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Cui Zhang, Prabesh Dulal, Bethanie J H Stadler, David C Hutchings
The first experimental TE-mode silicon-on-insulator (SOI) isolators using Faraday Rotation are here realized to fill the 'missing link' in source-integrated near infrared photonic circuits. The isolators are simple 1D 2-element waveguides, where garnet claddings and longitudinal magnetic fields produce nonreciprocal mode conversion, the waveguide equivalent of Faraday Rotation (FR). Quasi-phase matched claddings are used to overcome the limitations of birefringence. Current experimental SOI isolators use nonreciprocal phase shift (NRPS) in interferometers or ring resonators, but to date NRPS requires TM-modes, so the TE-modes normally produced by integrated lasers cannot be isolated without many ancillary polarisation controls...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
D P Hewett, I J Hewitt
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0062.].
June 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
A P Espejo, F Tejo, N Vidal-Silva, J Escrig
In this work we introduce an alternating magnetic field generator in a cylindrical nanostructure. This field appears due to the rotation of a magnetic domain wall located at some position, generating a magnetic region that varies its direction of magnetization alternately, thus inducing an alternating magnetic flux in its vicinity. This phenomenon occurs due to the competition between a spin-polarized current and a magnetic field, which allows to control both the angular velocity and the pinning position of the domain wall...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mark W Rutland
It is an honour to be charged with providing the concluding remarks for a Faraday Discussion. As many have remarked before, it is nonetheless a prodigious task, and what follows is necessarily a personal, and probably perverse, view of a watershed event in the Chemical Physics of Electroactive materials. The spirit of the conference was captured in a single sentence during the meeting itself."It is the nexus between rheology, electrochemistry, colloid science and energy storage". The current scientific climate is increasingly dominated by a limited number of global challenges, and there is thus a tendency for research to resemble a football match played by 6 year olds, where everyone on the field chases the (funding) ball instead of playing to their "discipline"...
July 1, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Shaoyi Xu, Haiming Shao, Chuansheng Li, Fangfang Xing, Yuqiao Wang, Wei Li
In this work, a linear birefringence measurement method is proposed for an optical fiber current sensor (OFCS). First, the optical configuration of the measurement system is presented. Then, the elimination method of the effect of the azimuth angles between the sensing fiber and the two polarizers is demonstrated. Moreover, the relationship of the linear birefringence, the Faraday rotation angle and the final output is determined. On these bases, the multi-valued problem on the linear birefringence is simulated and its solution is illustrated when the linear birefringence is unknown...
July 3, 2017: Sensors
J Ko, J Chung
The safety factor profile evolutions have been measured from the plasma discharges with the external current drive mechanism such as the multi-ion-source neutral beam injection for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) for the first time. This measurement has been possible by the newly installed motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system that utilizes the polarized Balmer-alpha emission from the energetic neutral deuterium atoms induced by the Stark effect under the Lorentz electric field...
June 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
R John, M Berritta, D Hinzke, C Müller, T Santos, H Ulrichs, P Nieves, J Walowski, R Mondal, O Chubykalo-Fesenko, J McCord, P M Oppeneer, U Nowak, M Münzenberg
Manipulation of magnetisation with ultrashort laser pulses is promising for information storage device applications. The dynamics of the magnetisation response depends on the energy transfer from the photons to the spins during the initial laser excitation. A material of special interest for magnetic storage are FePt nanoparticles, for which switching of the magnetisation with optical angular momentum was demonstrated recently. The mechanism remained unclear. Here we investigate experimentally and theoretically the all-optical switching of FePt nanoparticles...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nahla A Hatab, Nichole A Crane, David K Mee, L Neville Howell, Larry R Mooney, Russell L Hallman, Michael J Sepaniak, Vincent E Lamberti
We introduce a chemical sensing technology, named ChIMES (Chemical Identification through Magneto-Elastic Sensing), that can detect a broad range of targets and that has the capability of untethered communication through a metallic or nonmetallic barrier. These features enable many applications in which penetrations into the sampled environment are unwanted or infeasible because of health, safety, or environmental concerns, such as following the decomposition of a dangerous material in a sealed container. The sensing element is passive and consists of a target response material hard-coupled to a magnetoelastic wire...
June 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Álvaro Sáenz de Inestrillas, Francisco Camarena, Manuel Bou Cabo, Julián M Barreiro, Antonio Reig
In certain circumstances when acoustic measurements are required in the presence of explosive atmospheres the sensor must be placed inside a Faraday Cage. Piezoelectric active materials are suitable for this purpose as they do not need an electrical power supply, although the metal shielding can considerably reduce sensor sensitivity, which is already low at the acoustic frequency range (<20 kHz). This paper describes a metal-shielded piezoelectric sensor designed to work in the range of frequencies between 1 and 2 kHz and in these environmental conditions...
June 4, 2017: Sensors
Z R Gong, Z F Jiang, Fuming Xu, B Wang, H C Fu
We study the effects of the Berry phases of the valley excitons in the monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) when the valley excitons are manipulated by an external terahertz field. We find that the decoherence of the valley degree of freedom of the valley excitons is spontaneously induced because of the different Berry phases of valley excitons accumulated along the opposite trajectories under the manipulation of the external field. It is called the geometric decoherence because it completely results from the geometric phases...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Leif Hammarström
This paper derives from my closing remarks lecture at the 198(th) Faraday Discussion meeting on Artificial Photosynthesis, Kyoto, Japan, February 28-March 2. The meeting had sessions on biological approaches and fundamental processes, molecular catalysts, inorganic assembly catalysts, and integration of systems for demonstrating realistic devices. The field has had much progress since the previous Faraday Discussion on Artificial Photosynthesis in Edinburgh, UK, in 2011. This paper is a personal account of recent discussions and developments in the field, as reflected in and discussed during the meeting...
