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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760768/mechanisms-of-change-for-interventions-aimed-at-improving-the-wellbeing-mental-health-and-resilience-of-children-and-adolescents-affected-by-war-and-armed-conflict-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#1
REVIEW
Tania Josiane Bosqui, Bassam Marshoud
Despite increasing research and clinical interest in delivering psychosocial interventions for children affected by war, little research has been conducted on the underlying mechanisms of change associated with these interventions. This review aimed to identify these processes in order to inform existing interventions and highlight research gaps. A systematic review of reviews was conducted drawing from academic databases (PubMed, PILOTS, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews) and field resources (e.g. Médecins Sans Frontières and the Psychosocial Centre of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies), with extracted data analysed using Thematic Content Analysis...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756588/toward-a-shared-care-model-of-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-role-of-the-primary-care-practitioner
#2
Jiwon Oh, Marie-Sarah Gagné-Brosseau, Melanie Guenette, Catherine Larochelle, François Lemieux, Suresh Menon, Sarah A Morrow, Laurence Poliquin-Lasnier, Chantal Roy-Hewitson, Carolina Rush, Anne-Marie Trudelle, Paul S Giacomini
The objective of this study was to develop a shared-care model to enable primary-care physicians to participate more fully in meeting the complex, multidisciplinary healthcare needs of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN: The design consisted of development of consensus recommendations and a shared-care algorithm. PARTICIPANTS: A working group of 11 Canadian neurologists involved in the management of patients with MS were included in this study. MAIN MESSAGE: The clinical management of patients with multiple sclerosis is increasing in complexity as new disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) become available, and ongoing safety monitoring is required...
May 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755896/bouveret-s-syndrome-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Fady G Haddad, Wissam Mansour, Liliane Deeb
It was in 1896 that Bouveret's syndrome acquired its name after the French physician Leon Bouveret, who published two case reports in Revue de Medecin. Bouveret's syndrome describes gastric outlet obstruction secondary to an impacted gallstone. The gallstone reaches the small bowel through a bilioenteric fistula as a consequence of chronic inflammation and adherence between the biliary system and the bowels which increase the intraluminal pressure and leads to secondary wall ischemia and wall perforation with gallstone passage into the bowel...
March 10, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746619/voluntary-community-human-immunodeficiency-virus-testing-linkage-and-retention-in-care-interventions-in-kenya-modeling-the-clinical-impact-and-cost-effectiveness
#4
Liem B Luong Nguyen, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, David Maman, Sitima Wanjala, Alexandra Vandenbulcke, Jianthi Price, Robert A Parker, William Hennequin, Pierre Mendiharat, Kenneth A Freedberg
Background: In southwest Kenya, the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is about 25%. Médecins Sans Frontières has implemented a voluntary community testing (VCT) program, with linkage to care and retention interventions, to achieve the Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets by 2017. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Methods: We developed a time-discrete, dynamic microsimulation model to project HIV incidence over time in the adult population in Kenya...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734337/highly-targeted-cholera-vaccination-campaigns-in-urban-setting-are-feasible-the-experience-in-kalemie-democratic-republic-of-congo
#5
Louis Albert Massing, Soumah Aboubakar, Alexandre Blake, Anne-Laure Page, Sandra Cohuet, Adalbert Ngandwe, Eric Mukomena Sompwe, Romain Ramazani, Marcela Allheimen, Philippe Levaillant, Pauline Lechevalier, Marie Kashimi, Axelle de la Motte, Arielle Calmejane, Malika Bouhenia, Ernest Dabire, Didier Bompangue, Benoit Kebela, Klaudia Porten, Francisco Luquero
INTRODUCTION: Oral cholera vaccines are primarily recommended by the World Health Organization for cholera control in endemic countries. However, the number of cholera vaccines currently produced is very limited and examples of OCV use in endemic countries, and especially in urban settings, are scarce. A vaccination campaign was organized by Médecins Sans Frontières and the Ministry of Health in a highly endemic area in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This study aims to describe the vaccine coverage achieved with this highly targeted vaccination campaign and the acceptability among the vaccinated communities...
May 7, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731398/cholera-epidemic-in-yemen-2016-18-an-analysis-of-surveillance-data
#6
Anton Camacho, Malika Bouhenia, Reema Alyusfi, Abdulhakeem Alkohlani, Munna Abdulla Mohammed Naji, Xavier de Radiguès, Abdinasir M Abubakar, Abdulkareem Almoalmi, Caroline Seguin, Maria Jose Sagrado, Marc Poncin, Melissa McRae, Mohammed Musoke, Ankur Rakesh, Klaudia Porten, Christopher Haskew, Katherine E Atkins, Rosalind M Eggo, Andrew S Azman, Marije Broekhuijsen, Mehmet Akif Saatcioglu, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Marie-Laure Quilici, Abdul Rahman Al-Mesbahy, Nevio Zagaria, Francisco J Luquero
BACKGROUND: In war-torn Yemen, reports of confirmed cholera started in late September, 2016. The disease continues to plague Yemen today in what has become the largest documented cholera epidemic of modern times. We aimed to describe the key epidemiological features of this epidemic, including the drivers of cholera transmission during the outbreak. METHODS: The Yemen Health Authorities set up a national cholera surveillance system to collect information on suspected cholera cases presenting at health facilities...
