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Benjamin Abécassis, D Martin A Buzza, Qijun Song
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Richard M Crooks
This article provides a summary of the Faraday Discussion on single entity electrochemistry held in York, U.K., in early September, 2016. The introduction provides some context for thinking about electrochemical studies of single entities. The next four sections follow the themes of the meeting as they relate to single-entity electrochemistry: (1) nanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanowires; (2) nanopores and nanofluidics; (3) complex surfaces and reactions at the nanoscale; and (4) molecular electroanalysis. Each paper presented at the Discussion is summarized, and some personal thoughts as to the significance of the findings, the technical advances that made the experiments possible, and common themes between articles are interspersed...
October 20, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Johan van der Meer, André Pampel, Eus van Someren, Jennifer Ramautar, Ysbrand van der Werf, German Gomez-Herrero, Jöran Lepsien, Lydia Hellrung, Hermann Hinrichs, Harald Möller, Martin Walter
This data set contains electroencephalography (EEG) data as well as simultaneous EEG with functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG/fMRI) data. During EEG/fMRI, the EEG cap was outfitted with a hardware-based add-on consisting of carbon-wire loops (CWL). These yielded six extra׳CWL׳ signals related to Faraday induction of these loops in the main magnetic field "Measurement and reduction of motion and ballistocardiogram artefacts from simultaneous EEG and fMRI recordings" (Masterton et al., 2007) [1]. In this data set, the CWL data make it possible to do a direct regression approach to deal with the BCG and specifically He artifact...
June 2016: Data in Brief
G C Maitland
This paper aims to pull together the main points, messages and underlying themes to emerge from the Discussion. It sets these remarks in the context of where Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) fits into the spectrum of carbon mitigation solutions required to meet the challenging greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets set by the COP21 climate change conference. The Discussion focused almost entirely on carbon capture (21 out of 23 papers) and covered all the main technology contenders for this except biological processes...
October 20, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Bamidele Akinwolemiwa, Linpo Yu, Di Hu, Xianbo Jin, John M Slattery, George Z Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Marco Berritta, Ritwik Mondal, Karel Carva, Peter M Oppeneer
We present the first materials specific ab initio theory of the magnetization induced by circularly polarized laser light in metals. Our calculations are based on nonlinear density matrix theory and include the effect of absorption. We show that the induced magnetization, commonly referred to as inverse Faraday effect, is strongly materials and frequency dependent, and demonstrate the existence of both spin and orbital induced magnetizations which exhibit a surprisingly different behavior. We show that for nonmagnetic metals (such as Cu, Au, Pd, Pt) and antiferromagnetic metals the induced magnetization is antisymmetric in the light's helicity, whereas for ferromagnetic metals (Fe, Co, Ni, FePt) the imparted magnetization is only asymmetric in the helicity...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Javed Hussain, Hannes Jónsson, Egill Skúlason
An atomic scale model of the electrical double layer is used to calculate the mechanism and rate of electrochemical reduction of CO2 as well as H2 formation at a Pt(111) electrode. The water layer contains solvated protons and the electrode has excess electrons at the surface. Density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation is used to describe the electronic structure while the mechanism and activation energy of the various elementary reactions is obtained by calculating minimum energy paths using the nudged elastic band method...
September 29, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Slobodan J Petricevic, Pedja M Mihailovic
Compensation of the temperature dependence of the Verdet constant in a polarimetric extrinsic Faraday sensor is of major importance for applying the magneto-optical effect to AC current measurements and magnetic field sensing. This paper presents a method for compensating the temperature effect on the Faraday rotation in a Bi12GeO20 crystal by sensing its optical activity effect on the polarization of a light beam. The method measures the temperature of the same volume of crystal that effects the beam polarization in a magnetic field or current sensing process...
September 30, 2016: Sensors
M Dąbrowski, R Chrapkiewicz, W Wasilewski
Warm atomic vapor quantum memories are simple and robust, yet suffer from a number of parasitic processes which produce excess noise. For operating in a single-photon regime precise filtering of the output light is essential. Here, we report a combination of magnetically tuned absorption and Faraday filters, both light-direction insensitive, which stop the driving lasers and attenuate spurious fluorescence and four-wave mixing while transmitting narrowband Stokes and anti-Stokes photons generated in write-in and readout processes...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Modern Optics
Xufeng Zhang, Na Zhu, Chang-Ling Zou, Hong X Tang
Magnons in ferrimagnetic insulators such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG) have recently emerged as promising candidates for coherent information processing in microwave circuits. Here we demonstrate optical whispering gallery modes of a YIG sphere interrogated by a silicon nitride photonic waveguide, with quality factors approaching 10^{6} in the telecom c band after surface treatments. Moreover, in contrast to conventional Faraday setups, this implement allows an input photon polarized colinearly to the magnetization to be scattered to a sideband mode of orthogonal polarization...
September 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
A Shuvaev, V Dziom, Z D Kvon, N N Mikhailov, A Pimenov
The universal value of the Faraday rotation angle close to the fine structure constant (α≈1/137) is experimentally observed in thin HgTe quantum wells with a thickness on the border between trivial insulating and the topologically nontrivial Dirac phases. The quantized value of the Faraday angle remains robust in the broad range of magnetic fields and gate voltages. Dynamic Hall conductivity of the holelike carriers extracted from the analysis of the transmission data shows a theoretically predicted universal value of σ_{xy}=e^{2}/h, which is consistent with the doubly degenerate Dirac state...
