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Agnieszka Brandt-Talbot, Lisa Weigand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
G Di Martino, H Fleming, M Kamp, F Lussier
The 2017 Faraday Discussion on Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) attracted more than a hundred delegates from a broad spectrum of backgrounds and experience levels, bringing together leading scientists involved in the long living field of SERS. The meeting gave an overview of the liveliness of the topic, characterised by open questions and fascinating science still to discover. In the following, we discuss the topics covered during this meeting and briefly highlight the content of each presentation.
November 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Adithya Vijaykumar, Pieter Rein Ten Wolde, Peter G Bolhuis
Intrinsic and effective rate constants have an important role in the theory of diffusion-limited reactions. In a previous paper, we provide detailed microscopic expressions for these intrinsic rates [A. Vijaykumar, P. G. Bolhuis, and P. R. ten Wolde, Faraday Discuss. 195, 421 (2016)], which are usually considered as abstract quantities and assumed to be implicitly known. Using these microscopic expressions, we investigate how the rate of association depends on the strength and the range of the isotropic potential and the strength of the non-specific attraction in case of the anisotropic potential...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
M Samperi, B E Hirsch, Y A Diaz Fernandez
The 2017 Faraday Discussion on Complex Molecular Surfaces and Interfaces brought together theoreticians and experimentalists from both physical and chemical backgrounds to discuss the relevant applied and fundamental research topics within the broader field of chemical surface analysis and characterization. Main discussion topics from the meeting included the importance of "disordered" two-dimensional (2D) molecular structures and the utility of kinetically trapped states. An emerging need for new experimental tools to address dynamics and kinetic pathways involved in self-assembled systems, as well as the future prospects and current limitations of in silico studies were also discussed...
November 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Ioan Bâldea
Molecular species investigated as possible candidates for molecular photoswitches often toggle between two (low and high conductance) conformations implying skeletal rearrangement, bond breaking, and substantial changes of molecular length. All these represent shortcomings that impede the switching speed and straightforward incorporation in nanodevices. In the present paper we propose a mechanism wherein the photoinduced switching is from a nonplanar conformation to a planar conformation, and involves neither skeletal rearrangement nor bond breaking or significant molecular length changes...
November 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lucy J Carpenter, Steve R Arnold, Colette L Heald, A R Ravishankara, Jonathan Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Ivan Merino-Garcia, Jonathan Albo, Angel Irabien
Copper-based surfaces appear as the most active catalysts for CO2 electroreduction to hydrocarbons, even though formation rates and efficiencies still need to be improved. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the continuous gas-phase CO2 electroreduction to hydrocarbons (i.e. ethylene and methane) at copper nanoparticulated-based surfaces, paying attention to particle size influence (ranging from 25 nm to 80 nm) on reaction productivity, selectivity, and Faraday efficiency for CO2 conversion. The effect of the current density and the presence of a microporous layer within the working electrode are then evaluated...
November 9, 2017: Nanotechnology
Astrid H Paulitsch-Fuchs, Andrea Zsohár, Adam D Wexler, Andrea Zauner, Clemens Kittinger, Joeri de Valença, Elmar C Fuchs
An aqueous electrohydrodynamic (EHD) floating liquid bridge is a unique environment for studying the influence of protonic currents (mA cm(-2)) in strong DC electric fields (kV cm(-1)) on the behavior of microorganisms. It forms in between two beakers filled with water when high-voltage is applied to these beakers. We recently discovered that exposure to this bridge has a stimulating effect on Escherichia coli.. In this work we show that the survival is due to a natural Faraday cage effect of the cell wall of these microorganisms using a simple 2D model...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Yibo Yan, Kaixin Li, Xiaoping Chen, Yanhui Yang, Jong-Min Lee
Expedition of electron transfer efficiency and optimization of surface reactant adsorption products desorption processes are two main challenges for developing non-noble catalysts in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and CO2 reduction reaction (CRR). A heterojunction prototype on Co3 S4 @Co3 O4 core-shell octahedron structure is established via hydrothermal lattice anion exchange protocol to implement the electroreduction of oxygen and carbon dioxide with high performance. The synergistic bifunctional catalyst consists of p-type Co3 O4 core and n-type Co3 S4 shell, which afford high surface electron density along with high capacitance without sacrificing mechanical robustness...
November 7, 2017: Small
Uttam Manna, Jung-Hoon Lee, Tian-Song Deng, John Parker, Nolan C Shepherd, Yossi Weizmann, Norbert F Scherer
Extension of the Maxwell-Faraday law of electromagnetic induction to optical frequencies requires spatially appropriate materials and optical beams to create resonances and excitations with curl. Here we employ cylindrical vector beams with azimuthal polarization to create electric fields that selectively drive magnetic responses in dielectric core-metal nanoparticle "satellite" nanostructures. These optical frequency magnetic resonances are induced in materials that do not possess spin or orbital angular momentum...
November 7, 2017: Nano Letters
Xiaodong Zhou, Wanxiang Feng, Fei Li, Yugui Yao
Blue phosphorene (BP) and gray arsenene (GA), consisting of phosphorus and arsenic atoms in two-dimensional (2D) low-buckled honeycomb lattices, respectively, have received great interest because of their excellent electronic and optoelectronic performances. Here, using first-principles density functional theory, we investigate magneto-optical (MO) Kerr and Faraday effects in BP and GA under hole doping. Ferromagnetic ground states are found in hole-doped monolayer and bilayer BP and GA due to the Stoner electronic instability, which originates from the van Hove singularity of the density of states at the valence band edge...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
S W Miller, B D Prince, R J Bemish
A combined experimental and modeling effort is undertaken to assess a detection system composed of an orthogonal extraction time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer coupled to a continuous ion source emitting an ion beam with kinetic energy of several hundred eV. The continuous ion source comprises an electrospray capillary system employing an undiluted ionic liquid emitting directly into vacuum. The resulting ion beam consists of ions with kinetic energy distributions of width greater than a hundred of eV and mass-to-charge (m/q) ratios ranging from 111 to 500 000 amu/q...
