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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435946/faraday-discussions-meeting-catalysis-for-fuels
#1
Nico Fischer, Simon A Kondrat, Mzamo Shozi
Welcome to Africa was the motto when after more than 100 years the flag ship conference series of the Royal Society of Chemistry, the Faraday Discussions was hosted for the first time on the African Continent. Under the fitting topic 'Catalysis for Fuels' over 120 delegates followed the invitation by the conference chair Prof. Graham Hutchings FRS (Cardiff Catalysis Institute), his organizing committee and the co-organizing DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Catalysis c*change (). In the presentations of 21 invited speakers and 59 posters, cutting edge research in the field of catalysis for fuels, designing new catalysts for synthetic fuels, hydrocarbon conversion in the production of synthetic fuels and novel photocatalysis was presented over the two-day meeting...
April 24, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435773/giant-faraday-rotation-through-ultrasmall-fe-0-n-clusters-in-superparamagnetic-feo-sio2-vitreous-films
#2
Yuko Nakatsuka, Kilian Pollok, Torsten Wieduwilt, Falko Langenhorst, Markus A Schmidt, Koji Fujita, Shunsuke Murai, Katsuhisa Tanaka, Lothar Wondraczek
Magnetooptical (MO) glasses and, in particular, Faraday rotators are becoming key components in lasers and optical information processing, light switching, coding, filtering, and sensing. The common design of such Faraday rotator materials follows a simple path: high Faraday rotation is achieved by maximizing the concentration of paramagnetic ion species in a given matrix material. However, this approach has reached its limits in terms of MO performance; hence, glass-based materials can presently not be used efficiently in thin film MO applications...
April 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434409/-a-very-diadem-of-light-exhibitions-in-victorian-london-the-parliamentary-light-and-the-shaping-of-the-trinity-house-lighthouses
#3
Stephen Courtney
In the midsummer of 1872 a lighthouse apparatus was installed in the Clock Tower of the House of Commons. The installation served the practical function of communicating at a distance when the House was sitting, but also provided a highly visible symbolic indication of the importance of lighthouse technology to national concerns. Further, the installation served as an experimental space in which rival technological designs, with corresponding visions for the lighthouse system, could compete in public. This article considers nineteenth-century lighthouse technology as a case study in the power and political significance of display...
April 24, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428549/low-noise-time-resolved-optical-sensing-of-electromagnetic-pulses-from-petawatt-laser-matter-interactions
#4
T S Robinson, F Consoli, S Giltrap, S J Eardley, G S Hicks, E J Ditter, O Ettlinger, N H Stuart, M Notley, R De Angelis, Z Najmudin, R A Smith
We report on the development and deployment of an optical diagnostic for single-shot measurement of the electric-field components of electromagnetic pulses from high-intensity laser-matter interactions in a high-noise environment. The electro-optic Pockels effect in KDP crystals was used to measure transient electric fields using a geometry easily modifiable for magnetic field detection via Faraday rotation. Using dielectric sensors and an optical fibre-based readout ensures minimal field perturbations compared to conductive probes and greatly limits unwanted electrical pickup between probe and recording system...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416803/optical-helicity-driven-magnetization-dynamics-in-metallic-ferromagnets
#5
Gyung-Min Choi, André Schleife, David G Cahill
