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J Ma, D A Pesin
We develop an effective medium theory for electromagnetic wave propagation through gapless nonuniform systems with a dynamic chiral magnetic effect. The theory allows us to calculate macroscopic-disorder-induced corrections to the values of optical, as well as chiral magnetic conductivities. In particular, we show that spatial fluctuations of the optical conductivity induce corrections to the effective value of the chiral magnetic conductivity. The absolute value of the effect varies strongly depending on the system parameters, but yields the leading frequency dependence of the polarization rotation and circular dichroism signals...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Nikolai E Khokhlov, Anastasiya E Khramova, Elena P Nikolaeva, Tatyana B Kosykh, Alexey V Nikolaev, Anatoly K Zvezdin, Alexander P Pyatakov, Vladimir I Belotelov
Nowadays, spintronics considers magnetic domain walls as a kind of nanodeviсe that demands for switching much less energy in comparison to homogeneous process. We propose and demonstrate a new concept for the light control via electric field applied locally to a magnetic domain wall playing the role of nanodevice. In detail, we charged a 15-μm-thick metallic tip to generate strong non-uniform electric field in the vicinity of the domain wall in the iron garnet film. The electric field influences the domain wall due to flexomagnetoelectric effect and causes the domain wall shift...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
J A de Jong, A M Kalashnikova, R V Pisarev, A M Balbashov, A V Kimel, A Kirilyuk, Th Rasing
Light propagation effects can strongly influence the excitation and the detection of laser-induced magnetization dynamics. We investigated experimentally and analytically the effects of crystallographic linear birefringence on the excitation and detection of ultrafast magnetization dynamics in the rare-earth orthoferrites (Sm0.5Pr0.5)FeO3 and (Sm0.55Tb0.45)FeO3, which possess weak and strong linear birefringence, respectively. Our finding is that the effect of linear birefringence on the result of a magneto-optical pump-probe experiment strongly depends on the mechanism of excitation...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Miao Zhong, Takashi Hisatomi, Yutaka Sasaki, Sayaka Suzuki, Katsuya Teshima, Mamiko Nakabayashi, Naoya Shibata, Hiroshi Nishiyama, Masao Katayama, Taro Yamada, Kazunari Domen
Ta3 N5 is a very promising photocatalyst for solar water splitting because of its wide spectrum solar energy utilization up to 600 nm and suitable energy band position straddling the water splitting redox reactions. However, its development has long been impeded by poor compatibility with electrolytes. Herein, we demonstrate a simple sputtering-nitridation process to fabricate high-performance Ta3 N5 film photoanodes owing to successful synthesis of the vital TaOδ precursors. An effective GaN coating strategy is developed to remarkably stabilize Ta3 N5 by forming a crystalline nitride-on-nitride structure with an improved nitride/electrolyte interface...
March 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
P Gibson
The 2017 Faraday Discussion on the topic of "Catalysis for Fuels" was unique in the sense that it was the first Faraday Discussion to be held on the continent of Africa. "Catalysis" and "Fuels" are both topics that could be widely interpreted and the session topics proved to be a relevant spread of old and new i.e. Fischer-Tropsch chemistry, biomass refining, zeolite conversions and photocatalysis. Most of the papers were underpinned by fundamental studies, catalyst design approaches, reports of in operando characterization and detailed speciation and micro kinetic analyses...
March 17, 2017: Faraday Discussions
John D Eicher, Ming-Huei Chen, Achilleas N Pitsillides, Honghuang Lin, Narayanan Veeraraghavan, Jennifer A Brody, Ginger A Metcalf, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker, Nauder Faraday, Rasika A Mathias, Lisa R Yanek, Eric Boerwinkle, L Adrienne Cupples, Andrew D Johnson
Inhibition of platelet reactivity is a common therapeutic strategy in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Genetic and environmental factors influence inter-individual variation in platelet reactivity. Identifying genes that contribute to platelet reactivity can reveal new biological mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets. Here, we examined rare coding variation to identify genes associated with platelet reactivity in a population-based cohort. To do so, we performed whole exome sequencing in the Framingham Heart Study and conducted single variant and gene-based association tests against platelet reactivity to collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and epinephrine agonists in up to 1,211 individuals...
