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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524183/artificial-photosynthesis-closing-remarks
#1
Leif Hammarström
This paper derives from my closing remarks lecture at the 198(th) Faraday Discussion meeting on Artificial Photosynthesis, Kyoto, Japan, February 28-March 2. The meeting had sessions on biological approaches and fundamental processes, molecular catalysts, inorganic assembly catalysts, and integration of systems for demonstrating realistic devices. The field has had much progress since the previous Faraday Discussion on Artificial Photosynthesis in Edinburgh, UK, in 2011. This paper is a personal account of recent discussions and developments in the field, as reflected in and discussed during the meeting...
May 19, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504268/observation-of-the-universal-magnetoelectric-effect-in-a-3d-topological-insulator
#2
V Dziom, A Shuvaev, A Pimenov, G V Astakhov, C Ames, K Bendias, J Böttcher, G Tkachov, E M Hankiewicz, C Brüne, H Buhmann, L W Molenkamp
The electrodynamics of topological insulators (TIs) is described by modified Maxwell's equations, which contain additional terms that couple an electric field to a magnetization and a magnetic field to a polarization of the medium, such that the coupling coefficient is quantized in odd multiples of α/4π per surface. Here we report on the observation of this so-called topological magnetoelectric effect. We use monochromatic terahertz (THz) spectroscopy of TI structures equipped with a semitransparent gate to selectively address surface states...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456223/polarizers-optical-bridges-and-sagnac-interferometers-for-nanoradian-polarization-rotation-measurements
#3
A C H Rowe, I Zhaksylykova, G Dilasser, Y Lassailly, J Peretti
The ability to measure nanoradian polarization rotations, θF, in the photon shot noise limit is investigated for partially crossed polarizers (PCP), a static Sagnac interferometer, and an optical bridge, each of which can in principle be used in this limit with near equivalent figures-of-merit (FOM). In practice a bridge to PCP/Sagnac source noise rejection ratio of 1/4θF(2) enables the bridge to operate in the photon shot noise limit even at high light intensities. The superior performance of the bridge is illustrated via the measurement of a 3 nrad rotation arising from an axial magnetic field of 0...
April 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454180/cryogenically-cooled-cef3-crystal-as-media-for-high-power-magneto-optical-devices
#4
Aleksey Starobor, Evgeniy Mironov, Ilya Snetkov, Oleg Palashov, Hiroaki Furuse, Shigeki Tokita, Ryo Yasuhara
The thermally induced depolarization and Verdet constant of CeF<sub>3</sub> crystals-their most important characteristics-have been studied in the 79-293 K temperature range. It has been found that thermal effects reduce substantially upon cooling down to 79 K and the Verdet constant grows in inverse proportion to the temperature. It was shown that CeF<sub>3</sub> crystals are not inferior to TGG as a medium for Faraday isolators, including cryogenic ones.
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451141/directly-probing-spin-dynamics-in-a-molecular-magnet-with-femtosecond-time-resolution
#5
J O Johansson, J-W Kim, E Allwright, D M Rogers, N Robertson, J-Y Bigot
We show that a vanadium-chromium Prussian blue analogue, which is a room-temperature molecule-based magnet, displays a fast magnetic response on a femtosecond timescale that is attributed to the super-exchange interaction between the metal ions. These dynamics are obtained from femtosecond Faraday magneto-optical (MO) measurements, performed at 50 and 300 K. Exciting at the ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) band results in the formation of the (2)E excited state on the Cr ion via intersystem crossing (ISC) from the (4)LMCT state in less than 250 fs...
December 1, 2016: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435946/faraday-discussions-meeting-catalysis-for-fuels
#6
Nico Fischer, Simon A Kondrat, Mzamo Shozi
Welcome to Africa was the motto when after more than 100 years the flag ship conference series of the Royal Society of Chemistry, the Faraday Discussions was hosted for the first time on the African Continent. Under the fitting topic 'Catalysis for Fuels' over 120 delegates followed the invitation by the conference chair Prof. Graham Hutchings FRS (Cardiff Catalysis Institute), his organizing committee and the co-organizing DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Catalysis c*change (). In the presentations of 21 invited speakers and 59 posters, cutting edge research in the field of catalysis for fuels, designing new catalysts for synthetic fuels, hydrocarbon conversion in the production of synthetic fuels and novel photocatalysis was presented over the two-day meeting...
April 24, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435773/giant-faraday-rotation-through-ultrasmall-fe-0-n-clusters-in-superparamagnetic-feo-sio2-vitreous-films
#7
Yuko Nakatsuka, Kilian Pollok, Torsten Wieduwilt, Falko Langenhorst, Markus A Schmidt, Koji Fujita, Shunsuke Murai, Katsuhisa Tanaka, Lothar Wondraczek
Magnetooptical (MO) glasses and, in particular, Faraday rotators are becoming key components in lasers and optical information processing, light switching, coding, filtering, and sensing. The common design of such Faraday rotator materials follows a simple path: high Faraday rotation is achieved by maximizing the concentration of paramagnetic ion species in a given matrix material. However, this approach has reached its limits in terms of MO performance; hence, glass-based materials can presently not be used efficiently in thin film MO applications...
