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K Beloy, X Zhang, W F McGrew, N Hinkley, T H Yoon, D Nicolodi, R J Fasano, S A Schäffer, R C Brown, A D Ludlow
We demonstrate the absence of a dc Stark shift in an ytterbium optical lattice clock. Stray electric fields are suppressed through the introduction of an in-vacuum Faraday shield. Still, the effectiveness of the shielding must be experimentally assessed. Such diagnostics are accomplished by applying high voltage to six electrodes, which are grounded in normal operation to form part of the Faraday shield. Our measurements place a constraint on the dc Stark shift at the 10^{-20} level, in units of the clock frequency...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Kenneth S Suslick, Nathan C Eddingsaas, David J Flannigan, Stephen D Hopkins, Hangxun Xu
Acoustic cavitation (the growth, oscillation, and rapid collapse of bubbles in a liquid) occurs in all liquids irradiated with sufficient intensity of sound or ultrasound. The collapse of such bubbles creates local heating and provides a unique source of energy for driving chemical reactions. In addition to sonochemical bond scission and formation, cavitation also induces light emission in many liquids. This phenomenon of sonoluminescence (SL) has captured the imagination of many researchers since it was first observed 85 years ago...
May 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Pan Wang, Intak Jeon, Zhou Lin, Martin D Peeks, Suchol Savagatrup, Steven E Kooi, Troy Van Voorhis, Timothy M Swager
Materials with magneto-optic (MO) properties have enabled critical fiber-optic applications and highly sensitive magnetic field sensors. While traditional MO materials are inorganic in nature, new generations of MO materials based on organic semiconducting polymers could allow increased versatility for device architectures, manufacturing options, and flexible mechanics. However, the origin of MO activity in semiconducting polymers is far from understood. In this paper, we report high MO activity observed in a chiral helical poly-3-(alkylsulfone)thiophene (P3AST), which confirms a new design for the creation of a giant Faraday effect with Verdet constants up to (7...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Leigh Aldous, Magdalena Bendova, Maria Gonzalez-Miquel, Małgorzata Swadźba-Kwaśny
For the third time, a Faraday Discussion addressed ionic liquids. Encompassing the wealth of research in this field, the contributions ranged from fundamental insights to the diverse applications of ionic liquids. Lively discussions initiated in the lecture hall and during poster sessions then seamlessly continued during the social program.
May 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Gustavo Castillo, Claudio Falcón
We report on the generation of an intermittent wave field driven by a horizontally moving wave maker interacting with Faraday waves. The spectrum of the local gravitocapillary surface wave fluctuations displays a power law in frequency for a wide range of forcing parameters. We compute the probability density function of the local surface height increments, which show that they change strongly across time scales. The structure functions of these increments are shown to display power laws as a function of the time lag, with exponents that are nonlinear functions of the order of the structure function...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Loreto Oyarte Gálvez, Nicolás Rivas, Devaraj van der Meer
The behavior of a vertically vibrated granular bed is reminiscent of a liquid in that it exhibits many phenomena such as convection and Faraday-like surface waves. However, when the lateral dimensions of the bed are confined such that a quasi-one-dimensional geometry is formed, the only phenomena that remain are bouncing bed and the granular Leidenfrost effect. This permits the observation of the granular Leidenfrost state for a wide range of energy injection parameters and more specifically allows for a thorough characterization of the low-frequency oscillation (LFO) that is present in this state...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Samuel Savitz, Mehrtash Babadi, Ron Lifshitz
For many years, quasicrystals were observed only as solid-state metallic alloys, yet current research is now actively exploring their formation in a variety of soft materials, including systems of macromolecules, nanoparticles and colloids. Much effort is being invested in understanding the thermodynamic properties of these soft-matter quasicrystals in order to predict and possibly control the structures that form, and hopefully to shed light on the broader yet unresolved general questions of quasicrystal formation and stability...
