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Sijie Guo, Siqi Zhao, Jin Gao, Cheng Zhu, Xiuqin Wu, Yijun Fu, Hui Huang, Yang Liu, Zhenhui Kang
Electrochemical reduction of CO2 is a key component of many prospective artificial technologies for renewable carbon-containing fuels, but it still suffers from the high overpotentials required to drive the process, low selectivity for diversiform products and the high cost of the catalyst. Here, we report that Cu-CDots nanocorals is a highly efficient, low-cost and stable electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction in aqueous solution. The major product of CO2 reduction on the Cu-CDots nanocorals is HCOOH with an inconceivable low overpotential of 0...
December 2, 2016: Nanoscale
S Yamamoto, K Ogawa, M Isobe, D S Darrow, S Kobayashi, K Nagasaki, H Okada, T Minami, S Kado, S Ohshima, G M Weir, Y Nakamura, S Konoshima, N Kemmochi, Y Ohtani, T Mizuuchi
A Faraday-cup type lost-fast ion probe (FLIP) has been designed and installed in Heliotron J for the purpose of the studies of interaction between fast ions and MHD instabilities. The FLIP can measure the co-going fast ions whose energy is in the range of 1.7-42.5 keV (proton) and pitch angle of 90(∘)-140(∘), especially for fast ions having the injection energy of neutral beam injection (NBI). The FLIP successfully measured the re-entering passing ions and trapped lost-fast ions caused by fast-ion-driven energetic particle modes in NBI heated plasmas...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
S Germer, F Pietag, J Polak, T Arnold
This study presents the imaging and characterization of low-current ion beams in the neutralized state monitored via single crystal YAG:Ce (Y3Al5O12) scintillators. To validate the presented beam diagnostic tool, Faraday cup measurements and test etchings were performed. Argon ions with a typical energy of 1.0 keV were emitted from an inductively coupled radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) ion beam source with total currents of some mA. Different beam properties, such as, lateral ion current density, beam divergence angle, and current density in pulsed ion beams have been studied to obtain information about the spatial beam profile and the material removal rate distribution...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Y Zhou, H X Wang, Y G Li, Y Li, W J Chen, J Yi, Z C Deng
HL-2M is a new medium-sized tokamak with major radius of 1.78 m, minor radius of 0.65 m, and aspect ratio of 2.8 and will be finished soon. In the conceptual design, a double-pass, horizontal view, multi-channel far-infrared (FIR) laser interferometer/polarimeter system (at 432 μm) is proposed to simultaneously measure the phase change and the Faraday rotation for density and current profile reconstruction. A vertical CO2 dispersion interferometer system (with wavelength of 10.6 μm and 5.3 μm) is designed to measure the line density, which will mainly be used for density feedback...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
T Akiyama, A Sirinelli, C Watts, P Shigin, G Vayakis, M Walsh
A dispersion interferometer is a reliable density measurement system and is being designed as a complementary density diagnostic on ITER. The dispersion interferometer is inherently insensitive to mechanical vibrations, and a combined polarimeter with the same line of sight can correct fringe jump errors. A proof of the principle of the CO2 laser dispersion interferometer combined with the PEM polarimeter was recently conducted, where the phase shift and the polarization angle were successfully measured simultaneously...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Zun Zhang, Haibin Tang, Junxue Ren, Zhe Zhang, Joseph Wang
The ion thruster beam plasma is characterized by high directed ion velocity (10(4) m/s) and low plasma density (10(15) m(-3)). Interpretation of measurements of such a plasma based on classical Langmuir probe theory can yield a large experimental error. This paper presents an indirect method to calibrate ion density determination in an ion thruster beam plasma using a Faraday probe, a retarding potential analyzer, and a Langmuir probe. This new method is applied to determine the plasma emitted from a 20-cm-diameter Kaufman ion thruster...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
J Chen, W X Ding, D L Brower, D Finkenthal, C Muscatello, D Taussig, R Boivin
Motivated by the need to measure fast equilibrium temporal dynamics, non-axisymmetric structures, and core magnetic fluctuations (coherent and broadband), a three-chord Faraday-effect polarimeter-interferometer system with fast time response and high phase resolution has recently been installed on the DIII-D tokamak. A novel detection scheme utilizing two probe beams and two detectors for each chord results in reduced phase noise and increased time response [δb ∼ 1G with up to 3 MHz bandwidth]. First measurement results were obtained during the recent DIII-D experimental campaign...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