April 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434409/-a-very-diadem-of-light-exhibitions-in-victorian-london-the-parliamentary-light-and-the-shaping-of-the-trinity-house-lighthouses
#8
Stephen Courtney
In the midsummer of 1872 a lighthouse apparatus was installed in the Clock Tower of the House of Commons. The installation served the practical function of communicating at a distance when the House was sitting, but also provided a highly visible symbolic indication of the importance of lighthouse technology to national concerns. Further, the installation served as an experimental space in which rival technological designs, with corresponding visions for the lighthouse system, could compete in public. This article considers nineteenth-century lighthouse technology as a case study in the power and political significance of display...
April 24, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428549/low-noise-time-resolved-optical-sensing-of-electromagnetic-pulses-from-petawatt-laser-matter-interactions
#9
T S Robinson, F Consoli, S Giltrap, S J Eardley, G S Hicks, E J Ditter, O Ettlinger, N H Stuart, M Notley, R De Angelis, Z Najmudin, R A Smith
We report on the development and deployment of an optical diagnostic for single-shot measurement of the electric-field components of electromagnetic pulses from high-intensity laser-matter interactions in a high-noise environment. The electro-optic Pockels effect in KDP crystals was used to measure transient electric fields using a geometry easily modifiable for magnetic field detection via Faraday rotation. Using dielectric sensors and an optical fibre-based readout ensures minimal field perturbations compared to conductive probes and greatly limits unwanted electrical pickup between probe and recording system...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416803/optical-helicity-driven-magnetization-dynamics-in-metallic-ferromagnets
#10
Gyung-Min Choi, André Schleife, David G Cahill
Recent observations of switching of magnetic domains in ferromagnetic metals by circularly polarized light, so-called all-optical helicity dependent switching, has renewed interest in the physics that governs the interactions between the angular momentum of photons and the magnetic order parameter of materials. Here we use time-resolved-vectorial measurements of magnetization dynamics of thin layers of Fe, Ni and Co driven by picosecond duration pulses of circularly polarized light. We decompose the torques that drive the magnetization into field-like and spin-transfer components that we attribute to the inverse Faraday effect and optical spin-transfer torque, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415319/footprint-geometry-and-sessile-drop-resonance
#11
Chun-Ti Chang, Susan Daniel, Paul H Steen
In this work, we examine experimentally the resonance of a sessile drop with a square footprint (square drop) on a flat plate. Two families of modal behaviors are reported. One family is identified with the modes of sessile drops with circular footprints (circular drop), denoted as "spherical modes." The other family is associated with Faraday waves on a square liquid bath (square Faraday waves), denoted as "grid modes." The two families are distinguished based on their dispersion behaviors. By comparing the occurrence of the modes, we recognize spherical modes as the characteristic of sessile drops, and grid modes as the constrained response...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415195/ultrafast-probing-of-magnetic-field-growth-inside-a-laser-driven-solenoid
#12
C Goyon, B B Pollock, D P Turnbull, A Hazi, L Divol, W A Farmer, D Haberberger, J Javedani, A J Johnson, A Kemp, M C Levy, B Grant Logan, D A Mariscal, O L Landen, S Patankar, J S Ross, A M Rubenchik, G F Swadling, G J Williams, S Fujioka, K F F Law, J D Moody
We report on the detection of the time-dependent B-field amplitude and topology in a laser-driven solenoid. The B-field inferred from both proton deflectometry and Faraday rotation ramps up linearly in time reaching 210 ± 35 T at the end of a 0.75-ns laser drive with 1 TW at 351 nm. A lumped-element circuit model agrees well with the linear rise and suggests that the blow-off plasma screens the field between the plates leading to an increased plate capacitance that converts the laser-generated hot-electron current into a voltage source that drives current through the solenoid...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376365/bioacoustic-enabled-patterning-of-human-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-into-3d-cardiac-tissue
#13
Vahid Serpooshan, Pu Chen, Haodi Wu, Soah Lee, Arun Sharma, Daniel A Hu, Sneha Venkatraman, Adarsh Venkataraman Ganesan, Osman Berk Usta, Martin Yarmush, Fan Yang, Joseph C Wu, Utkan Demirci, Sean M Wu
The creation of physiologically-relevant human cardiac tissue with defined cell structure and function is essential for a wide variety of therapeutic, diagnostic, and drug screening applications. Here we report a new scalable method using Faraday waves to enable rapid aggregation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) into predefined 3D constructs. At packing densities that approximate native myocardium (10(8)-10(9) cells/ml), these hiPSC-CM-derived 3D tissues demonstrate significantly improved cell viability, metabolic activity, and intercellular connection when compared to constructs with random cell distribution...
