 600U...
May 22, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550660/achieving-smoking-cessation-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-special-considerations
#9
REVIEW
Corinne Cather, Gladys N Pachas, Kristina M Cieslak, A Eden Evins
Premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease in those with schizophrenia is the largest lifespan disparity in the US and is growing; adults in the US with schizophrenia die, on average, 28 years earlier than those in the general population. The rate of smoking prevalence among individuals with schizophrenia is estimated to be from 64 to 79%. Smokers with schizophrenia have historically been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies. However, converging evidence indicates that a majority of smokers with schizophrenia want to quit smoking, and that available pharmacotherapeutic smoking cessation aids are well tolerated by this population of smokers and are effective when combined with behavioral treatment...
June 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549278/effects-of-varenicline-and-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-arterial-elasticity-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-oxidative-stress-during-a-3-month-smoking-cessation-program
#10
Ignatios Ikonomidis, Margarita Marinou, Dimitrios Vlastos, Kallirhoe Kourea, Ioanna Andreadou, Nikolaos Liarakos, Helen Triantafyllidi, George Pavlidis, Elias Tsougos, John Parissis, John Lekakis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of medically-aided smoking cessation on vascular function and oxidative stress are not fully clarified. METHODS: One hundred eighty-eight current smokers were randomized to varenicline or nicotine replacement treatment (NRT) for a 3-month period. We assessed: (a) augmentation index (Aix) and pulse wave velocity (PWV); (b) perfusion boundary region (PBR) of sublingual microvasculature (range:5-25 μm), an index of the endothelial glycocalyx thickness, using Sideview, Darkfield imaging; (c) the exhaled CO; and (d) the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) plasma levels, as markers of oxidative stress, at baseline and after 3 and 12 months...
May 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535687/positive-smoking-cessation-related-interactions-with-hiv-care-providers-increase-the-likelihood-of-interest-in-cessation-among-hiv-positive-cigarette-smokers
#11
Lauren R Pacek, Olga Rass, Matthew W Johnson
Smoking cessation has proven to be a challenge for HIV-positive smokers. Patient and provider characteristics may provide barriers to smoking cessation. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with interest in cessation as well as characterize use of, current interest in, and provider recommendations for smoking cessation modalities. Data came from 275 HIV-positive smokers recruited online. Half (49.1%) of the sample was interested in quitting; daily smoking was associated with decreased likelihood of interest in cessation, whereas making a lifetime quit attempt, receiving encouragement to quit from an HIV care provider, and greater frequency of discussions regarding cessation with HIV care providers were associated with increased likelihood of interest in cessation...
May 23, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528524/a-novel-public-health-approach-to-measuring-tobacco-cessation-needs-among-cancer-survivors-in-alaska
#12
J Michael Underwood, Samantha J Hyde-Rolland, Julia Thorsness, Sherri L Stewart
Cancer survivors who continue to smoke have poorer response to treatment, higher risk for future cancers and lower survival rates than those who quit tobacco after diagnosis. Despite the increased risk for negative health outcomes, tobacco use among Alaskan cancer survivors is 19%, among the highest in the nation. To characterize and address tobacco cessation needs among cancer survivors who called a quit line for help in quitting tobacco, Alaska's Comprehensive Cancer Control program initiated a novel partnership with the state's Tobacco Quit Line...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522745/randomised-controlled-trial-of-stand-alone-tailored-emails-for-smoking-cessation
#13
J Lee Westmaas, Jeuneviette Bontemps-Jones, Peter S Hendricks, Jihye Kim, Lorien C Abroms
INTRODUCTION: Digital technology has created opportunities for delivering smoking cessation assistance at the population level. However, the efficacy of sending multiple, automated, tailored emails providing motivation, support and information for quitting is unknown. METHODS: Smokers planning to quit (n=1070) were randomly assigned to (1) 27 tailored cessation emails (deluxe email group (DEG)), (2) 3 to 4 tailored emails with links to downloadable booklets (basic email group (BEG)) or (3) a single non-tailored email (single email group (SEG))...