B H Deng, M Beall, J Schroeder, G Settles, P Feng, J S Kinley, H Gota, M C Thompson
A high sensitivity multi-channel far infrared laser diagnostics with switchable interferometry and polarimetry operation modes for the advanced neutral beam-driven C-2U field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas is described. The interferometer achieved superior resolution of 1 × 10(16) m(-2) at >1.5 MHz bandwidth, illustrated by measurement of small amplitude high frequency fluctuations. The polarimetry achieved 0.04° instrument resolution and 0.1° actual resolution in the challenging high density gradient environment with >0...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Zhipeng Chen, Fuming Li, Ge Zhuang, Xiang Jian, Lizhi Zhu
The rectangular array of magnetic probes system was newly designed and installed in the torus on J-TEXT tokamak to measure the local magnetic fields outside the last closed flux surface at a single toroidal angle. In the implementation, the experimental results agree well with the theoretical results based on the Spool model and three-dimensional numerical finite element model when the vertical field was applied. Furthermore, the measurements were successfully used as the input of EFIT code to conduct the plasma equilibrium reconstruction...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
H Q Liu, J P Qian, Y X Jie, W X Ding, D L Brower, Z Y Zou, W M Li, H Lian, S X Wang, Y Yang, L Zeng, T Lan, Y Yao, L Q Hu, X D Zhang, B N Wan
A double-pass, radially viewing, far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique has been implemented for diagnosing the plasma current and electron density profiles in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). POINT has been operated routinely during the most recent experimental campaign and provides continuous 11 chord line-integrated Faraday effect and density measurement throughout the entire plasma discharge for all heating schemes and all plasma conditions (including ITER relevant scenario development)...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Z Y Zou, H Q Liu, W M Li, H Lian, S X Wang, Y Yao, T Lan, L Zeng, Y X Jie
Calibration of the polarimeter system is one of the key elements to determine the overall measurement accuracy. The anisotropic reflection and transmission properties of the mesh beam splitters can easily distort the polarization state of the circularly polarized beams. Using a rotating crystal quartz λ/2-waveplate to replace the plasma can effectively allow us to obtain the ratio of the measured Faraday rotation angle to the known rotation angle of the waveplate. This ratio is used to estimate the calibration factor for each chord to be accurately determined and help to minimize distortions introduced by the wire-mesh beam splitters...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Patrick Carle, Aaron Froese, Adrian Wong, Stephen Howard, Peter O'Shea, Michel Laberge
A polarimeter has been designed to measure Faraday rotation and help to understand the profile of its safety factor, q, on the recently built SPECTOR magnetized target fusion machine at General Fusion. The polarimeter uses two counter-rotating, circularly polarized, 118.8 μm beams to probe the plasma. Grad-Shafranov simulations have been used to investigate the effect of measurement error and chord geometry.
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
David Chandler, David E Manolopoulos
This paper summarizes the contributions to the Faraday Discussion on reaction rate theory. The topics range from contemporary usage of transition state theory, including rare event sampling, to instantons and non-adiabatic dynamics.
November 29, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Zhiguang Zhu, Y-H Percival Zhang
The direct generation of electricity from the most abundant renewable sugar, glucose, is an appealing alternative to the production of liquid biofuels and biohydrogen. However, enzyme-catalyzed bioelectricity generation from glucose suffers from low yields due to the incomplete oxidation of the six-carbon compound glucose via one or few enzymes. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic ATP- and CoA-free 12-enzyme pathway to implement the complete oxidation of glucose in vitro. This pathway is comprised of glucose phosphorylation via polyphosphate glucokinase, NADH generation catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), electron transfer from NADH to the anode, and glucose 6-phosphate regeneration via the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis...
