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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156579/on-the-piezoelectric-detection-of-guided-ultrasonic-waves
#1
Kanji Ono
In order to quantify the wave motion of guided ultrasonic waves, the characteristics of piezoelectric detectors, or ultrasonic transducers and acoustic emission sensors, have been evaluated systematically. Such guided waves are widely used in structural health monitoring and nondestructive evaluation, but methods of calibrating piezoelectric detectors have been inadequate. This study relied on laser interferometry for the base displacement measurement of bar waves, from which eight different guided wave test set-ups are developed with known wave motion using piezoelectric transmitters...
November 18, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156397/composition-determination-of-multinary-iii-v-semiconductors-via-stem-haadf-multislice-simulations
#2
Lennart Duschek, Andreas Beyer, Jan Oliver Oelerich, Kerstin Volz
Knowledge of the microscopic elemental composition of multinary III/V semiconductor materials is crucial to the development of functionalized opto-electronic devices. Well-proven composition analysis methods, such as high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), fail to determine the elemental composition when more than three atomic species are involved. In this work we propose a procedure for the composition analysis of multinary III/V semiconductors at atomic resolution using high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) image simulations...
November 9, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156264/examining-the-effects-of-socioeconomic-development-on-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-in-china-s-cities-using-spatial-regression-and-the-geographical-detector-technique
#3
Chunshan Zhou, Jing Chen, Shaojian Wang
The frequent occurrence of extreme smog episodes in recent years has begun to present a serious threat to human health. In addition to pollutant emissions and meteorological conditions, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is also influenced by socioeconomic development. Thus, identifying the potential effects of socioeconomic development on PM2.5 variations can provide insights into particulate pollution control. This study applied spatial regression and the geographical detector technique for assessing the directions and strength of association between socioeconomic factors and PM2...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154522/distribution-and-evaluation-of-a-carbon-monoxide-detector-intervention-in-two-settings-emergency-department-and-urban-community
#4
Lara B McKenzie, Kristin J Roberts, Wendy C Shields, Eileen McDonald, Elise Omaki, Mahmoud Abdel-Rasoul, Andrea C Gielen
The objective of this study was to describe changes in carbon monoxide (CO) safety knowledge and observed CO detector use following distribution of a CO detector use intervention in two environments, a pediatric emergency department (Ohio) and an urban community (Maryland). A total of 301 participants completed the 6-month follow up (Ohio: n = 125; Maryland: n = 176). The majority of participants was female, 25–34 years of age, and employed (full or part time). We found that CO safety knowledge did not differ between settings at enrollment, but significantly improved at the follow-up visits...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154504/comparative-study-of-image-contrast-in-scanning-electron-microscope-and-helium-ion-microscope
#5
R O'Connell, Y Chen, H Zhang, Y Zhou, D Fox, P Maguire, J J Wang, C Rodenburg
Images of Ga(+) -implanted amorphous silicon layers in a 110 n-type silicon substrate have been collected by a range of detectors in a scanning electron microscope and a helium ion microscope. The effects of the implantation dose and imaging parameters (beam energy, dwell time, etc.) on the image contrast were investigated. We demonstrate a similar relationship for both the helium ion microscope Everhart-Thornley and scanning electron microscope Inlens detectors between the contrast of the images and the Ga(+) density and imaging parameters...
December 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154310/tutorial-on-x-ray-photon-counting-detector-characterization
#6
Liqiang Ren, Bin Zheng, Hong Liu
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in photon counting detection technology have led to significant research interest in X-ray imaging. OBJECTIVE: As a tutorial level review, this paper covers a wide range of aspects related to X-ray photon counting detector characterization. METHODS: The tutorial begins with a detailed description of the working principle and operating modes of a pixelated X-ray photon counting detector with basic architecture and detection mechanism...
