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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241198/fam3a-protects-against-glutamate-induced-toxicity-by-preserving-calcium-homeostasis-in-differentiated-pc12-cells
#1
Qing Song, Wen-Li Gou, Yu-Liang Zou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability, and glutamate-induced dysregulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is a key mechanism. FAM3A is the first member of the family with sequence similarity 3 (FAM3) gene family, and its biological function remains largely unknown. We have recently reported that FAM3A exerts protective effects against oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HT22 cells. METHODS: Here, we investigated the protective effects of FAM3A using a glutamate-induced neuronal injury model in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241173/surgical-management-of-gliomas-in-eloquent-cortex
#2
Sherise D Ferguson, Ian E McCutcheon
Gliomas located in eloquent cortex impose a unique surgical obstacle. The oncological benefit of aggressive resection must be balanced with preservation of functional tissue and optimization of surgical outcome. Technical advances in preoperative functional imaging, refinement of intraoperative mapping, and conceptual understanding of cerebral plasticity have significantly improved the outcome of this patient population.
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241169/imaging-of-intracranial-gliomas
#3
Yuko Ono, Mikhail F Chernov, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama, Kayoko Abe, Hiroshi Iseki
Combined use of contemporary radiological modalities, particularly integration of structural, metabolic, and functional imaging, provides optimal multifaceted information for detailed characterization of intracranial gliomas. It allows differentiation of the tumor from non-neoplastic pathology, its non-invasive histopathological typing and grading, prediction of patient prognosis and clinical course of the disease, detailed planning of surgical resection or biopsy, critical postoperative assessment of the residual lesion, effective surveillance during follow-up with evaluation of effectiveness of the adjuvant therapy and timely identification of recurrence, and even insights into molecular signatures of the neoplasms...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240995/mono-chromophoric-design-strategy-for-tetrazine-based-colorful-bioorthogonal-probes-with-a-single-fluorescent-core-skeleton
#4
Youngjun Lee, Wansang Cho, June Sung, Eunha Kim, Seung Bum Park
Fluorogenic bioorthogonal probe is ideal for fluorescent imaging in live cell condition. By taking advantage of dual functionality of tetrazine (Tz), bioorthogonal reaction unit as well as fluorescence quencher, fluorophore-Tz conjugate (FLTz) has been utilized for fluorescent live cell imaging via inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder (iEDDA) type bioorthogonal reaction. However, most of FLTz strategies rely on donor-acceptor type energy transfer mechanism which limits red-shifting of probes' emission wavelength without deterioration of fluorescent turn-on/off ratio...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240905/coronary-autoregulation-and-assessment-of-stenosis-severity-without-pharmacological-vasodilation
#5
Guus A de Waard, Christopher M Cook, Niels van Royen, Justin E Davies
For identification of myocardial ischaemia by non-invasive imaging or invasive physiological assessment, administration of a vasodilating or positive inotropic agent is often considered indispensable to exhaust the cardiac compensation mechanisms. Indeed, microcirculatory dilatation is needed for assessment of myocardial perfusion or coronary blood flow. However, three different modalities exist that quantify myocardial ischaemia without recourse to pharmacological stress agents, using either myocardial contrast echocardiography, imaging of myocardial blood volume or invasive coronary pressure measurement with the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR)...
December 11, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240891/primary-ovarian-insufficiency-and-azospermia-in-carriers-of-a-homozygous-psmc3ip-stop-gain-mutation
#6
Abdulmoein Eid Al-Agha, Ihab Abdulhamed Ahmed, Esther Nuebel, Mika Moriwaki, Barry Moore, Katherine A Peacock, Tim Mosbruger, Deborah W Neklason, Lynn B Jorde, Mark Yandell, Corrine K Welt
Context: The etiology of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) remains unknown in a majority of cases. Objective: We sought to identify genes causing POI. Design: The study was a familial genetic study. Setting: The study was performed in two academic institutions. Patients: We identified a consanguineous Yemeni family in which 4 daughters had POI. A brother had azoospermia. Intervention: DNA was subjected to whole genome sequencing...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240833/vagal-nerve-stimulation-triggers-widespread-responses-and-alters-large-scale-functional-connectivity-in-the-rat-brain
#7
Jiayue Cao, Kun-Han Lu, Terry L Powley, Zhongming Liu
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapy for epilepsy and depression. However, its efficacy varies and its mechanism remains unclear. Prior studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map brain activations with VNS in human brains, but have reported inconsistent findings. The source of inconsistency is likely attributable to the complex temporal characteristics of VNS-evoked fMRI responses that cannot be fully explained by simplified response models in the conventional model-based analysis for activation mapping...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240774/pharmacological-inactivation-does-not-support-a-unique-causal-role-for-intraparietal-sulcus-in-the-discrimination-of-visual-number
#8
Nicholas K DeWind, Jiyun Peng, Andrew Luo, Elizabeth M Brannon, Michael L Platt