October 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Jing Wu, Youlun Ju, Tongyu Dai, Baoquan Yao, Yuezhu Wang
We demonstrated an efficient and tunable single-longitudinal-mode Ho:YLF ring laser based on Faraday effect for application to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Single-longitudinal-mode power at 2051.65 nm achieved 528 mW with the slope efficiency of 39.5% and the M(2) factor of 1.07, and the tunable range of about 178 GHz was obtained by inserting a Fabry-Perot (F-P) etalon with the thickness of 0.5 mm. In addition, the maximum single-longitudinal-mode power reached 1.5 W with the injected power of 528 mW at 2051...
October 30, 2017: Optics Express
Qinian Wang, Xinqi Wang, Chao Wu, Yuanyuan Cheng, Qingye Sun, Heng Dong, Hongbing Yu
Electroreduction of CO2 to formic acid (ERCF) based on gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) has been considered as a promising method to convert CO2 into value-added chemicals. However, current GDEs for ERCF suffer from low efficiency of electron transfer. In this work, a novel Sn-based gas diffusion electrode (ESGDE) is prepared by electrodepositing Sn on Nafion-bonded carbon black as catalyst layer to enhance electron transfer and thus the efficiency of ERCF. The highest Faraday efficiency (73.01 ± 3.42%), current density (34...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhidong Du, Chen Chen, Feng Cheng, Yongmin Liu, Liang Pan
All-optical switching (AOS) of magnetization induced by ultrafast laser pulses is fundamentally interesting and promises unprecedented speed for magnetic data storage that is three orders of magnitudes faster than the current techniques. For ferrimagnetic material, the AOS is attributed to magnetic circular dichroism and angular momentum transfer between sublattices. Recently, ferromagnetic material is demonstrated in AOS under multiple pulses. Since the magnetic field needed to flip the ferromagnetic magnetization within femtosecond timescale is unphysically high, some theories hypothesized that there exists a prolonged magnetic field beyond the pulse duration in the switching process...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yantao Xu, Haitao Guo, Xusheng Xiao, Pengfei Wang, Xiaoxia Cui, Min Lu, Changgui Lin, Shixun Dai, Bo Peng
Chalcogenide glasses as kind of diamagnetic magneto-optical materials have promising applications in the field of integrated optics and optical communication systems due to their excellent properties, such as easy to be processed into waveguide and temperature independence of the Verdet constants. For clarifying the influence factors following the compositional variation on Faraday effect and finding a glass with a large Verdet constant, novel pseudo-ternary chalcogenide glass system, GeS2 - In2S3 - PbI2, was prepared and investigated...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
Linbojie Huang, Quan Yu, Lei Deng, Songnian Fu, Ming Tang, Mengfan Cheng, Minming Zhang, Michael Choi, Donald Chang, Gordon K P Lei, Deming Liu
A novel dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) based on self-polarization-stabilization technique has been experimentally demonstrated. The input light in each loop will retrace its path through a 45° Faraday rotator and single mode fiber with different length after reflecting off a 45° Faraday rotator mirror. By this way, the polarization state of the output signal is always rotated by 180° from the polarization state of the input signal in each loop even if the round-trip fiber is perturbed by the mechanical vibration or temperature...
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
Sagie Asraf, Yoav Sintov, Zeev Zalevsky
We propose a novel configuration for an improved and compact all fiber Faraday rotator based on phase matching between the Faraday rotation and bend-induced birefringence. The device utilizes a coiled fiber within two electro-magnetic toroids, such that the fiber length required for getting the beat length is quite long and several rounds of fiber are needed. Analysis of the capabilities of the proposed device and its sensitivity to different parameters is presented. Faraday rotation of 13° was experimentally measured in six meters of single mode silica fiber, with a magnetic field of about 0...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
Haiyang Zhang, Yang Jiang, Hai Yan, Ziheng Cui, Chunhua Yin
Experimental observations for ionic hydration free energies are highly debated mainly due to the ambiguous absolute hydration free energy of proton, ΔGhyd(*)(H(+)). Hydration free energies (HFEs) of the 112 singly charged ions in the Minnesota solvation database were predicted by six methods with explicit and implicit solvent models, namely, thermodynamic integration (TI), energy representation module (ERmod), three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM), and continuum solvation models based on the quantum mechanical charge density (SMD) and on the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) and generalized Born (GB) theories...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
David B Amabilino, Steven L Tait
This paper is derived from our concluding remarks presentation and the ensuing conversations at the Faraday Discussions meeting on Complex Molecular Surfaces and Interfaces, Sheffield, UK, 24th-26th July 2017. This meeting was comprised of sessions on understanding the interaction of molecules with surfaces and their subsequent organisation, reactivity or properties from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. This paper attempts to put these presentations in the wider context and focuses on topics that were debated during the meeting and where we feel that opportunities lie for the future development of this interdisciplinary research area...
October 26, 2017: Faraday Discussions
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