July 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375255/high-magnetic-field-measurement-utilizing-faraday-rotation-in-sf11-glass-in-simplified-diagnostics
#14
Premananda Dey, Rohit Shukla, D Venkateswarlu
With the commercialization of powerful solid-state lasers as pointer lasers, it is becoming simpler nowadays for the launch and free-space reception of polarized light for polarimetric applications. Additionally, because of the high power of such laser diodes, the alignment of the received light on the small sensor area of a photo-diode with a high bandwidth response is also greatly simplified. A plastic sheet polarizer taken from spectacles of 3D television (commercially available) is simply implemented as an analyzer before the photo-receiver...
April 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372444/high-space-resolution-imaging-plate-analysis-of-extreme-ultraviolet-euv-light-from-tin-laser-produced-plasmas
#15
Christopher S A Musgrave, Takehiro Murakami, Teruyuki Ugomori, Kensuke Yoshida, Shinsuke Fujioka, Hiroaki Nishimura, Hironori Atarashi, Tomokazu Iyoda, Keiji Nagai
With the advent of high volume manufacturing capabilities by extreme ultraviolet lithography, constant improvements in light source design and cost-efficiency are required. Currently, light intensity and conversion efficiency (CE) measurments are obtained by charged couple devices, faraday cups etc, but also phoshpor imaging plates (IPs) (BaFBr:Eu). IPs are sensitive to light and high-energy species, which is ideal for studying extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from laser produced plasmas (LPPs). In this work, we used IPs to observe a large angular distribution (10°-90°)...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349960/photonic-transistor-and-router-using-a-single-quantum-dot-confined-spin-in-a-single-sided-optical-microcavity
#16
C Y Hu
The future Internet is very likely the mixture of all-optical Internet with low power consumption and quantum Internet with absolute security guaranteed by the laws of quantum mechanics. Photons would be used for processing, routing and com-munication of data, and photonic transistor using a weak light to control a strong light is the core component as an optical analogue to the electronic transistor that forms the basis of modern electronics. In sharp contrast to previous all-optical tran-sistors which are all based on optical nonlinearities, here I introduce a novel design for a high-gain and high-speed (up to terahertz) photonic transistor and its counterpart in the quantum limit, i...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344314/low-dimensional-string-like-relaxation-underpins-superionic-conduction-in-fluorites-and-related-structures
#17
Ajay Annamareddy, Jacob Eapen
Among the superionic conductors that show a Faraday transition - the continuous increase in the ionic conductivity over a range of temperatures - the fluorite structures have enjoyed incisive examinations over the past four decades; yet the fundamental nature of superionicity has remained largely inconclusive. Departing from the traditional quasi-static defect framework, we provide weighty evidence for string-like dynamical structures that govern the fast ion conduction process in fluorites. We show that lower temperatures encourage the growth of longer but slowly relaxing strings and vice-versa - a direct manifestation of heterogeneous dynamics...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340711/non-enzymatic-sensors-based-on-in-situ-laser-induced-synthesis-of-copper-gold-and-gold-nano-sized-microstructures
#18
Maxim S Panov, Olga A Vereshchagina, Sergey S Ermakov, Ilya I Tumkin, Evgeniia M Khairullina, Mikhail Yu Skripkin, Andrey S Mereshchenko, Mikhail N Ryazantsev, Vladimir A Kochemirovsky
The synthesis of conductive gold and copper-gold microstructures with high developed surface based on the method of laser-induced metal deposition from solution was developed. The topology and crystallization phase of these structures were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The electrochemical properties of the synthesized materials were investigated using cyclic voltamperometry and amperometry. According to the obtained results, it was found out that copper-gold microstructures demonstrate a linear dependence of Faraday current vs...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339260/dynamic-chiral-magnetic-effect-and-faraday-rotation-in-macroscopically-disordered-helical-metals
#19
J Ma, D A Pesin
We develop an effective medium theory for electromagnetic wave propagation through gapless nonuniform systems with a dynamic chiral magnetic effect. The theory allows us to calculate macroscopic-disorder-induced corrections to the values of optical, as well as chiral magnetic conductivities. In particular, we show that spatial fluctuations of the optical conductivity induce corrections to the effective value of the chiral magnetic conductivity. The absolute value of the effect varies strongly depending on the system parameters, but yields the leading frequency dependence of the polarization rotation and circular dichroism signals...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325906/electric-field-driven-magnetic-domain-wall-as-a-microscale-magneto-optical-shutter
#20
Nikolai E Khokhlov, Anastasiya E Khramova, Elena P Nikolaeva, Tatyana B Kosykh, Alexey V Nikolaev, Anatoly K Zvezdin, Alexander P Pyatakov, Vladimir I Belotelov
Nowadays, spintronics considers magnetic domain walls as a kind of nanodeviсe that demands for switching much less energy in comparison to homogeneous process. We propose and demonstrate a new concept for the light control via electric field applied locally to a magnetic domain wall playing the role of nanodevice. In detail, we charged a 15-μm-thick metallic tip to generate strong non-uniform electric field in the vicinity of the domain wall in the iron garnet film. The electric field influences the domain wall due to flexomagnetoelectric effect and causes the domain wall shift...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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