The "number sense" describes the intuitive ability to quantify without counting. Single neuron recordings in non-human primates and functional imaging in humans suggest the intraparietal sulcus is an important neuroanatomical locus of numerical estimation. Other lines of inquiry implicate the IPS in numerous other functions, including attention and decision making. Here we provide a direct test of whether IPS has functional specificity for numerosity judgments. We used muscimol to reversibly and independently inactivate the ventral and lateral intraparietal areas in two monkeys performing a numerical discrimination task and a color discrimination task, roughly equilibrated for difficulty...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240567/theoretical-evaluation-and-experimental-validation-of-localized-therapeutic-hypothermia-application-to-preserve-residual-hearing-after-cochlear-implantation
#9
Ilmar Tamames, Curtis King, Chin-Yuh Huang, Fred F Telischi, Michael E Hoffer, Suhrud M Rajguru
OBJECTIVES: Cochlear implantation surgery has been shown to result in trauma to inner ear sensory structures, resulting in loss of residual hearing. Localized therapeutic hypothermia has been shown in clinical care to be a neuroprotective intervention. Previously, we have shown in an experimental model that localized hypothermia protects cochlear hair cells and residual hearing function against surgical and cochlear implantation trauma. Using experimental temperature measurements carried out in human cadaver temporal bones and a finite element model of the inner ear, the present study examined the temperature distribution of a custom-designed hypothermia delivery system in the human inner ear organs...
December 13, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240088/contrast-enhanced-quarter-talbot-images
#10
Saifollah Rasouli, Davud Hebri
In this paper a rigorous mathematical approach to the near-field diffraction of 1D periodic structures at quarter-Talbot distances is presented. At the beginning of the paper, we present a mathematical investigation on the behavior of periodic functions under squaring by the aid of Fourier analysis. We determine sufficient conditions for a periodic function in which its fundamental period is halved by squaring. We show that if Fourier expansion of a given periodic function includes only coefficients with odd indexes, and minimum difference of the indexes is 2, then its fundamental period halves by squaring...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239832/magnetic-resonance-elastography-for-examining-developmental-changes-in-the-mechanical-properties-of-the-brain
#11
REVIEW
Curtis L Johnson, Eva H Telzer
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a quantitative imaging technique for noninvasively characterizing tissue mechanical properties, and has recently emerged as a valuable tool for neuroimaging. The measured mechanical properties reflect the microstructural composition and organization of neural tissue, and have shown significant effects in many neurological conditions and normal, healthy aging, and evidence has emerged supporting novel relationships between mechanical structure and cognitive function. The sensitivity of MRE to brain structure, function, and health make it an ideal technique for studying the developing brain; however, brain MRE studies on children and adolescents have only just begun...
September 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239789/anterior-cingulate-volume-predicts-response-to-psychotherapy-and-functional-connectivity-with-the-inferior-parietal-cortex-in-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Fabio Sambataro, Nadja Doerig, Jürgen Hänggi, Robert Christian Wolf, Janis Brakowski, Martin Grosse Holtforth, Erich Seifritz, Simona Spinelli
In major depressive disorder (MDD), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been associated with clinical outcome as well as with antidepressant treatment response. Nonetheless, the association between individual differences in ACC structure and function and the response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is still unexplored. For this aim, twenty-five unmedicated patients with MDD were scanned with structural and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before the beginning of CBT treatment. ACC morphometry was correlated with clinical changes following psychotherapy...
November 24, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239768/phenotypic-spectrum-of-tessier-facial-cleft-number-5
#13
Caroline Racz, Stéphanie Dakpé, Natacha Kadlub, Sylvie Testelin, Bernard Devauchelle, Martin Rachwalski, Arnaud Picard
INTRODUCTION: Craniofacial clefts belong to the most disfiguring and rare congenital malformations of the face and among these, orbito-facial clefts constitute approximately 0.22 % of the cases with Tessier cleft number 5 being the least common. Our aim was to define the phenotypic spectrum for this subgroup to improve clinical management. METHODS: Our study group consisted of four patients which were treated at two different cleft centers. Retrospective chart review and anatomical analysis were conducted for each patient based on clinical evaluation and imaging studies...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239725/t-cell-calcium-dynamics-visualized-in-a-ratiometric-tdtomato-gcamp6f-transgenic-reporter-mouse
#14
Tobias X Dong, Shivashankar Othy, Amit Jairaman, Jonathan Skupsky, Angel Zavala, Ian Parker, Joseph L Dynes, Michael D Cahalan
Calcium is an essential cellular messenger that regulates numerous functions in living organisms. Here we describe development and characterization of 'Salsa6f', a fusion of GCaMP6f and tdTomato optimized for cell tracking while monitoring cytosolic Ca2+, and a transgenic Ca2+ reporter mouse with Salsa6f targeted to the Rosa26 locus for Cre-dependent expression in specific cell types. The development and function of T cells was unaffected in Cd4-Salsa6f mice. We describe Ca2+ signals reported by Salsa6f during T cell receptor activation in naïve T cells, helper Th17 T cells and regulatory T cells, and Ca2+ signals mediated in T cells by an activator of mechanosensitive Piezo1channels...