May 3, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676758/learning-from-water-treatment-and-hygiene-interventions-in-response-to-a-hepatitis-e-outbreak-in-an-open-setting-in-chad
#7
Alexander Spina, David Beversluis, Andrea Irwin, Alexandra Chen, Jean Noel Nassariman, Abdelkhadir Ahamat, Idriss Noh, Jan Oosterloo, Prince Alfani, Sibylle Sang, Annick Lenglet, Dawn Louise Taylor
In September 2016, Médecins Sans Frontières responded to a hepatitis E (HEV) outbreak in Chad by implementing water treatment and hygiene interventions. To evaluate the coverage and use of these interventions, we conducted a cross-sectional study in the community. Our results showed that 99% of households interviewed had received a hygiene kit from us, aimed at improving water handling practice and personal hygiene and almost all respondents had heard messages about preventing jaundice and handwashing. Acceptance of chlorination of drinking water was also very high, although at the time of interview, we were only able to measure a safe free residual chlorine level (free chlorine residual (FRC) ≥0...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666129/preventing-emergency-department-ed-visits-and-hospitalisations-of-older-adults-with-cognitive-impairment-compared-with-the-general-senior-population-what-do-we-know-about-avoidable-incidents-results-from-a-scoping-review
#8
Mireille Gagnon-Roy, Benyahia Hami, Mélissa Généreux, Nathalie Veillette, Marie-Josée Sirois, Mary Egan, Véronique Provencher
OBJECTIVES: Older cognitively impaired adults present a higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality following a visit to the emergency department (ED). Better understanding of avoidable incidents is needed to prevent them and the associated ED presentations in community-dwelling adults. This study aimed to synthetise the actual knowledge concerning these incidents leading this population to ED presentation, as well as possible preventive measures to reduce them. DESIGN: A scoping review was performed according to the Arksey and O'Malley framework...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624584/the-impact-of-passive-case-detection-on-the-transmission-dynamics-of-gambiense-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#9
Francesco Checchi, Sebastian Funk, Daniel Chandramohan, François Chappuis, Daniel T Haydon
Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne disease affecting largely rural populations in Western and Central Africa. The main method for detecting and treating cases of gambiense HAT are active screening through mobile teams and passive detection through self-referral of patients to dedicated treatment centres or hospitals. Strategies based on active case finding and treatment have drastically reduced the global incidence of the disease over recent decades. However, little is known about the coverage and transmission impact of passive case detection...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616643/m%C3%A3-decine-et-sant%C3%A3-tropicales-prospects
#10
J-J Morand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588048/-communities-of-conditions-novel-methods-for-classifying-psychiatric-disorders
#11
EDITORIAL
David S Hong
In 1798, Philippe Pinel presented one of the first nosologies for psychiatric disorders, "Nosographie philosophique ou la méthode de l'analyse appliquée a la médecine."1 His emphasis on psychological and physical conditions as the basis of mental illness provided a distinct departure from prior reliance on such etiologies such as demonic possession. Establishing classification schema was a much more profound innovation than a simple academic reordering of psychiatric phenomena-under Pinel's leadership at the famed Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital, it also led to a radical reformation of clinical interventions, moving away from pseudoscientific practices toward psychologically based interventions...
April 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581201/voices-from-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-protocol-of-primary-healthcare-interventions-within-public-health-systems-addressing-intimate-partner-violence-against-women
#12
Marcos Claudio Signorelli, Stav Hillel, Daniel Canavese de Oliveira, Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla, Kelsey Hegarty, Angela Taft
INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) considerably harms the health, safety and well-being of women. In response, public health systems around the globe have been gradually implementing strategies. In particular, low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) have been developing innovative interventions in primary healthcare (PHC) addressing the problem. This paper describes a protocol for a systematic review of studies addressing the impacts and outcomes of PHC centre interventions addressing IPV against women from LMIC...
March 25, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565105/white-book-on-physical-and-rehabilitation-medicine-prm-in-europe-chapter-4-history-of-the-specialty-where-prm-comes-from
#13
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the history of the PRM medical specialty. The specialty evolved in different European countries, and sometimes also into the single countries, from different medical streams that finally joined. These included among others: balneology, gymnastic, use of physical agents (water, heat, cold, massage, joint manipulations, physical exercise, etc.). Another important role has been played by the increasing number of people experiencing or likely to experience disability due to improvement of medicine and consequent survivals from wars, accidents and/or big infective epidemics (like polio); these evolutions happened in strict relationship with other specialties like cardiology, neurology, orthopaedics, pneumology, rheumatology, traumatology, creating a knowledge transversal to all of them...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559211/tracheotomy-in-the-intensive-care-unit-guidelines-from-a-french-expert-panel-the-french-intensive-care-society-and-the-french-society-of-anaesthesia-and-intensive-care-medicine
#14
Jean-Louis Trouillet, Olivier Collange, Fouad Belafia, François Blot, Gilles Capellier, Eric Cesareo, Jean-Michel Constantin, Alexandre Demoule, Jean-Luc Diehl, Pierre-Grégoire Guinot, Franck Jegoux, Erwan L'Her, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Yazine Mahjoub, Julien Mayaux, Hervé Quintard, François Ravat, Sébastien Vergez, Julien Amour, Max Guillot
Tracheotomy is widely used in intensive care units, albeit with great disparities between medical teams in terms of frequency and modality. Indications and techniques are, however, associated with variable levels of evidence based on inhomogeneous or even contradictory literature. Our aim was to conduct a systematic analysis of the published data in order to provide guidelines. We present herein recommendations for the use of tracheotomy in adult critically ill patients developed using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) method...
