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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906858/electronic-cigarettes-as-smoking-cessation-tool-are-we-there
#1
Sohini Ghosh, M Bradley Drummond
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rapidly increasing, with many users reporting trying e-cigarettes as a method to quit combustible cigarettes. This review highlights recently published studies assessing the use of e-cigarettes as a tool for cessation of combustible cigarettes. RECENT FINDINGS: When evaluating data from four randomized controlled trials and multiple cohort studies, differential association between e-cigarette use and cessation rates was seen...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905641/-factors-associated-with-success-of-a-smoking-cessation-program
#2
Pedro Peña, Mónica Zagolin, Mónica Acuña, Sandra Navarrete, Pilar Bustamante, Andrea Canals
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation therapies include counseling, psychological management and pharmacological therapy. Varenicline is the most effective and safe medication available. AIM: To study risk factors for the failure of pharmacological smoking cessation therapy with varenicline. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 281 patients aged 45 ± 11 years (65% males) with a mean consumption of 31 ± 22 packs/year. They completed a smoking cessation program comprising psychological support and use of varenicline in a private clinic...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893843/comparative-effectiveness-of-smoking-cessation-medications-a-national-prospective-cohort-from-taiwan
#3
Po-Yin Chang, Po-Ching Lo, Hui-Chin Chang, Kuang-Chieh Hsueh, Yi-Wen Tsai
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Relative effectiveness of smoking cessation medications-varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)-remains unclear among smokers in real-world settings. Evidence in females and smokers with light/moderate nicotine dependence is particularly insufficient. This study compared the effectiveness of varenicline, bupropion or NRT gum relative to NRT patch, in achieving abstinence among recent quitters. METHODS: In a national smoking cessation program in Taiwan (2012-2015), a cohort of 11,968 participants received varenicline (n = 5,052), bupropion (n = 823), NRT gum (n = 1944) or NRT patch (n = 4,149)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882838/a-pragmatic-randomized-trial-comparing-telephone-based-enhanced-pharmacy-care-and-usual-care-to-support-smoking-cessation
#4
Jason Gong, Christine L Baker, Kelly H Zou, Marianna Bruno, Zhanna Jumadilova, David Lawrence, Beth Wilson, Cynthia Ewel
BACKGROUND: Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death, and tobacco control professionals continue to make progress in cessation efforts. Pharmacists can assist smokers seeking to quit by offering counseling on smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Pragmatic randomized trials are useful for investigating practical questions about an intervention's risks, benefits, and costs in routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an enhanced pharmacy care (EPC) program involving personalized pharmacist-provided telephone counseling for supporting prescription smoking cessation medications compared with usual care (UC)...
December 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863344/selection-criteria-limit-generalizability-of-smoking-pharmacotherapy-studies-differentially-across-clinical-trials-and-laboratory-studies-a-systematic-review-on-varenicline
#5
REVIEW
Courtney A Motschman, Julie C Gass, Jennifer M Wray, Lisa J Germeroth, Nicolas J Schlienz, Diana A Munoz, Faith E Moore, Jessica D Rhodes, Larry W Hawk, Stephen T Tiffany
BACKGROUND: The selection criteria used in clinical trials for smoking cessation and in laboratory studies that seek to understand mechanisms responsible for treatment outcomes may limit their generalizability to one another and to the general population. METHODS: We reviewed studies on varenicline versus placebo and compared eligibility criteria and participant characteristics of clinical trials (N=23) and laboratory studies (N=22) across study type and to nationally representative survey data on adult, daily USA smokers (2014 National Health Interview Survey; 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health)...
December 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852796/combination-varenicline-and-lorcaserin-for-tobacco-dependence-treatment-and-weight-gain-prevention-in-overweight-and-obese-smokers-a-pilot-study
#6
Ryan T Hurt, Ivana T Croghan, Darrell R Schroeder, J Taylor Hays, Doo-Sup Choi, Jon O Ebbert
INTRODUCTION: Post-cessation weight gain (PCWG) is a major barrier to maintaining abstinence, especially in weight-concerned smokers. Varenicline is the most effective medication for smoking cessation but has minimal impact on PCWG. Lorcaserin is an FDA-approved medication for weight management in overweight or obese patients which also provides a noticeable benefit in treating drug dependence. We hypothesized that combining varenicline with lorcaserin may help prevent post-cessation weight gain...
