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G Gitgeatpong, Y Zhao, P Piyawongwatthana, Y Qiu, L W Harriger, N P Butch, T J Sato, K Matan
Inelastic neutron scattering measurements were performed to study spin dynamics in the noncentrosymmetric antiferromagnet α-Cu_{2}V_{2}O_{7}. For the first time, nonreciprocal magnons were experimentally measured in an antiferromagnet. These nonreciprocal magnons are caused by the incompatibility between anisotropic exchange and antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, which arise from broken symmetry, resulting in a collinear ordered state but helical spin dynamics. The nonreciprocity introduces the difference in the phase velocity of the counterrotating modes, causing the opposite spontaneous magnonic Faraday rotation of the left- and right-propagating spin waves...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Frank A J L James
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Public Understanding of Science
Mahdi Ahmadi, Rajesh Rajamani, Serdar Sezen
Capacitive micro-sensors such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and pressure sensors are increasingly used in the modern electronic world. However, the in vivo use of capacitive sensing for measurement of pressure or other variables inside a human body suffers from significant errors due to stray capacitance. This paper proposes a solution consisting of a transparent thin flexible Faraday cage that surrounds the sensor. By supplying the active sensing voltage simultaneously to the deformable electrode of the capacitive sensor and to the Faraday cage, the stray capacitance during in vivo measurements can be largely eliminated...
October 2017: IEEE Sensors Letters
Igor V Bychkov, Dmitry A Kuzmin, Valentine A Tolkachev, Pavel S Plaksin, Vladimir G Shavrov
This Letter shows the features of inverse Faraday effect (IFE) in a graphene-dielectric-metal (GDM) structure. The constants of propagation and attenuation of the surface plasmon-polariton modes are calculated. The effective magnetic field induced by surface plasmon modes in the dielectric due to the IFE is estimated to reach above 1 tesla. The possibility to control the distribution of the magnetic field by chemical potential of graphene is shown. The concept of strain-driven control of the IFE in the structure has been proposed and investigated...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
D Michilli, A Seymour, J W T Hessels, L G Spitler, V Gajjar, A M Archibald, G C Bower, S Chatterjee, J M Cordes, K Gourdji, G H Heald, V M Kaspi, C J Law, C Sobey, E A K Adams, C G Bassa, S Bogdanov, C Brinkman, P Demorest, F Fernandez, G Hellbourg, T J W Lazio, R S Lynch, N Maddox, B Marcote, M A McLaughlin, Z Paragi, S M Ransom, P Scholz, A P V Siemion, S P Tendulkar, P Van Rooy, R S Wharton, D Whitlow
Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration, extragalactic radio flashes of unknown physical origin. The only known repeating fast radio burst source-FRB 121102-has been localized to a star-forming region in a dwarf galaxy at redshift 0.193 and is spatially coincident with a compact, persistent radio source. The origin of the bursts, the nature of the persistent source and the properties of the local environment are still unclear. Here we report observations of FRB 121102 that show almost 100 per cent linearly polarized emission at a very high and variable Faraday rotation measure in the source frame (varying from +1...
January 10, 2018: Nature
Yue Qi, Bing Deng, Xiao Guo, Shulin Chen, Jing Gao, Tianran Li, Zhipeng Dou, Haina Ci, Jingyu Sun, Zhaolong Chen, Ruoyu Wang, Lingzhi Cui, Xudong Chen, Ke Chen, Huihui Wang, Sheng Wang, Peng Gao, Mark H Rummeli, Hailin Peng, Yanfeng Zhang, Zhongfan Liu
Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is an applicable route to achieve low-temperature growth of graphene, typically shaped like vertical nanowalls. However, for transparent electronic applications, the rich exposed edges and high specific surface area of vertical graphene (VG) nanowalls can enhance the carrier scattering and light absorption, resulting in high sheet resistance and low transmittance. Thus, the synthesis of laid-down graphene (LG) is imperative. Here, a Faraday cage is designed to switch graphene growth in PECVD from the vertical to the horizontal direction by weakening ion bombardment and shielding electric field...