Recent observations of switching of magnetic domains in ferromagnetic metals by circularly polarized light, so-called all-optical helicity dependent switching, has renewed interest in the physics that governs the interactions between the angular momentum of photons and the magnetic order parameter of materials. Here we use time-resolved-vectorial measurements of magnetization dynamics of thin layers of Fe, Ni and Co driven by picosecond duration pulses of circularly polarized light. We decompose the torques that drive the magnetization into field-like and spin-transfer components that we attribute to the inverse Faraday effect and optical spin-transfer torque, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415319/footprint-geometry-and-sessile-drop-resonance
#6
Chun-Ti Chang, Susan Daniel, Paul H Steen
In this work, we examine experimentally the resonance of a sessile drop with a square footprint (square drop) on a flat plate. Two families of modal behaviors are reported. One family is identified with the modes of sessile drops with circular footprints (circular drop), denoted as "spherical modes." The other family is associated with Faraday waves on a square liquid bath (square Faraday waves), denoted as "grid modes." The two families are distinguished based on their dispersion behaviors. By comparing the occurrence of the modes, we recognize spherical modes as the characteristic of sessile drops, and grid modes as the constrained response...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415195/ultrafast-probing-of-magnetic-field-growth-inside-a-laser-driven-solenoid
#7
C Goyon, B B Pollock, D P Turnbull, A Hazi, L Divol, W A Farmer, D Haberberger, J Javedani, A J Johnson, A Kemp, M C Levy, B Grant Logan, D A Mariscal, O L Landen, S Patankar, J S Ross, A M Rubenchik, G F Swadling, G J Williams, S Fujioka, K F F Law, J D Moody
We report on the detection of the time-dependent B-field amplitude and topology in a laser-driven solenoid. The B-field inferred from both proton deflectometry and Faraday rotation ramps up linearly in time reaching 210 ± 35 T at the end of a 0.75-ns laser drive with 1 TW at 351 nm. A lumped-element circuit model agrees well with the linear rise and suggests that the blow-off plasma screens the field between the plates leading to an increased plate capacitance that converts the laser-generated hot-electron current into a voltage source that drives current through the solenoid...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376365/bioacoustic-enabled-patterning-of-human-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-into-3d-cardiac-tissue
#8
Vahid Serpooshan, Pu Chen, Haodi Wu, Soah Lee, Arun Sharma, Daniel A Hu, Sneha Venkatraman, Adarsh Venkataraman Ganesan, Osman Berk Usta, Martin Yarmush, Fan Yang, Joseph C Wu, Utkan Demirci, Sean M Wu
The creation of physiologically-relevant human cardiac tissue with defined cell structure and function is essential for a wide variety of therapeutic, diagnostic, and drug screening applications. Here we report a new scalable method using Faraday waves to enable rapid aggregation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) into predefined 3D constructs. At packing densities that approximate native myocardium (10(8)-10(9) cells/ml), these hiPSC-CM-derived 3D tissues demonstrate significantly improved cell viability, metabolic activity, and intercellular connection when compared to constructs with random cell distribution...
July 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375255/high-magnetic-field-measurement-utilizing-faraday-rotation-in-sf11-glass-in-simplified-diagnostics
#9
Premananda Dey, Rohit Shukla, D Venkateswarlu
With the commercialization of powerful solid-state lasers as pointer lasers, it is becoming simpler nowadays for the launch and free-space reception of polarized light for polarimetric applications. Additionally, because of the high power of such laser diodes, the alignment of the received light on the small sensor area of a photo-diode with a high bandwidth response is also greatly simplified. A plastic sheet polarizer taken from spectacles of 3D television (commercially available) is simply implemented as an analyzer before the photo-receiver...