November 16, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851994/pregnancy-outcomes-after-maternal-varenicline-use-analysis-of-surveillance-data-collected-by-the-european-network-of-teratology-information-services
#7
J L Richardson, S Stephens, L M Yates, O Diav-Citrin, J Arnon, D Beghin, A Kayser, D Kennedy, D Cupitt, B Te Winkel, M Peltonen, Y C Kaplan, S H L Thomas
: Varenicline is a smoking cessation aid for which limited data exist concerning safety during human pregnancy. This multicentre prospective observational comparative cohort study was undertaken using surveillance data collected by the European Network of Teratology Information Services. The study sample consisted of 89 varenicline exposed pregnancies and two matched comparator groups; 267 non-teratogen exposed (NTE) controls and 78 exposed to nicotine replacement therapy or bupropion (NRT/B) for smoking cessation...
November 13, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847973/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-as-a-potential-target-for-smoking-cessation
#8
REVIEW
Cristiano Chiamulera, Claudio Marcello Marzo, David J K Balfour
RATIONALE: Most habitual smokers find it difficult to quit smoking because they are dependent upon the nicotine present in tobacco smoke. Tobacco dependence is commonly treated pharmacologically using nicotine replacement therapy or drugs, such as varenicline, that target the nicotinic receptor. Relapse rates, however, remain high, and there remains a need to develop novel non-nicotinic pharmacotherapies for the dependence that are more effective than existing treatments. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that drugs that antagonise the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in the brain are likely to be efficacious as treatments for tobacco dependence...
November 16, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845484/smoking-cessation-practice-among-family-doctors-in-lithuania-a-survey
#9
R Everatt, E Zolubiene, M C Grassi
OBJECTIVES: Relatively low proportion of ex-smokers and high rates of smoking-related diseases are estimated in Lithuania. The aim of this survey was to assess the extent of smoking cessation assistance among family doctors in Lithuania, and to identify factors associated with cessation interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected using a questionnaire addressing family doctors' cessation assistance practice; knowledge of smoking epidemiology and health effects; knowledge of cessation assistance guidelines; smoking status; and attendance on Courses/Conferences on Smoking and smoking cessation Assistance (CCSA)...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834390/varenicline-reduces-context-induced-relapse-to-alcohol-seeking-through-actions-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#10
F Lacroix, A Pettorelli, J-Mn Maddux, A Heidari-Jam, N Chaudhri
Varenicline, a pharmacotherapy for tobacco addiction, reduces alcohol consumption in humans and rodents. The therapeutic potential of varenicline would escalate if it also diminished conditioned responses elicited by alcohol-predictive cues, which can precipitate relapse in abstinent individuals. We investigated this application, along with the underlying neural substrates, using a robust preclinical assay in which relapse to alcohol-seeking was triggered by re-exposure to an alcohol-associated environmental context...
November 11, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817750/l-tetrahydropalmatine-reduces-nicotine-self-administration-and-reinstatement-in-rats
#11
Shamia L Faison, Charles W Schindler, Steven R Goldberg, Jia Bei Wang
BACKGROUND: The negative consequences of nicotine use are well known and documented, however, abstaining from nicotine use and achieving abstinence poses a major challenge for the majority of nicotine users trying to quit. l-Tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), a compound extracted from the Chinese herb Corydalis, displayed utility in the treatment of cocaine and heroin addiction via reduction of drug-intake and relapse. The present study examined the effects of l-THP on abuse-related effects of nicotine...
November 7, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805736/therapeutic-concentrations-of-varenicline-in-the-presence-of-nicotine-increase-action-potential-firing-in-human-adrenal-chromaffin-cells
#12
Arik J Hone, J Michael McIntosh, Lola Rueda-Ruzafa, Juan Passas, Cristina de Castro-Guerín, Jesús Blázquez, Carmen González-Enguita, Almudena Albillos
Varenicline is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist used to treat nicotine addiction but a live debate persists concerning its mechanism of action in reducing nicotine consumption. Although initially reported as α4β2-selective, varenicline was subsequently shown to activate other nAChR subtypes implicated in nicotine addiction including α3β4. However, it remains unclear whether activation of α3β4 nAChRs by therapeutically relevant concentrations of varenicline is sufficient to affect the behavior of cells that express this subtype...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798084/unassisted-quitting-and-smoking-cessation-methods-used-in-the-united-states-analyses-of-2010-2011-tobacco-use-supplement-to-the-current-population-survey-data
#13
Julia N Soulakova, Lisa J Crockett
INTRODUCTION: The study estimated the prevalence of unassisted quitting (ie, quitting without pharmacological aids or other interventions) among former smokers and identified the most common smoking cessation methods used by U.S. adult smokers who quit smoking between 2007 and 2011. Among long-term quitters, smoking-related behaviors and factors associated with using pharmacological methods and quitting unassisted were examined. METHODS: The analytic sample consisted solely of former smokers, including 3,583 "long-term quitters" (those who quit 1 to 3 years prior to the survey) and 2,205 "recent quitters" (those who quit within a year prior to the survey), who responded to the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey...