January 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
M Lange, S Guénon, F Lever, R Kleiner, D Koelle
Polarized light microscopy, as a contrast-enhancing technique for optically anisotropic materials, is a method well suited for the investigation of a wide variety of effects in solid-state physics, as, for example, birefringence in crystals or the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). We present a microscopy setup that combines a widefield microscope and a confocal scanning laser microscope with polarization-sensitive detectors. By using a high numerical aperture objective, a spatial resolution of about 240 nm at a wavelength of 405 nm is achieved...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Chen S Tsai, Rong W Mao, Shirley C Tsai, Kaveh Shahverdi, Yun Zhu, Shih K Lin, Yu-Hsiang Hsu, Gerry Boss, Matt Brenner, Sari Mahon, Gerald C Smaldone
An in-depth review on a new ultrasonic micro-droplet generator which utilizes megahertz (MHz) Faraday waves excited by silicon-based multiple Fourier horn ultrasonic nozzles (MFHUNs) and its potential applications is presented. The new droplet generator has demonstrated capability for producing micro droplets of controllable size and size distribution and desirable throughput at very low electrical drive power. For comparison, the serious deficiencies of current commercial droplet generators (nebulizers) and the other ultrasonic droplet generators explored in recent years are first discussed...
2017: Micromachines
Kuijun Wu, Yutao Feng, Juan Li, Guangbao Yu, Linmei Liu, Yuanhui Xiong, Faquan Li
A molecular Faraday optical filter (MFOF) working in the mid-infrared region is realized for the first time. NO molecule was used as the working material of the MFOF for potential applications in atmospheric remote sensing and combustion diagnosis. We develop a complete theory to describe the performance of MFOF by taking both Zeeman absorption and Faraday rotation into account. We also record the Faraday rotation transmission (FRT) signal using a quantum cascade laser over the range of 1,820 cm-1 to 1,922 cm-1 and calibrate it by using a 101...
December 11, 2017: Optics Express
Joonsuk Huh, Robert Berger
When existing, cumulants can provide valuable information about a given distribution and can in principle be used to either fully reconstruct or approximate the parent distribution function. A previously reported cumulant expansion approach for Franck-Condon profiles [Faraday Discuss., 150, 363 (2011)] is extended to describe also the profiles of vibronic transitions that are weakly allowed or forbidden in the Franck-Condon approximation (non-Condon profiles). In the harmonic approximation the cumulants of the vibronic profile can be evaluated analytically and numerically with a coherent state-based generating function that accounts for the Duschinsky effect...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
John Robert Fan, Nauder Faraday
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Anesthesiology
Jing Rao, Madis Ratassepp, Danylo Lisevych, Mahadhir Hamzah Caffoor, Zheng Fan
Corrosion is a major safety and economic concern to various industries. In this paper, a novel ultrasonic guided wave tomography (GWT) system based on self-designed piezoelectric sensors is presented for on-line corrosion monitoring of large plate-like structures. Accurate thickness reconstruction of corrosion damages is achieved by using the dispersive regimes of selected guided waves and a reconstruction algorithm based on full waveform inversion (FWI). The system makes use of an array of miniaturised piezoelectric transducers that are capable of exciting and receiving highly dispersive A0 Lamb wave mode at low frequencies...
December 12, 2017: Sensors
M J Martin, W Gekelman, B Van Compernolle, P Pribyl, T Carter
An experiment in a linear device, the Large Plasma Device, is used to study sheaths caused by an actively powered radio frequency (rf) antenna. The rf antenna used in the experiment consists of a single current strap recessed inside a copper box enclosure without a Faraday screen. A large increase in the plasma potential was observed along magnetic field lines that connect to the antenna limiter. The electric field from the spatial variation of the rectified plasma potential generated E[over →]×B[over →]_{0} flows, often referred to as convective cells...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Sicong Wang, Yaoyu Cao, Xiangping Li
In this Letter, we numerically demonstrate the all-optical generation of uniformly oriented in-plane magnetization with near-unity purity (more than 99%) under a 4π microscopic configuration. This is achieved through focusing two counter-propagating vector beams consisting of coherently configured linear and radial components. Based on the Debye diffraction theory, constructive and destructive interferences of the focal field components can be tailored under the 4π configuration to generate high-purity uniformly polarized transverse and longitudinal electric-field components in the center of the focal region...