April 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372444/high-space-resolution-imaging-plate-analysis-of-extreme-ultraviolet-euv-light-from-tin-laser-produced-plasmas
#10
Christopher S A Musgrave, Takehiro Murakami, Teruyuki Ugomori, Kensuke Yoshida, Shinsuke Fujioka, Hiroaki Nishimura, Hironori Atarashi, Tomokazu Iyoda, Keiji Nagai
With the advent of high volume manufacturing capabilities by extreme ultraviolet lithography, constant improvements in light source design and cost-efficiency are required. Currently, light intensity and conversion efficiency (CE) measurments are obtained by charged couple devices, faraday cups etc, but also phoshpor imaging plates (IPs) (BaFBr:Eu). IPs are sensitive to light and high-energy species, which is ideal for studying extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from laser produced plasmas (LPPs). In this work, we used IPs to observe a large angular distribution (10°-90°)...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349960/photonic-transistor-and-router-using-a-single-quantum-dot-confined-spin-in-a-single-sided-optical-microcavity
#11
C Y Hu
The future Internet is very likely the mixture of all-optical Internet with low power consumption and quantum Internet with absolute security guaranteed by the laws of quantum mechanics. Photons would be used for processing, routing and com-munication of data, and photonic transistor using a weak light to control a strong light is the core component as an optical analogue to the electronic transistor that forms the basis of modern electronics. In sharp contrast to previous all-optical tran-sistors which are all based on optical nonlinearities, here I introduce a novel design for a high-gain and high-speed (up to terahertz) photonic transistor and its counterpart in the quantum limit, i...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344314/low-dimensional-string-like-relaxation-underpins-superionic-conduction-in-fluorites-and-related-structures
#12
Ajay Annamareddy, Jacob Eapen
Among the superionic conductors that show a Faraday transition - the continuous increase in the ionic conductivity over a range of temperatures - the fluorite structures have enjoyed incisive examinations over the past four decades; yet the fundamental nature of superionicity has remained largely inconclusive. Departing from the traditional quasi-static defect framework, we provide weighty evidence for string-like dynamical structures that govern the fast ion conduction process in fluorites. We show that lower temperatures encourage the growth of longer but slowly relaxing strings and vice-versa - a direct manifestation of heterogeneous dynamics...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340711/non-enzymatic-sensors-based-on-in-situ-laser-induced-synthesis-of-copper-gold-and-gold-nano-sized-microstructures
#13
Maxim S Panov, Olga A Vereshchagina, Sergey S Ermakov, Ilya I Tumkin, Evgeniia M Khairullina, Mikhail Yu Skripkin, Andrey S Mereshchenko, Mikhail N Ryazantsev, Vladimir A Kochemirovsky
The synthesis of conductive gold and copper-gold microstructures with high developed surface based on the method of laser-induced metal deposition from solution was developed. The topology and crystallization phase of these structures were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The electrochemical properties of the synthesized materials were investigated using cyclic voltamperometry and amperometry. According to the obtained results, it was found out that copper-gold microstructures demonstrate a linear dependence of Faraday current vs...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339260/dynamic-chiral-magnetic-effect-and-faraday-rotation-in-macroscopically-disordered-helical-metals
#14
J Ma, D A Pesin
We develop an effective medium theory for electromagnetic wave propagation through gapless nonuniform systems with a dynamic chiral magnetic effect. The theory allows us to calculate macroscopic-disorder-induced corrections to the values of optical, as well as chiral magnetic conductivities. In particular, we show that spatial fluctuations of the optical conductivity induce corrections to the effective value of the chiral magnetic conductivity. The absolute value of the effect varies strongly depending on the system parameters, but yields the leading frequency dependence of the polarization rotation and circular dichroism signals...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325906/electric-field-driven-magnetic-domain-wall-as-a-microscale-magneto-optical-shutter
#15
Nikolai E Khokhlov, Anastasiya E Khramova, Elena P Nikolaeva, Tatyana B Kosykh, Alexey V Nikolaev, Anatoly K Zvezdin, Alexander P Pyatakov, Vladimir I Belotelov
Nowadays, spintronics considers magnetic domain walls as a kind of nanodeviсe that demands for switching much less energy in comparison to homogeneous process. We propose and demonstrate a new concept for the light control via electric field applied locally to a magnetic domain wall playing the role of nanodevice. In detail, we charged a 15-μm-thick metallic tip to generate strong non-uniform electric field in the vicinity of the domain wall in the iron garnet film. The electric field influences the domain wall due to flexomagnetoelectric effect and causes the domain wall shift...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323634/effect-of-laser-pulse-propagation-on-ultrafast-magnetization-dynamics-in-a-birefringent-medium
