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Nicotine replacement therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671928/electronic-cigarette-use-among-cancer-patients-reasons-for-use-beliefs-and-patient-provider-communication
#1
John B Correa, Karen O Brandon, Lauren R Meltzer, Hannah J Hoehn, Bárbara Piñeiro, Thomas H Brandon, Vani N Simmons
OBJECTIVE: Smoking tobacco cigarettes after a cancer diagnosis increases risk for several serious adverse outcomes. Thus, patients can significantly benefit from quitting smoking. Electronic cigarettes are an increasingly popular cessation method. Providers routinely ask about combustible cigarette use, yet little is known about use and communication surrounding e-cigarettes among cancer patients. This study aims to describe cancer patient patterns, beliefs, and communication with oncology providers about e-cigarette use...
April 19, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664530/-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-smoking-cessation
#2
María Paz Corvalán B, Leonardo Véjar M, Claudia Bambs S, Juana Pavié G, Mónica Zagolin B, Jaime Cerda L
Considering that a high proportion of the Chilean general population smokes, the Chilean Society of Respiratory Diseases in collaboration with the Chilean Societies of Cardiology and, Endocrinology and Diabetes, formed an interdisciplinary group, who issued a set of recommendations for the treatment of the smoker, methodologically advised by experts. These interventions should be prioritized in high-risk groups. Methods The panel elaborated and graded the recommendations following the GRADE methodology. To assess the effect of each intervention, systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials were identified...
November 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661542/helping-patients-with-esrd-and-earlier-stages-of-ckd-to-quit-smoking
#3
REVIEW
Perry Formanek, Elizabeth Salisbury-Afshar, Majid Afshar
Among the many adverse effects of tobacco exposure is the increased risk for progression of kidney disease. Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), who already face increased cardiovascular event rates compared to the general population, are at even greater risk if they smoke. Despite these risks and the increased focus on smoking cessation in the general population in recent years, national guidelines have not specifically targeted individuals with CKD. There are similarly sparse data specific to individuals with CKD regarding the safety and efficacy of evidence-based smoking cessation modalities...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650283/-interventions-for-smoking-cessation-in-2018
#4
REVIEW
J Abdul-Kader, G Airagnes, S D'almeida, F Limosin, A-L Le Faou
Smoking cessation treatments have been proved effective to stop smoking. For pharmacological treatments, nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) as well as bupropion allow to increase 6 month-abstinence rates by more than 80% in comparison with placebo while varenicline prescription doubles success rates in the same conditions. These results mean that for 10 smokers who quit with placebo, 18 are expected to quit with NRT or bupropion and 28 are expected to quit with varenicline. Varenicline is 50% more effective than nicotine patch and 70% more effective than nicotine gum...
April 9, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627689/slower-nicotine-metabolism-among-postmenopausal-polish-smokers
#5
Leon Kosmider, Marcin Delijewski, Bartosz Koszowski, Andrzej Sobczak, Neal L Benowitz, Maciej L Goniewicz
BACKGROUND: A non-invasive phenotypic indicator of the rate of nicotine metabolism is nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) defined as a ratio of two major metabolites of nicotine - trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine. The rate of nicotine metabolism has important clinical implications for the likelihood of successful quitting with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We conducted a study to measure NMR among Polish smokers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 180 daily cigarette smokers (42% men; average age 34...
November 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621993/cholinergic-receptor-nicotinic-alpha-5-subunit-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-smoking-cessation-success-in-women
#6
Paulo Roberto Xavier Tomaz, Juliana Rocha Santos, Jaqueline Scholz, Tânia Ogawa Abe, Patrícia Viviane Gaya, André Brooking Negrão, José Eduardo Krieger, Alexandre Costa Pereira, Paulo Caleb Júnior Lima Santos
BACKGROUND: The identification of variants in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit genes associated with smoking phenotypes are increasingly important for prevention and treatment of nicotine dependence. In the context of personalized medicine, the aims of this study were to evaluate whether cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 2 (CHRNA2), cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 3 (CHRNA3), cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 5 (CHRNA5) and cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 3 (CHRNB3) polymorphisms were associated with nicotine dependence severity, and to investigate possible pharmacogenetics markers of smoking cessation treatment...
April 5, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617909/maternal-nicotine-exposure-mne-leads-to-augmented-expression-of-the-anti-oxidant-adipose-tissue-triglyceride-lipase-atgl-long-term-in-the-white-adipose-of-female-rat-offspring
#7
Nicole G Barra, Taylor VanDuzer, Alison C Holloway, Daniel B Hardy
Globally, approximately 10-25% of women smoke during pregnancy. Since nicotine is highly addictive, women may use nicotine containing products like nicotine replacement therapies for smoking cessation, but the long-term consequences of early life exposure to nicotine remain poorly defined. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that maternal nicotine exposed (MNE) rat offspring exhibit hypertriglyceridemia due to increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis. Hypertriglyceridemia may also be attributed to impaired white adipose tissue (WAT) lipid storage; however, the effects of MNE on WAT are not completely understood...