March 16, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
J D Hare, L Suttle, S V Lebedev, N F Loureiro, A Ciardi, G C Burdiak, J P Chittenden, T Clayson, C Garcia, N Niasse, T Robinson, R A Smith, N Stuart, F Suzuki-Vidal, G F Swadling, J Ma, J Wu, Q Yang
We present a detailed study of magnetic reconnection in a quasi-two-dimensional pulsed-power driven laboratory experiment. Oppositely directed magnetic fields (B=3  T), advected by supersonic, sub-Alfvénic carbon plasma flows (V_{in}=50  km/s), are brought together and mutually annihilate inside a thin current layer (δ=0.6  mm). Temporally and spatially resolved optical diagnostics, including interferometry, Faraday rotation imaging, and Thomson scattering, allow us to determine the structure and dynamics of this layer, the nature of the inflows and outflows, and the detailed energy partition during the reconnection process...
February 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Leslie E Roos, Erik L Knight, Kathryn G Beauchamp, Elliot T Berkman, Kelsie Faraday, Katie Hyslop, Philip A Fisher
Identifying environmental influences on inhibitory control (IC) may help promote positive behavioral and social adjustment. Although chronic stress is known to predict lower IC, the immediate effects of acute stress are unknown. The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) may be a mechanism of the stress-IC link, given its psychophysiological regulatory role and connections to prefrontal brain regions critical to IC. We used a focused assessment of IC (the stop-signal task) to test whether an acute social stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test) affected participants' pre- to post-IC performance (n=58), compared to a control manipulation (n=31)...
March 6, 2017: Biological Psychology
Jean-Marie Poumirol, Peter Q Liu, Tetiana M Slipchenko, Alexey Y Nikitin, Luis Martin-Moreno, Jérôme Faist, Alexey B Kuzmenko
The magnetic circular dichroism and the Faraday rotation are the fundamental phenomena of great practical importance arising from the breaking of the time reversal symmetry by a magnetic field. In most materials, the strength and the sign of these effects can be only controlled by the field value and its orientation. Furthermore, the terahertz range is lacking materials having the ability to affect the polarization state of the light in a non-reciprocal manner. Here we demonstrate, using broadband terahertz magneto-electro-optical spectroscopy, that in graphene both the magnetic circular dichroism and the Faraday rotation can be modulated in intensity, tuned in frequency and, importantly, inverted using only electrostatic doping at a fixed magnetic field...
March 7, 2017: Nature Communications
Zeyan Zhuang, Youhong Tang, Dan Ding, Youichi Tsuchiya, Zujin Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Peter Gawthrop
Engineering systems modelling and analysis based on the bond graph approach has been applied to biomolecular systems. In this context, the notion of a Faraday-equivalent chemical potential is introduced which allows chemical potential to be expressed in an analogous manner to electrical volts thus allowing engineering intuition to be applied to biomolecular systems. Redox reactions, and their representation by half-reactions, are key components of biological systems which involve both electrical and chemical domains...
February 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Cheolsu Han, Inho Sul, Boklae Cho
The performance of an electron gun is evaluated in terms of the gun brightness. The brightness of an electron gun is typically measured by dividing the angular current density by the virtual source area. An electron gun brightness measurement system was constructed without an electron lens. The system consists of movable apertures (∅ 30, 50, 100, 200 μm), a Faraday cup, and a phosphor screen. The Faraday cup is employed to measure the angular current density. The electron beam passes through an aperture and its shade is projected onto the phosphor screen...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Weichao Yan, Zhongquan Nie, Xueru Zhang, Yuxiao Wang, Yinglin Song
Combining the vector diffraction theory with the inverse Faraday effect, we have theoretically studied magnetization shaping generated by tight focusing of an azimuthally polarized multi-Gaussian beam superimposed with a helical phase. By selecting optimized parameters of a multi-Gaussian beam and topological charge of a spiral phase plate, not only a super-long and sub-wavelength longitudinal magnetization needle with single/dual channels for a single-lens high numerical aperture focusing system, but also an extra-long and three-dimensional super-resolution longitudinal magnetization chain with single/dual channels for a 4π high numerical aperture focusing system is achieved in the focal region...