May 18, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521782/combining-alcohol-interventions-with-tobacco-addictions-treatment-in-primary-care-the-combat-study-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial
#14
Nadia Minian, Dolly Baliunas, Laurie Zawertailo, Aliya Noormohamed, Norman Giesbrecht, Christian S Hendershot, Bernard Le Foll, Jürgen Rehm, Andriy Samokhvalov, Peter L Selby
BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol use present multiplicative risk for aerodigestive cancers. Reducing alcohol consumption improves smoking cessation outcomes and reduces cancer risk. Risky alcohol consumption and smoking are often treated separately despite concurrent treatment potentially leading to better outcomes for each. However, no rapidly scalable program exists for combined interventions in primary care clinics spread across wide geographic areas. This cluster randomized trial aims to report on the effects of a novel clinical decision support system (CDSS) on intervention rates by primary care practitioners addressing risky alcohol use in a smoking cessation program...
May 18, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507522/nicotine-acutely-enhances-reinforcement-from-non-drug-rewards-in-humans
#15
REVIEW
Kenneth A Perkins, Joshua L Karelitz, Margaret C Boldry
Preclinical research documents that, aside from the primary and secondary reinforcing effects of nicotine intake itself, nicotine also acutely enhances the reinforcing efficacy of non-drug reinforcers ("rewards"). Study of these effects in humans has largely been overlooked, but very recent findings suggest they may have clinical implications for more fully understanding the persistence of tobacco dependence. This overview first outlines the topic and notes some recent human studies indirectly addressing nicotine effects on related responses (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500373/effects-of-varenicline-versus-transdermal-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-cigarette-demand-on-quit-day-in-individuals-with-substance-use-disorders
#16
Cara M Murphy, James MacKillop, Rosemarie A Martin, Jennifer W Tidey, Suzanne M Colby, Damaris J Rohsenow
RATIONALE: Cigarette demand is a behavioral economic measure of the relative value of cigarettes. Decreasing the value of cigarette reinforcement may help with quitting smoking. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of initial use of varenicline (VAR) versus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on demand for cigarettes on quit day among smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) and to determine whether reduced demand was associated with subsequent abstinence from smoking at 1 and 3 months...
May 13, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493405/australian-urban-indigenous-smokers-perspectives-on-nicotine-products-and-tobacco-harm-reduction
#17
Kym Yuke, Pauline Ford, Wendy Foley, Allyson Mutch, Lisa Fitzgerald, Coral Gartner
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Indigenous Australians experience a significant gap in life expectancy compared with non-Indigenous Australians. Indigenous communities have high-smoking prevalence and low engagement with cessation therapies. This qualitative research, conducted in an urban Australian Indigenous community, explored smokers' views on smoking, quitting and engagement with current nicotine replacement therapies. Opinions on acceptability of tobacco harm reduction were sought. We explored the acceptability of novel nicotine products, that is, new or unfamiliar products, including non-therapeutic options, such as e-cigarettes...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490903/cardiovascular-risks-in-smokers-treated-with-nicotine-replacement-therapy-a-historical-cohort-study
#18
Jens Dollerup, Jørgen Vestbo, Tarita Murray-Thomas, Alan Kaplan, Richard J Martin, Emilio Pizzichini, Marcia M M Pizzichini, Anne Burden, Jessica Martin, David B Price
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests exposure to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: Using data from the United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink, this study aimed to evaluate CVD events and survival among individuals who attempted smoking cessation with the support of NRT compared with those aided by smoking cessation advice only. We studied CVD outcomes over 4 and 52 weeks in 50,214 smokers attempting to quit - 33,476 supported by smoking cessation advice and 16,738 with the support of NRT prescribed by their primary care physician...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486901/safety-of-nicotine-replacement-therapy-in-critically-ill-patients
#19
A Webb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486709/anhedonia-its-dynamic-relations-with-craving-negative-affect-and-treatment-during-a-quit-smoking-attempt
#20
Jessica W Cook, Stephanie T Lanza, Wanghuan Chu, Timothy B Baker, Megan E Piper
Introduction: Research shows that abstinence from tobacco leads to a withdrawal-related decrement in responsivity to nondrug rewards (ie, anhedonia). However, it remains unclear how anhedonia relates to other key withdrawal symptoms and withdrawal-related constructs over time. We analyzed ecological momentary assessment data to examine whether a decrement in response to rewards during a 10-day period following quitting shows a pattern of associations with other variables (ie, treatment, tobacco dependence, negative affect, and craving) that is consistent with anhedonia being a tobacco withdrawal symptom...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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