May 1, 2018: IUCrJ
Arthur L Burnett, Ajay Nehra, Rodney H Breau, Daniel J Culkin, Martha M Faraday, Lawrence S Hakim, Joel Heidelbaugh, Mohit Khera, Kevin T McVary, Martin M Miner, Christian J Nelson, Hossein Sadeghi-Nejad, Allen D Seftel, Alan W Shindel
PURPOSE: The purpose of this guideline is to provide a clinical strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of erectile dysfunction. MATERIALS & METHODS: A systematic review of the literature using the Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane databases (search dates 1/1/1965 to 7/29/17) was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of erectile dysfunction. Evidence-based statements were based on body of evidence strength Grade A, B, or C and were designated as Strong, Moderate, and Conditional Recommendations with additional statements presented in the form of Clinical Principles or Expert Opinions...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Urology
Tianting Pang, Yan Wang, Hui Yang, Tianlei Wang, Wangfeng Cai
A dynamic model of semi-batch three-dimensional electrode reactor was established based on the limiting current density, Faraday's law, mass balance and a series of assumptions. Semi-batch experiments of phenol degradation were carried out in a three-dimensional electrode reactor packed with activated carbon under different conditions to verify the model. The factors such as the current density, the electrolyte concentration, the initial pH value, the flow rate of organic and the initial organic concentration were examined to know about the pollutant degradation in the three-dimensional electrode reactor...
April 21, 2018: Chemosphere
Enzheng Zhang, Benyong Chen, Hao Zheng, Xueying Teng, Liping Yan
A laser heterodyne interferometer for angle measurement based on the Faraday effect is proposed. A novel optical configuration, designed by using the orthogonal return method for a linearly polarized beam based on the Faraday effect, guarantees that the measurement beam can return effectively even though an angular reflector has a large lateral displacement movement. The optical configuration and measurement principle are presented in detail. Two verification experiments were performed; the experimental results show that the proposed interferometer can achieve a large lateral displacement tolerance of 7...
April 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Robert C Gauthier
Faraday's and Ampere's laws are converted to matrix operator form and rearranged such that the unknown relative permittivity and relative permeability tensors can be determined. The material and geometry of cylindrically symmetric optical resonator structures are determined through the electric and magnetic field component profiles and complex angular frequency of a proposed localized state. This differs from the usual utilization of the electromagnetic wave equations, solving for states given the material properties and geometry...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
M D Rotondaro, B V Zhdanov, M K Shaffer, R J Knize
We describe a method of line narrowing and frequency-locking a diode laser stack to an alkali atomic line for use as a pump module for Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers. The pump module consists of a 600 W antireflection coated diode laser stack configured to lase using an external cavity. The line narrowing and frequency locking is accomplished by introducing a narrowband polarization filter based on magneto-optical Faraday effect into the external cavity, which selectively transmits only the frequencies that are in resonance with the 62 S1/2 → 62 P3/2 transition of Cs atoms...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
Shuang Wang, Wei Chen, Zhen-Qiang Yin, De-Yong He, Cong Hui, Peng-Lei Hao, Guan-Jie Fan-Yuan, Chao Wang, Li-Jun Zhang, Jie Kuang, Shu-Feng Liu, Zheng Zhou, Yong-Gang Wang, Guang-Can Guo, Zheng-Fu Han
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides an attractive solution for secure communication. However, channel disturbance severely limits its application when a QKD system is transferred from the laboratory to the field. Here a high-speed Faraday-Sagnac-Michelson QKD system is proposed that can automatically compensate for the channel polarization disturbance, which largely avoids the intermittency limitations of environment mutation. Over a 50 km fiber channel with 30 Hz polarization scrambling, the practicality of this phase-coding QKD system was characterized with an interference fringe visibility of 99...