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Isobel Falconer
In 1877 James Clerk Maxwell and his student Donald MacAlister refined Henry Cavendish's 1773 null experiment demonstrating the absence of electricity inside a charged conductor. This null result was a mathematical prediction of the inverse square law of electrostatics, and both Cavendish and Maxwell took the experiment as verifying the law. However, Maxwell had already expressed absolute conviction in the law, based on results of Michael Faraday's. So, what was the value to him of repeating Cavendish's experiment? After assessing whether the law was as secure as he claimed, this paper explores its central importance to the electrical programme that Maxwell was pursuing...
October 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Patrycja Kowalska, Martin D Peeks, Tomasz Roliński, Harry L Anderson, Jacek Waluk
We compare the absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of a series of porphyrin oligomers - dimer, tetramer, and hexamer - bound in a linear or cyclic fashion. The MCD signal is extremely weak for low energy transitions in the linear oligomers, but it is amplified when the cyclic porphyrin hexamer binds a template, restricting rotational freedom. The appearance of Faraday A terms in the MCD spectra demonstrates the presence of a magnetic moment, and thus, uncompensated electronic current. The value of the excited state magnetic moment estimated from the A term is very low compared with those of monomeric porphyrins, which confirms the nonaromatic character of the cyclic array and the lack of a global ring current in the ground state of the neutral nanoring...
November 30, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ming-Huei Chen, Lisa R Yanek, Joshua D Backman, John D Eicher, Jennifer E Huffman, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Andrew D Beswick, Laura M Yerges-Armstrong, Alan R Shuldiner, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Rasika A Mathias, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker, Joshua P Lewis, Andrew D Johnson, Nauder Faraday
Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several variants associated with platelet function phenotypes; however, the proportion of variance explained by the identified variants is mostly small. Rare coding variants, particularly those with high potential for impact on protein structure/function, may have substantial impact on phenotype but are difficult to detect by GWAS. The main purpose of this study was to identify low frequency or rare variants associated with platelet function using genotype data from the Illumina HumanExome Bead Chip...
November 29, 2017: Platelets
Xiaolei Huang, Hui Dong, Yang Qiu, Bo Li, Quan Tao, Yi Zhang, Hans-Joachim Krause, Andreas Offenhäusser, Xiaoming Xie
Power-line harmonic interference and fixed-frequency noise peaks may cause stripe-artifacts in ultra-low field (ULF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an unshielded environment and in a conductively shielded room. In this paper we describe an adaptive suppression method to eliminate these artifacts in MRI images. This technique utilizes spatial correlation of the interference from different positions, and is realized by subtracting the outputs of the reference channel(s) from those of the signal channel(s) using wavelet analysis and the least squares method...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Marc D Porter, Jennifer H Granger
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enables the detection of a large number of different adsorbates at extraordinarily low levels. This plasmonics-based technology has undergone a number of remarkable advances since its discovery over 40 years ago, and has emerged from being an investigative tool confined largely to the research laboratory into a much more usable tool across a broad range of investigative studies, both within the laboratory and beyond. The purpose of this Concluding remarks manuscript is to capture, at least in part, the developments in this area since the first Faraday discussion of SERS over a decade ago...
November 27, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Philip G Jessop
The Faraday Discussion on Ionic Liquids: From Fundamental Properties to Practical Applications took place in Cambridge in September 2017. Fundamental understanding of behaviour of liquids in the bulk and at surfaces was the primary emphasis of most of the talks, although applications were the motivation for the selection of many of the research projects. However, the conference almost entirely omitted discussion of the potential role of ionic liquids in green chemistry. Although initial claims of ionic liquids (ILs) being green were overstated, the search for green ionic liquids is still very much a worthwhile endeavour...
November 27, 2017: Faraday Discussions
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