November 23, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
Simone Luca Portalupi, Matthias Widmann, Cornelius Nawrath, Michael Jetter, Peter Michler, Jörg Wrachtrup, Ilja Gerhardt
Hybrid quantum systems integrating semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and atomic vapours become important building blocks for scalable quantum networks due to the complementary strengths of individual parts. QDs provide on-demand single-photon emission with near-unity indistinguishability comprising unprecedented brightness-while atomic vapour systems provide ultra-precise frequency standards and promise long coherence times for the storage of qubits. Spectral filtering is one of the key components for the successful link between QD photons and atoms...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
Shiyue Hua, Jianming Wen, Xiaoshun Jiang, Qian Hua, Liang Jiang, Min Xiao
Despite being fundamentally challenging in integrated (nano)photonics, achieving chip-based light non-reciprocity becomes increasingly urgent in signal processing and optical communications. Because of material incompatibilities in conventional approaches based on the Faraday effect, alternative solutions have resorted to nonlinear processes to obtain one-way transmission. However, dynamic reciprocity in a recent theoretical analysis has pinned down the functionalities of these nonlinear isolators. To bypass such dynamic reciprocity, we here demonstrate an optical isolator on a silicon chip enforced by phase-matched parametric amplification in four-wave mixing...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
F Descamps, D Kinet, S Bette, C Caucheteur
Magnetic field sensing can be directly (i.e. without requiring magnetic fuilds or magnetostrictive materials) obtained from the estimation of the circular birefringence induced in optical fibers through the so-called Faraday effect. In standard telecommunication-grade optical fiber, the amount of induced circular birefringence is however of the same order of the intrinsic fiber linear birefringence or even below. Hence, whenever uniform fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are used to probe this evolution, the resulting accuracy is usually very poor, even in the case of polarization-assisted measurements based on polarization dependent loss (PDL) or differential group delay (DGD)...
November 14, 2016: Optics Express
V Ravi, R M Shannon, M Bailes, K Bannister, S Bhandari, N D R Bhat, S Burke-Spolaor, M Caleb, C Flynn, A Jameson, S Johnston, E F Keane, M Kerr, C Tiburzi, A V Tuntsov, H K Vedantham
Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration events thought to originate beyond the Milky Way galaxy. Uncertainty surrounding the burst sources, and their propagation through intervening plasma, has limited their use as cosmological probes. We report on a mildly dispersed (dispersion measure 266.5 ± 0.1 pc cm(-3)), exceptionally intense (120 ± 30 Jy), linearly polarized, scintillating burst (FRB 150807) that we directly localize to 9 arcmin(2) Based on a low Faraday rotation (12.0 ± 0.7 rad m(-2)), we infer negligible magnetization in the circum-burst plasma and constrain the net magnetization of the cosmic web along this sightline to <21 nG, parallel to the line-of-sight...
November 17, 2016: Science
Paolo Actis, Cameron L Bentley, Martin A Edwards, Leon Jacobse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Xiaolin Yin, Weijie Deng, Wa Tang, Binzhi Zhang, Donglin Xue, Feng Zhang, Xuejun Zhang
During the ion beam figuring (IBF) of a space mirror, thermal radiation of the neutral filament and particle collisions will heat the mirror. The adhesive layer used to bond the metal parts and the mirror is very sensitive to temperature rise. When the temperature exceeds the designed value, the mirror surface shape will change markedly because of the thermal deformation and stress release of the adhesive layer, thereby reducing the IBF accuracy. To suppress the thermal effect, we analyzed the heat generation mechanism...
October 1, 2016: Applied Optics
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