May 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Duo Pan, Tiantian Shi, Bin Luo, Jingbiao Chen, Hong Guo
Taking advantages of ultra-narrow bandwidth and high noise rejection performance of the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), simultaneously with the coherent amplification of atomic stimulated emission, we propose a stimulated amplified Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (SAFADOF) at cesium 1470 nm. The SAFADOF is able to significantly amplify very weak laser signals and reject noise in order to obtain clean signals in strong background. We show that for a weak signal of 50 pW, the gain factor can be larger than 25000 (44 dB) within a bandwidth as narrow as 13 MHz...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shin-Nosuke Kinoshita, Yasunori Miyazaki, Masataka Sumida, Yuuki Onitsuka, Hiroshi Kohguchi, Yoshiya Inokuchi, Nobuyuki Akai, Takafumi Shiraogawa, Masahiro Ehara, Kaoru Yamazaki, Yu Harabuchi, Satoshi Maeda, Tetsuya Taketsugu, Takayuki Ebata
An experimental and theoretical study has been carried out to elucidate the nonradiative decay (NRD) and trans(E) → cis(Z) isomerization from the S1 (1ππ*) state of structural isomers of hydroxy methylcinnamate (HMC); ortho-, meta- and para-HMC (o-, m- and p-HMC). A low temperature matrix-isolation Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study revealed that all the HMCs are cis-isomerized upon UV irradiation. A variety of laser spectroscopic methods have been utilized for jet-cooled gas phase molecules to investigate the vibronic structure and lifetimes of the S1 state, and to detect the transient state appearing in the NRD process...
April 25, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Emmanuel Gbenga Olumayede, Thompson Faraday Ediagbonya
The paper investigates the hypothesis that biotoxicities of trace metals depend not only on the concentration as expressed by the total amount, but also on their geochemical fractions and bioavailability. Airborne particles were collected using SKC Air Check XR 5000 high volume Sampler at a human breathing height of 1.5-2.0 meters, during the dry season months from November 2014 to March 2015 at different locations in Akure (7°10'N and 5°15'E). The geochemical-based sequential extractions were performed on the particles using a series of increasingly stringent solutions selected to extract metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Mn) into four operational geochemical phases-exchangeable, reducible, organic, and residual-and then quantified using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
Stanislav M Avdoshenko
Any single molecular magnets (SMMs) perspective for application is as good as its magnetization stability in ambient conditions. Endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) provide a solid basis for promising SMMs. In this study, we investigated the behavior of functionalized EMFs on a gold surface (EMF-L-Au). Having followed the systems molecular dynamics paths, we observed that the chemically locked inner cluster inside fullerene cage will remain locked even at room temperature due to the ligand-effect. We have located multiple possible minima with different charge arrangements between EMF-L-Au fragments...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Carmen Lucía Moraila-Martínez, Guillermo Iván Guerrero-García, Martín Chávez-Páez, Enrique González-Tovar
The capacitive compactness has been introduced very recently [G. I. Guerrero-García et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20, 262-275 (2018)] as a robust and accurate measure to quantify the thickness, or spatial extension, of the electrical double layer next to either an infinite charged electrode or a spherical macroion. We propose here an experimental/theoretical scheme to determine the capacitive compactness of a spherical electrical double layer that relies on the calculation of the electrokinetic charge and the associated mean electrostatic potential at the macroparticle's surface...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Zhenxia Du, Tangqiang Sun, Jianan Zhao, Di Wang, Zhongxia Zhang, Wenlian Yu
Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) which acts as a rapid analysis technique is widely used in the field detection of illicit drugs and explosives. Due to limited separation abilities of the pint-sized IMS challenges and problems still exist regarding high false positive and false negative responses due to the interference of the matrix. In addition, the gas-phase ion chemistry and special phenomena in the IMS spectra, such one substance showing two peaks, were not identified unambiguously. In order to explain or resolve these questions, in this paper, an ion mobility spectrometry was coupled to a mass spectrometry (IMS-MS)...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Mohammad S Afzal, Faiza Zanin, Muhammad Usman Ghori, Marta Granollers, Enes Šupuk
Tribo-electrification is a common occurrence within the pharmaceutical industry where solid dosage forms constitute majority of pharmaceutical formulations. Tribo-electrification of powders leads to a range of complications such as adhesion of particulate material to the processing equipment resulting in segregation, affecting the content uniformity. Flurbiprofen, a highly charging material, was used as a model drug to investigate the tribo-electrification and adhesion characteristics by impregnating the model drug inside a mesoporous silica matrix...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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