June 2, 2017: Faraday Discussions
V Dziom, A Shuvaev, A Pimenov, G V Astakhov, C Ames, K Bendias, J Böttcher, G Tkachov, E M Hankiewicz, C Brüne, H Buhmann, L W Molenkamp
The electrodynamics of topological insulators (TIs) is described by modified Maxwell's equations, which contain additional terms that couple an electric field to a magnetization and a magnetic field to a polarization of the medium, such that the coupling coefficient is quantized in odd multiples of α/4π per surface. Here we report on the observation of this so-called topological magnetoelectric effect. We use monochromatic terahertz (THz) spectroscopy of TI structures equipped with a semitransparent gate to selectively address surface states...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
A C H Rowe, I Zhaksylykova, G Dilasser, Y Lassailly, J Peretti
The ability to measure nanoradian polarization rotations, θF, in the photon shot noise limit is investigated for partially crossed polarizers (PCP), a static Sagnac interferometer, and an optical bridge, each of which can in principle be used in this limit with near equivalent figures-of-merit (FOM). In practice a bridge to PCP/Sagnac source noise rejection ratio of 1/4θF(2) enables the bridge to operate in the photon shot noise limit even at high light intensities. The superior performance of the bridge is illustrated via the measurement of a 3 nrad rotation arising from an axial magnetic field of 0...
April 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Aleksey Starobor, Evgeniy Mironov, Ilya Snetkov, Oleg Palashov, Hiroaki Furuse, Shigeki Tokita, Ryo Yasuhara
The thermally induced depolarization and Verdet constant of CeF<sub>3</sub> crystals-their most important characteristics-have been studied in the 79-293 K temperature range. It has been found that thermal effects reduce substantially upon cooling down to 79 K and the Verdet constant grows in inverse proportion to the temperature. It was shown that CeF<sub>3</sub> crystals are not inferior to TGG as a medium for Faraday isolators, including cryogenic ones.
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
J O Johansson, J-W Kim, E Allwright, D M Rogers, N Robertson, J-Y Bigot
We show that a vanadium-chromium Prussian blue analogue, which is a room-temperature molecule-based magnet, displays a fast magnetic response on a femtosecond timescale that is attributed to the super-exchange interaction between the metal ions. These dynamics are obtained from femtosecond Faraday magneto-optical (MO) measurements, performed at 50 and 300 K. Exciting at the ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) band results in the formation of the (2)E excited state on the Cr ion via intersystem crossing (ISC) from the (4)LMCT state in less than 250 fs...
December 1, 2016: Chemical Science
Nico Fischer, Simon A Kondrat, Mzamo Shozi
Welcome to Africa was the motto when after more than 100 years the flag ship conference series of the Royal Society of Chemistry, the Faraday Discussions was hosted for the first time on the African Continent. Under the fitting topic 'Catalysis for Fuels' over 120 delegates followed the invitation by the conference chair Prof. Graham Hutchings FRS (Cardiff Catalysis Institute), his organizing committee and the co-organizing DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Catalysis c*change (). In the presentations of 21 invited speakers and 59 posters, cutting edge research in the field of catalysis for fuels, designing new catalysts for synthetic fuels, hydrocarbon conversion in the production of synthetic fuels and novel photocatalysis was presented over the two-day meeting...
April 24, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yuko Nakatsuka, Kilian Pollok, Torsten Wieduwilt, Falko Langenhorst, Markus A Schmidt, Koji Fujita, Shunsuke Murai, Katsuhisa Tanaka, Lothar Wondraczek
Magnetooptical (MO) glasses and, in particular, Faraday rotators are becoming key components in lasers and optical information processing, light switching, coding, filtering, and sensing. The common design of such Faraday rotator materials follows a simple path: high Faraday rotation is achieved by maximizing the concentration of paramagnetic ion species in a given matrix material. However, this approach has reached its limits in terms of MO performance; hence, glass-based materials can presently not be used efficiently in thin film MO applications...
April 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Stephen Courtney
In the midsummer of 1872 a lighthouse apparatus was installed in the Clock Tower of the House of Commons. The installation served the practical function of communicating at a distance when the House was sitting, but also provided a highly visible symbolic indication of the importance of lighthouse technology to national concerns. Further, the installation served as an experimental space in which rival technological designs, with corresponding visions for the lighthouse system, could compete in public. This article considers nineteenth-century lighthouse technology as a case study in the power and political significance of display...
April 24, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
T S Robinson, F Consoli, S Giltrap, S J Eardley, G S Hicks, E J Ditter, O Ettlinger, N H Stuart, M Notley, R De Angelis, Z Najmudin, R A Smith
We report on the development and deployment of an optical diagnostic for single-shot measurement of the electric-field components of electromagnetic pulses from high-intensity laser-matter interactions in a high-noise environment. The electro-optic Pockels effect in KDP crystals was used to measure transient electric fields using a geometry easily modifiable for magnetic field detection via Faraday rotation. Using dielectric sensors and an optical fibre-based readout ensures minimal field perturbations compared to conductive probes and greatly limits unwanted electrical pickup between probe and recording system...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gyung-Min Choi, André Schleife, David G Cahill
Recent observations of switching of magnetic domains in ferromagnetic metals by circularly polarized light, so-called all-optical helicity dependent switching, has renewed interest in the physics that governs the interactions between the angular momentum of photons and the magnetic order parameter of materials. Here we use time-resolved-vectorial measurements of magnetization dynamics of thin layers of Fe, Ni and Co driven by picosecond duration pulses of circularly polarized light. We decompose the torques that drive the magnetization into field-like and spin-transfer components that we attribute to the inverse Faraday effect and optical spin-transfer torque, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Nature Communications
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