March 30, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608714/are-electronic-cigarettes-an-effective-aid-to-smoking-cessation-or-reduction-among-vulnerable-groups-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-evidence
#8
Sarah Gentry, Nita Forouhi, Caitlin Notley
Introduction: Smoking prevalence remains high in some vulnerable groups, including those who misuse substances, have a mental illness, are homeless or are involved with the criminal justice system. E-cigarette use is increasing and may support smoking cessation/reduction. Methods: Systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation/reduction among vulnerable groups. Databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ASSIA, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses and Open Grey...
March 28, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587555/discovery-and-development-of-varenicline-for-smoking-cessation
#9
Chloe J Jordan, Zheng-Xiong Xi
Tobacco use causes one premature death every six seconds. Current smoking cessation aids include nicotine replacement therapies, bupropion, and varenicline. Although more than 70% of smokers express a desire to quit, fewer than 3% remain abstinent for more than one year, highlighting a critical need for more efficacious smoking cessation treatments. Areas covered: The authors discuss the rationale, preclinical and clinical development of varenicline for smoking cessation. They cover the formulation of varenicline as a partial agonist at α4 β2 receptors, the primary neural substrate for nicotine reward...
March 28, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579233/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-to-assess-the-safety-of-buproprion-and-varenicline-in-pregnancy
#10
Emily Turner, Matthew Jones, Luis R Vaz, Tim Coleman
Introduction: Smoking in pregnancy is a substantial public health issue, but, apart from nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), pharmacological therapies are not generally used to promote cessation. Bupropion and varenicline are effective cessation methods in non-pregnant smokers and this systematic review investigates their safety in pregnancy. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychINFO databases for studies of any design reporting pregnancy outcomes after bupropion or varenicline exposure...
March 22, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573164/patient-receipt-of-smoking-cessation-care-in-four-australian-acute-psychiatric-facilities
#11
Alexandra P Metse, John Wiggers, Paula Wye, Jenny A Bowman
This study aimed to report the receipt of smoking care, and associated clinical and smoking characteristics among smokers admitted to four public psychiatric inpatient facilities in New South Wales, Australia. Between October 2012 and July 2014, adult smokers (N = 236) were surveyed during admission to and 1 month following discharge from the facilities. Measures of smoking care receipt were reported descriptively, and logistic regression analyses were used to explore characteristics associated with care receipt...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559851/role-of-plant-derived-alkaloids-and-their-mechanism-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Ghulam Hussain, Azhar Rasul, Haseeb Anwar, Nimra Aziz, Aroona Razzaq, Wei Wei, Muhammad Ali, Jiang Li, Xiaomeng Li
Neurodegenerative diseases are conventionally demarcated as disorders with selective loss of neurons. Conventional as well as newer molecules have been tested but they offer just symptomatic advantages along with abundant side effects. The discovery of more compelling molecules that can halt the pathology of these diseases will be considered as a miracle of present time. Several synthetic compounds are available but they may cause several other health issues. Therefore, natural molecules from the plants and other sources are being discovered to replace available medicines...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551324/proactive-tobacco-treatment-for-smokers-using-veterans-administration-mental-health-clinics
#13
Erin S Rogers, Steven S Fu, Paul Krebs, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Sean M Nugent, Amy Gravely, Scott E Sherman
INTRODUCTION: Veterans with a mental health diagnosis have high rates of tobacco use but encounter low rates of treatment from providers. This study tested whether a proactive tobacco treatment approach increases treatment engagement and abstinence rates in Department of Veterans Affairs mental health patients. STUDY DESIGN: RCT. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: The study was performed from 2013 to 2017 and analyses were conducted in 2017. Investigators used the electronic medical record at four Veterans Administration facilities to identify patients documented as current smokers and who had a mental health clinic visit in the past 12 months...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549007/planning-a-change-easily-pace-a-randomized-controlled-trial-for-smokers-who-are-not-ready-to-quit
#14
Francisco I Salgado García, Karen J Derefinko, Zoran Bursac, Sarah Hand, Robert C Klesges
Smoking cessation programs are efficacious and have been validated to assist the 10% to 30% of smokers who are ready to quit in the next 30 days. While the majority of smokers want to quit smoking in the future, only 69% are planning to quit within the next year. Planning a Change Easily (PACE) is a nation-wide, telephone-based comparative effectiveness, randomized controlled trial for smokers not ready to quit (SNRTQ). This project, as well as its intervention components, outcomes, and hypotheses are discussed...