March 17, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550772/-he-who-helps-the-guilty-shares-the-crime-ingos-moral-narcissism-and-complicity-in-wrongdoing
#15
Pete Buth, Benoit de Gryse, Sean Healy, Vincent Hoedt, Tara Newell, Giovanni Pintaldi, Hernan Del Valle, Julian C Sheather, Sidney Wong
Humanitarian organisations often work alongside those responsible for serious wrongdoing. In these circumstances, accusations of moral complicity are sometimes levelled at decision makers. These accusations can carry a strong if unfocused moral charge and are frequently the source of significant moral unease. In this paper, we explore the meaning and usefulness of complicity and its relation to moral accountability. We also examine the impact of concerns about complicity on the motivation of humanitarian staff and the risk that complicity may lead to a retreat into moral narcissism...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549171/inter-rater-and-intrarater-reliability-of-the-south-african-triage-scale-in-low-resource-settings-of-haiti-and-afghanistan
#16
Mohammed Dalwai, Katie Tayler-Smith, Michèle Twomey, Masood Nasim, Abdul Qayum Popal, Waliul Haq Haqdost, Olivia Gayraud, Sophia Cheréstal, Lee Wallis, Pola Valles
OBJECTIVE: The South African Triage Scale (SATS) has demonstrated good validity in the EDs of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-supported sites in Afghanistan and Haiti; however, corresponding reliability in these settings has not yet been reported on. This study set out to assess the inter-rater and intrarater reliability of the SATS in four MSF-supported EDs in Afghanistan and Haiti (two trauma-only EDs and two mixed (including both medical and trauma cases) EDs). METHODS: Under classroom conditions between December 2013 and February 2014, ED nurses at each site assigned triage ratings to a set of context-specific vignettes (written case reports of ED patients)...
March 16, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547379/-message-du-pr%C3%A3-sident-faire-avancer-la-m%C3%A3-decine-familiale-rurale
#17
Tom Smith-Windsor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546588/tracheotomy-in-the-intensive-care-unit-guidelines-from-a-french-expert-panel
#18
REVIEW
Jean Louis Trouillet, Olivier Collange, Fouad Belafia, François Blot, Gilles Capellier, Eric Cesareo, Jean-Michel Constantin, Alexandre Demoule, Jean-Luc Diehl, Pierre-Grégoire Guinot, Franck Jegoux, Erwan L'Her, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Yazine Mahjoub, Julien Mayaux, Hervé Quintard, François Ravat, Sebastien Vergez, Julien Amour, Max Guillot
Tracheotomy is widely used in intensive care units, albeit with great disparities between medical teams in terms of frequency and modality. Indications and techniques are, however, associated with variable levels of evidence based on inhomogeneous or even contradictory literature. Our aim was to conduct a systematic analysis of the published data in order to provide guidelines. We present herein recommendations for the use of tracheotomy in adult critically ill patients developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511602/infectious-disease-risk-and-vaccination-in-northern-syria-after-5-years-of-civil-war-the-msf-experience
#19
Alan de Lima Pereira, Rosamund Southgate, Hikmet Ahmed, Penelope O'Connor, Vanessa Cramond, Annick Lenglet
Introduction: In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015...
February 2, 2018: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502905/mapping-the-burden-of-cholera-in-sub-saharan-africa-and-implications-for-control-an-analysis-of-data-across-geographical-scales
#20
Justin Lessler, Sean M Moore, Francisco J Luquero, Heather S McKay, Rebecca Grais, Myriam Henkens, Martin Mengel, Jessica Dunoyer, Maurice M'bangombe, Elizabeth C Lee, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Bertrand Sudre, Didier Bompangue, Robert S M Fraser, Abdinasir Abubakar, William Perea, Dominique Legros, Andrew S Azman
BACKGROUND: Cholera remains a persistent health problem in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. Cholera can be controlled through appropriate water and sanitation, or by oral cholera vaccination, which provides transient (∼3 years) protection, although vaccine supplies remain scarce. We aimed to map cholera burden in sub-Saharan Africa and assess how geographical targeting could lead to more efficient interventions. METHODS: We combined information on cholera incidence in sub-Saharan Africa (excluding Djibouti and Eritrea) from 2010 to 2016 from datasets from WHO, Médecins Sans Frontières, ProMED, ReliefWeb, ministries of health, and the scientific literature...
March 1, 2018: Lancet
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