March 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Claire A Lemarchand, Marc Couty, Bernard Rousseau
We apply the dissipative particle dynamics strategy proposed by Hijón et al. [Faraday Discuss. 144, 301-322 (2010)] and based on an exact derivation of the generalized Langevin equation to cis- and trans-1,4-polybutadiene. We prove that it is able to reproduce not only the structural but also the dynamical properties of these polymers without any fitting parameter. A systematic study of the effect of the level of coarse-graining is done on cis-1,4-polybutadiene. We show that as the level of coarse-graining increases, the dynamical properties are better and better reproduced while the structural properties deviate more and more from those calculated in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Yingying Li, Zhiguo Wang, Shilong Jin, Jie Yuan, Hui Luo
Optically pumped alkali metal atoms currently provide a sensitive solution for magnetic microscopic measurements. As the most practicable plan, Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light is extensively used in spin polarization measurements of alkali metal atoms. In some cases, near-resonant Faraday rotation is applied to improve the sensitivity. However, the near-resonant linearly polarized probe light is elliptically polarized after passing through optically pumped alkali metal vapor. The ellipticity of transmitted near-resonant probe light is numerically calculated and experimentally measured...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
F Copie, M Conforti, A Kudlinski, S Trillo, A Mussot
We experimentally investigate the round-trip-to-round-trip dynamics of the modulation instability spectrum in a passive fiber-ring cavity presenting an inhomogeneous dispersion profile. By implementing a real-time spectroscopy technique, we are able to record successive single-shot spectra, which display the evolution of the system toward a stationary state. We find that the two instability regimes (Turing and Faraday) that compete in this kind of inhomogeneous cavity not only differ by their characteristic frequency but also by their dynamical behavior...
February 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Bin Liu, Ruoyu Zhang
This article presents the Closing Remarks of the Faraday Discussion on aggregation induced emission (AIE) held in Guangzhou, China in November 2016. The history of the AIE phenomenon is summarized, from its discovery and mechanistic studies to real-life applications in optoelectronics, environmental monitoring and biomedical research. The paper concludes with comments on the future perspectives of the field.
February 1, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Lihao Han, Meng Lin, Sophia Haussener
Photocatalytic approaches using two sets of semiconductor particles and a pair of redox shuttle mediators are considered as a safe and economic solution for solar water splitting. Here, we report on accurate experimental characterization techniques for photocatalytic half reactions investigating the gas as well as the liquid products. The method is exemplified utilizing photocatalytic titania particles in an iron-based aqueous electrolyte for effective oxygen evolution and mediator reduction reactions under illumination...
January 30, 2017: ChemSusChem
Shiming Chen, Siglinda Perathoner, Claudio Ampelli, Chalachew Mebrahtu, Dangsheng Su, Gabriele Centi
Ammonia is synthesized directly from water and N2 at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a flow electrochemical cell operating in gas phase (half-cell for the NH3 synthesis). Iron supported on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was used as the electrocatalyst in this half-cell. A rate of ammonia formation of 2.2×10(-3)  gNH3  m(-2)  h(-1) was obtained at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a flow of N2 , with stable behavior for at least 60 h of reaction, under an applied potential of -2.0 V...
March 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Kai Kammers, Margaret A Taub, Ingo Ruczinski, Joshua Martin, Lisa R Yanek, Alyssa Frazee, Yongxing Gao, Dixie Hoyle, Nauder Faraday, Diane M Becker, Linzhao Cheng, Zack Z Wang, Jeff T Leek, Lewis C Becker, Rasika A Mathias
Previously, we have described our feeder-free, xeno-free approach to generate megakaryocytes (MKs) in culture from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we focus specifically on the integrity of these MKs using: (1) genotype discordance between parent cell DNA to iPSC cell DNA and onward to the differentiated MK DNA; (2) genomic structural integrity using copy number variation (CNV); and (3) transcriptomic signatures of the derived MK lines compared to the iPSC lines. We detected a very low rate of genotype discordance; estimates were 0...
2017: PloS One
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