September 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Andrew J Schauer, Julia Kelson, Casey Saenger, Katharine W Huntington
RATIONALE: The clumped isotope composition of CO2 (Δ47 ) derived from carbonate is widely used as a paleotemperature proxy with broad applications in geoscience. Its accuracy is, however, limited by inter-laboratory discrepancies of reference materials and disagreement among carbonate geothermometer calibrations. Here we show how the correction for the abundance of (17) O influences these discrepancies. METHODS: We used CO2 -H2 O equilibration at known temperatures and phosphoric acid digested carbonates to generate CO2 samples with a wide range in (13) C and (18) O compositions...
September 21, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Xianchan Li, Johan Dunevall, Andrew G Ewing
Electrochemical cytometry adds a new dimension to our ability to study the chemistry and chemical storage of transmitter molecules stored in nanometer vesicles. The approach involves the adsorption and subsequent rupture of vesicles on an electrode surface during which the electroactive contents are quantitatively oxidized (or reduced). The measured current allows us to count the number of molecules in the vesicles using Faraday's law and to correlate this to the amount of molecules released when single exocytosis events take place at communicating cells...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
J Williamson, O Maurin, S N S Shiba, H van der Bank, M Pfab, M Pilusa, R M Kabongo, M van der Bank
Species in the cycad genus Encephalartos are listed in CITES Appendix I and as Threatened or Protected Species in terms of South Africa's National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEM:BA) of 2004. Despite regulations, illegal plant harvesting for medicinal trade has continued in South Africa and resulted in declines in cycad populations and even complete loss of sub-populations. Encephalartos is traded at traditional medicine markets in South Africa in the form of bark strips and stem sections; thus, determining the species traded presents a major challenge due to a lack of characteristic plant parts...
September 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Zhichao Ding, Xingwu Long, Jie Yuan, Zhenfang Fan, Hui Luo
A new method to measure the spin polarization of optically pumped alkali-metal atoms is demonstrated. Unlike the conventional method using far-detuned probe light, the near-resonant light with two specific frequencies was chosen. Because the Faraday rotation angle of this approach can be two orders of magnitude greater than that with the conventional method, this approach is more sensitive to the spin polarization. Based on the results of the experimental scheme, the spin polarization measurements are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of this approach...
2016: Scientific Reports
Shankar Lal, K K Pant
Coupling of RF power is an important aspect in the design and development of RF accelerating structures. RF power coupling employing coupler loops has the advantage of tunability of β, the transmission line to cavity coupling coefficient. Analytical expressions available in literature for determination of size of the coupler loop using Faraday's law of induction show reasonably good agreement with experimentally measured values of β below critical coupling (β ≤ 1) but show large deviation with experimentally measured values and predictions by simulations for higher values of β...
August 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Zhiyong Guo, Yuhong Sha, Yufang Hu, Zhongqing Yu, Yingying Tao, Yanjie Wu, Min Zeng, Sui Wang, Xing Li, Jun Zhou, Xiurong Su
A novel Faraday cage-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor devoted to the detection of Vibrio vulnificus (VV) was fabricated. The sensing strategy was presented by a unique Faraday cage-type immunocomplex based on immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) and multi-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) labeled with (2,2'-bipyridine)(5-aminophenanthroline)ruthenium (Ru-NH2). The multi-functionalized GO could sit on the electrode surface directly due to the large surface area, abundant functional groups, and good electronic transport property...
October 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Carl Pfeiffer, Anthony Grbic
Ultrathin metasurfaces supporting transverse surface currents provide extreme electromagnetic wave front and polarization control. Here, it is shown that adding longitudinal (normal) surface currents significantly expands the scope of electromagnetic phenomena that can be engineered with reciprocal materials. In particular, these metasurfaces are inherently spatially dispersive, which allows them to emulate nonreciprocal phenomena. It is analytically shown that spatially dispersive metasurfaces are effectively self-biased by the transverse momentum of the incident wave front...
August 12, 2016: Physical Review Letters
M Gajdacz, A J Hilliard, M A Kristensen, P L Pedersen, C Klempt, J J Arlt, J F Sherson
We prepare number stabilized ultracold atom clouds through the real-time analysis of nondestructive images and the application of feedback. In our experiments, the atom number N∼10^{6} is determined by high precision Faraday imaging with uncertainty ΔN below the shot noise level, i.e., ΔN<sqrt[N]. Based on this measurement, feedback is applied to reduce the atom number to a user-defined target, whereupon a second imaging series probes the number stabilized cloud. By this method, we show that the atom number in ultracold clouds can be prepared below the shot noise level...
August 12, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Carles Gomà, Stefano Lorentini, David Meer, Sairos Safai
This reply shows that the discrepancy of about 3% between Faraday cup dosimetry and reference dosimetry using a cylindrical ionization chamber found in Gomà (2014 Phys. Med. Biol. 59 4961-71) seems to be due to an overestimation of the beam quality correction factors tabulated in IAEA TRS-398 for the cylindrical chamber used, rather than to 'unresolved problems with Faraday cup dosimetry', as suggested by Palmans and Vatnitsky (2016 Phys. Med. Biol. 61 6585-93). Furthermore, this work shows that a good agreement between reference dosimetry and Faraday cup dosimetry is possible, provided accurate beam quality correction factors for proton beams are used...
September 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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