March 13, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547920/nicotine-addiction-management-following-surgery-a-quality-improvement-approach-in-the-post-anesthesia-care-unit
#15
Barry A Finegan, Daniel Roblin, Fadi Hammal
Quality problem: For smokers, hospital admission is accompanied by forced involuntary nicotine abstinence due to smoke-free site/grounds policies. An audit of patients admitted to our surgical wards revealed that identification of smoking status was inadequate and that nicotine addiction management (NAM) was infrequently offered. The project aimed to enhance both these metrics by initiating NAM in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU). Initial assessment: Out of 744 patients admitted to our PACU in August 2015, 54% had their smoking status documented...
March 14, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544555/implementing-national-institute-for-health-and-care-excellence-smoke-free-guidance-in-a-secure-facility-an-evaluation-of-the-prescribing-costs-in-clozapine-users
#16
Stephen Noblett, Jane Beenstock, James Noblett, Joanne Ireland, Sarah Ormiston
Aims and method The increased rates of smoking in people with mental illness is well documented, and establishing smoke-free mental health environments has been emphasised over recent years. This article examines the financial costs of implementing smoke free guidance and assesses the cost associated with patients who were prescribed clozapine and who committed to stopping smoking cigarettes for the duration of the study period. RESULTS: Patients (38) who were prescribed clozapine were included in the study...
April 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538542/evaluation-of-smoking-cessation-treatment-initiated-during-hospitalization-in-patients-with-heart-disease-or-respiratory-disease
#17
Thaís Garcia, Sílvia Aline Dos Santos Andrade, Angélica Teresa Biral, André Luiz Bertani, Laura Miranda de Oliveira Caram, Talita Jacon Cezare, Irma Godoy, Suzana Erico Tanni
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program, delivered by trained health care professionals, in patients hospitalized for acute respiratory disease (RD) or heart disease (HD). METHODS: Of a total of 393 patients evaluated, we included 227 (146 and 81 active smokers hospitalized for HD and RD, respectively). All participants received smoking cessation treatment during hospitalization and were followed in a cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program for six months after hospital discharge...
January 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533167/systematic-transcreation-of-self-help-smoking-cessation-materials-for-hispanic-latino-smokers-improving-cultural-relevance-and-acceptability
#18
Bárbara Piñeiro, Diana R Díaz, Luis M Monsalve, Úrsula Martínez, Cathy D Meade, Lauren R Meltzer, Karen O Brandon, Marina Unrod, Thomas H Brandon, Vani N Simmons
Smoking-related illnesses are the leading causes of death among Hispanics/Latinos. Yet, there are few smoking cessation interventions targeted for this population. The goal of this study was to "transcreate" an existing, previously validated, English language self-help smoking cessation intervention, titled Forever Free® : Stop Smoking for Good, for Spanish-speaking smokers. Rather than simply translating the materials, our transcreation process involved culturally adapting the intervention to enhance acceptability and receptivity of the information...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532966/cost-effectiveness-of-alternative-smoking-cessation-scenarios-in-spain-results-from-the-equiptmod
#19
Marta Trapero-Bertran, Celia Muñoz, Kathryn Coyle, Doug Coyle, Adam Lester-George, Reiner Leidl, Bertalan Németh, Kei-Long Cheung, Subhash Pokhrel, Ángel Lopez-Nicolás
AIMS: To assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative smoking cessation scenarios from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS). DESIGN: We used the European study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection from Tobacco model (EQUIPTMOD), a Markov-based state transition economic model, to estimate the return on investment (ROI) of: (a) the current provision of smoking cessation services (brief physician advice and printed self-helped material + smoking ban and tobacco duty at current levels); and (b) four alternative scenarios to complement the current provision: coverage of proactive telephone calls; nicotine replacement therapy (mono and combo) [prescription nicotine replacement therapy (Rx NRT)]; varenicline (standard duration); or bupropion...
March 13, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527846/smoking-cessation-strategies-targeting-specific-populations
#20
REVIEW
Eun Mi Chun
Quitting smoking helps smokers maintain their health and extend their lifespan by 10 or more years. Treatment strategies for smoking cessation should be tailored to individual smokers with special needs based on their specific circumstances. It is recommended that pregnant women adopt smoking cessation through counseling and behavioral interventions because the safety of medications has yet to be established. Counseling is the main strategy for smoking cessation in adolescents and nicotine replacement therapy can be used with caution in individuals with serious nicotine dependence...
March 7, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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