December 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239622/coactivation-of-cognitive-control-networks-during-task-switching
#15
Shouhang Yin, Gedeon Deák, Antao Chen
OBJECTIVE: The ability to flexibly switch between tasks is considered an important component of cognitive control that involves frontal and parietal cortical areas. The present study was designed to characterize network dynamics across multiple brain regions during task switching. METHOD: Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were captured during a standard rule-switching task to identify switching-related brain regions. Multiregional psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was used to examine effective connectivity between these regions...
December 14, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239454/organelle-targeting-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-sers-nanosensors-for-subcellular-ph-sensing
#16
Yanting Shen, Lijia Liang, Shuqin Zhang, Dianshuai Huang, Jing Zhang, Shuping Xu, Chongyang Liang, Weiqing Xu
The pH value of subcellular organelles in living cells is a significant parameter in the physiological activities of cells. Its abnormal fluctuations are commonly believed to be associated with cancers and other diseases. Herein, a series of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanosensors with high sensitivity and targeting function was prepared for the quantification and monitoring of pH values in mitochondria, nucleus, and lysosome. The nanosensors were composed of gold nanorods (AuNRs) functionalized with a pH-responsive molecule (4-mercaptopyridine, MPy) and peptides that could specifically deliver the AuNRs to the targeting subcellular organelles...
December 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239442/hydrodynamics-mediated-trapping-of-micro-swimmers-near-drops
#17
Nikhil Desai, Vaseem A Shaik, Arezoo M Ardekani
In this paper, we investigate the swimming characteristics and dynamics of a model micro-swimmer in the vicinity of a clean drop, and of a surfactant covered drop. We model the swimmer as a force dipole and utilize the image-singularity system to study the dynamical behavior of the swimmer. Motivated by bacterial bio-remediation of insoluble hydrocarbons (HCs) released during oil spills, we report the 'trapping characteristics' - critical trapping radius, basin of attraction and trapping time distribution - of deterministic and stochastic swimmers, as a function of viscosity ratio, and dimensionless surface viscosity...
December 14, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239410/uptake-and-transcytosis-of-functionalized-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-an-in-vitro-blood-brain-barrier-model
#18
Angela Ivask, Emily H Pilkington, Thomas Blin, Aleksandr Käkinen, Heiki Vija, Meeri Visnapuu, John F Quinn, Michael R Whittaker, Ruirui Qiao, Thomas P Davis, Pu Chun Ke, Nicolas H Voelcker
Two major hurdles in nanomedicine are the limited strategies for synthesizing stealth nanoparticles and the poor efficacy of the nanoparticles in translocating across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Here we examined the uptake and transcytosis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) grafted with biomimetic phosphorylcholine (PC) brushes in an in vitro BBB model system, and compared them with bare, PEG or PC-PEG mixture grafted IONPs. Hyperspectral imaging indicated IONP co-localization with cells. Quantitative analysis with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry showed that after 24 h, 78% of PC grafted, 68-69% of PEG or PC-PEG grafted, and 30% of bare IONPs were taken up by the BBB...
December 14, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239328/leap-motion-based-virtual-reality-training-for-improving-motor-functional-recovery-of-upper-limbs-and-neural-reorganization-in-subacute-stroke-patients
#19
Zun-Rong Wang, Ping Wang, Liang Xing, Li-Ping Mei, Jun Zhao, Tong Zhang
Virtual reality is nowadays used to facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. Most virtual reality studies have involved chronic stroke patients; however, brain plasticity remains good in acute and subacute patients. Most virtual reality systems are only applicable to the proximal upper limbs (arms) because of the limitations of their capture systems. Nevertheless, the functional recovery of an affected hand is most difficult in the case of hemiparesis rehabilitation after a stroke. The recently developed Leap Motion controller can track the fine movements of both hands and fingers...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239257/cardiac-magnetic-resonance-assessment-of-diastolic-dysfunction-in-acute-coronary-syndrome
#20
Shah M Azarisman, Karen S Teo, Matthew I Worthley, Stephen G Worthley
Chest pain is an important presenting symptom. However, few cases of chest pain are diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the acute setting. This results in frequent inappropriate discharge and major delay in treatment for patients with underlying ACS. The conventional methods of assessing ACS, which include electrocardiography and serological markers of infarct, can take time to manifest. Recent studies have investigated more sensitive and specific imaging modalities that can be used. Diastolic dysfunction occurs early following coronary artery occlusion and its detection is useful in confirming the diagnosis, risk stratification, and prognosis post-ACS...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
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