October 8, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794567/budgetary-impact-analysis-of-reimbursement-varenicline-for-the-smoking-cessation-treatment-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-or-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-national-health-system-perspective
#14
Sergio Cedillo, Antoni Sicras-Mainar, Carlos A Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime Fernández de Bobadilla, Javier Rejas-Gutiérrez
AIMS: The study aimed to assess the budgetary impact (BI) of reimbursing varenicline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), type-2 diabetes mellitus (t2-DM) or cardiovascular diseases (CVD). METHODS: The BI was estimated comparing the current non-reimbursed scenario versus a projected reimbursed scenario using the Spanish National Health System (SNHS) perspective. A hybrid model was developed using epidemiological data and Markov chains to estimate smoking cessation rates with varenicline during a 5-year horizon...
October 29, 2016: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784123/-cost-effectiveness-of-pharmacological-smoking-cessation-therapies-a-systematic-literature-review
#15
I Aumann, K Rozanski, K Damm, J-M Graf von der Schulenburg
Aim of the Study: Through the promotion of smoking cessation premature mortality can be prevented. Therefore it is necessary to provide effective and cost-effective smoking cessation interventions. In Germany the cost of pharmacological smoking cessation measures are not yet reimbursed by the statutory health insurance. The aim of this study is to present the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of already approved pharmacological smoking cessation therapies and to evaluate their quality. Method: A systematic literature research was conducted in the databases by DIMDI (Medline, Embase, etc...
October 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754739/retreatment-with-varenicline-is-a-cost-effective-aid-for-smoking-cessation
#16
Kirsi Kautiainen, Heikki Ekroos, Mikko Puhakka, Helena Liira, Juha Laine, Kari Linden, Jarmo Hahl
OBJECTIVE: One quit attempt with varenicline has been found to be a cost-effective smoking cessation intervention. The purpose of this study was to analyze varenicline's cost-effectiveness in patients who relapse during or after the first treatment. A comparison was made between retreatment schema with varenicline and retreatment schema with bupropion, NRT and unaided cessation, and treatment once with varenicline in a Finnish context. METHODS: The two-quit version of BENESCO Markov model was used to follow a cohort of smokers making up to two quit attempts over a lifetime...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742352/black-box-warnings-could-be-removed-from-varenicline
#17
Dara Mohammadi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734465/interventions-to-reduce-harm-from-continued-tobacco-use
#18
REVIEW
Nicola Lindson-Hawley, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Thomas R Fanshawe, Rachna Begh, Amanda Farley, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is currently the only guaranteed way to reduce the harm caused by tobacco smoking, a reasonable secondary tobacco control approach may be to try and reduce the harm from continued tobacco use amongst smokers unable or unwilling to quit. Possible approaches to reduce the exposure to toxins from smoking include reducing the amount of tobacco used, and using less toxic products, such as pharmaceutical, nicotine and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs), as an alternative to cigarettes...
October 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726337/synthesis-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-binding-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pharmacological-properties-of-2-fluoro-substituted-thiophenyl-deschloroepibatidine-analogs
#19
Pauline W Ondachi, Ana H Castro, Benjamin Sherman, Charles W Luetje, M Imad Damaj, Samuel Wayne Mascarella, Hernán A Navarro, Frank Ivy Carroll
The synthesis, nAChR in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of 2'-fluoro-3'-(substituted thiophenyl)deschloroepibatidine analogues (5a-f, 6a-d, and 7a-c) are presented herein. All had subnanomolar affinity at α4β2*-nAChRs. Contrary to lead structure epibatidine, a potent nAChR agonist, all were potent α4β2- and α3β4-AChR antagonists in an in vitro functional assay. In vivo, the compounds were also nAChR antagonists with various degrees of agonist activity. Compounds 5e, 5f, 6a, 6c, 6d, and 7c had no agonist effects in the tail-flick, hot-plate, hypothermia, or spontaneous activity tests whereas 5a-d, 7a and 7b did not have agonist activity in the tail-flick and hot-plate tests but like varenicline, were agonists in the hypothermia and spontaneous activity tests...
October 11, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716223/gender-difference-and-effect-of-pharmacotherapy-findings-from-a-smoking-cessation-service
#20
N J Walker, H C van Woerden, V Kiparoglou, Y Yang, H Robinson, E Croghan
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation services are available in England to provide assistance to those wishing to quit smoking. Data from one such service were analysed in order to investigate differences in quit rate between males and females prescribed with different treatments. METHODS: A logistic regression model was fitted to the data using the binary response of self-reported quit (failed attempt = 0, successful attempt = 1), validated by Carbon Monoxide (CO) monitoring, 4 weeks after commencing programme...
October 3, 2016: BMC Public Health
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