#16
J A de Jong, A M Kalashnikova, R V Pisarev, A M Balbashov, A V Kimel, A Kirilyuk, Th Rasing
Light propagation effects can strongly influence the excitation and the detection of laser-induced magnetization dynamics. We investigated experimentally and analytically the effects of crystallographic linear birefringence on the excitation and detection of ultrafast magnetization dynamics in the rare-earth orthoferrites (Sm0.5Pr0.5)FeO3 and (Sm0.55Tb0.45)FeO3, which possess weak and strong linear birefringence, respectively. Our finding is that the effect of linear birefringence on the result of a magneto-optical pump-probe experiment strongly depends on the mechanism of excitation...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323376/highly-active-gan-stabilized-ta3-n5-thin-film-photoanode-for-solar-water-oxidation
#17
Miao Zhong, Takashi Hisatomi, Yutaka Sasaki, Sayaka Suzuki, Katsuya Teshima, Mamiko Nakabayashi, Naoya Shibata, Hiroshi Nishiyama, Masao Katayama, Taro Yamada, Kazunari Domen
Ta3 N5 is a very promising photocatalyst for solar water splitting because of its wide spectrum solar energy utilization up to 600 nm and suitable energy band position straddling the water splitting redox reactions. However, its development has long been impeded by poor compatibility with electrolytes. Herein, we demonstrate a simple sputtering-nitridation process to fabricate high-performance Ta3 N5 film photoanodes owing to successful synthesis of the vital TaOδ precursors. An effective GaN coating strategy is developed to remarkably stabilize Ta3 N5 by forming a crystalline nitride-on-nitride structure with an improved nitride/electrolyte interface...
March 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304412/catalysis-for-fuels-concluding-remarks
#18
P Gibson
The 2017 Faraday Discussion on the topic of "Catalysis for Fuels" was unique in the sense that it was the first Faraday Discussion to be held on the continent of Africa. "Catalysis" and "Fuels" are both topics that could be widely interpreted and the session topics proved to be a relevant spread of old and new i.e. Fischer-Tropsch chemistry, biomass refining, zeolite conversions and photocatalysis. Most of the papers were underpinned by fundamental studies, catalyst design approaches, reports of in operando characterization and detailed speciation and micro kinetic analyses...
March 17, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300864/whole-exome-sequencing-in-the-framingham-heart-study-identifies-rare-variation-in-hyal2-that-influences-platelet-aggregation
#19
John D Eicher, Ming-Huei Chen, Achilleas N Pitsillides, Honghuang Lin, Narayanan Veeraraghavan, Jennifer A Brody, Ginger A Metcalf, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker, Nauder Faraday, Rasika A Mathias, Lisa R Yanek, Eric Boerwinkle, L Adrienne Cupples, Andrew D Johnson
Inhibition of platelet reactivity is a common therapeutic strategy in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Genetic and environmental factors influence inter-individual variation in platelet reactivity. Identifying genes that contribute to platelet reactivity can reveal new biological mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets. Here, we examined rare coding variation to identify genes associated with platelet reactivity in a population-based cohort. To do so, we performed whole exome sequencing in the Framingham Heart Study and conducted single variant and gene-based association tests against platelet reactivity to collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and epinephrine agonists in up to 1,211 individuals...
March 16, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282176/anomalous-heating-and-plasmoid-formation-in-a-driven-magnetic-reconnection-experiment
#20
J D Hare, L Suttle, S V Lebedev, N F Loureiro, A Ciardi, G C Burdiak, J P Chittenden, T Clayson, C Garcia, N Niasse, T Robinson, R A Smith, N Stuart, F Suzuki-Vidal, G F Swadling, J Ma, J Wu, Q Yang
We present a detailed study of magnetic reconnection in a quasi-two-dimensional pulsed-power driven laboratory experiment. Oppositely directed magnetic fields (B=3  T), advected by supersonic, sub-Alfvénic carbon plasma flows (V_{in}=50  km/s), are brought together and mutually annihilate inside a thin current layer (δ=0.6  mm). Temporally and spatially resolved optical diagnostics, including interferometry, Faraday rotation imaging, and Thomson scattering, allow us to determine the structure and dynamics of this layer, the nature of the inflows and outflows, and the detailed energy partition during the reconnection process...
February 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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