November 16, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154260/spectral-windows-analysis-method-for-monitoring-anthropogenic-radionuclides-in-real-time-environmental-gamma-ray-scintillation-spectrometry
#7
Elena Prieto, Ramon Casanovas, Marçal Salvadó
This paper proposes an analysis methodology based on the spectral windows technique aimed for environmental real-time gamma-ray spectra obtained with scintillation detectors. The method permits to monitor activity concentrations of selected isotopes, such as anthropogenic radionuclides like <sup>137</sup>Cs and <sup>131</sup>I, by removing the Compton scattering plus other external contributions and resolving peak overlapping within any window. Activity concentrations are presented for <sup>137</sup>Cs, <sup>131</sup>I, <sup>214</sup>Bi and <sup>214</sup>Pb when applying the method to a monitor using a LaBr<sub>3</sub>(Ce) detector...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154196/analysis-of-potential-genotoxic-impurities-in-rabeprazole-active-pharmaceutical-ingredient-via-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-following-quality-by-design-principles-for-method-development
#8
Katerina Iliou, Anđelija Malenović, Yannis L Loukas, Yannis Dotsikas
A novel Liquid Chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is presented for the quantitative determination of two potential genotoxic impurities (PGIs) in rabeprazole active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). In order to overcome the analytical challenges in the trace analysis of PGIs, a development procedure supported by Quality-by-Design (QbD) principles was evaluated. The efficient separation between rabeprazole and the two PGIs in the shortest analysis time was set as the defined analytical target profile (ATP) and to this purpose utilization of a switching valve allowed the flow to be sent to waste when rabeprazole was eluted...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153359/multi-detector-ct-liver-protocol-and-recent-developments
#9
REVIEW
N Kartalis, K Brehmer, L Loizou
Multi-detector computed tomography is today the workhorse in the evaluation of the vast majority of patients with known or suspected liver disease. Reasons for that include widespread availability, robustness and repeatability of the technique, time-efficient image acquisitions of large body volumes, high temporal and spatial resolution as well as multiple post-processing capabilities. However, as the technique employs ionizing radiation and intravenous iodine-based contrast media, the associated potential risks have to be taken into account...
December 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152652/effect-of-wnt1-and-wnt5a-on-the-development-of-dopaminergic-neurons-and-toxicity-induced-by-combined-exposure-to-paraquat-and-maneb-during-gestation-and-lactation
#10
Jing Ma, Cui Huang, Kun Ma, Yan-Ping Wu, Bai-Xiang Li, Yan Sun
Paraquat (PQ) and maneb (MB) are widely used herbicides. Wingless (Wnt) proteins serve a role in the development and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons. Previous studies demonstrated that combined exposure to PQ and MB damages dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Effects of PQ and MB exposure on midbrain Wnt proteins have also been previously reported. In the present study, from the 5th day of gestation to weaning of the offspring, pregnant Sprague‑Dawley rats were administrated saline, or PQ and MB at two different doses: high, 15 mg/kg body weight PQ + 45 mg/kg body weight MB; or low, 10 mg/kg body weight PQ + 30 mg/kg body weight MB...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152535/time-zero-determination-for-fel-pump-probe-studies-based-on-ultrafast-melting-of-bismuth
#11
S W Epp, M Hada, Y Zhong, Y Kumagai, K Motomura, S Mizote, T Ono, S Owada, D Axford, S Bakhtiarzadeh, H Fukuzawa, Y Hayashi, T Katayama, A Marx, H M Müller-Werkmeister, R L Owen, D A Sherrell, K Tono, K Ueda, F Westermeier, R J D Miller
A common challenge for pump-probe studies of structural dynamics at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) is the determination of time zero (T0)-the time an optical pulse (e.g., an optical laser) arrives coincidently with the probe pulse (e.g., a XFEL pulse) at the sample position. In some cases, T0 might be extracted from the structural dynamics of the sample's observed response itself, but generally, an independent robust method is required or would be superior to the inferred determination of T0. In this paper, we present how the structural dynamics in ultrafast melting of bismuth can be exploited for a quickly performed, reliable and accurate determination of T0 with a precision below 20 fs and an overall experimental accuracy of 50 fs to 150 fs (estimated)...
September 2017: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152449/a-new-multiple-robot-path-planning-algorithm-dynamic-distributed-particle-swarm-optimization
#12
Asma Ayari, Sadok Bouamama
Multiple robot systems have become a major study concern in the field of robotic research. Their control becomes unreliable and even infeasible if the number of robots increases. In this paper, a new dynamic distributed particle swarm optimization (D(2)PSO) algorithm is proposed for trajectory path planning of multiple robots in order to find collision-free optimal path for each robot in the environment. The proposed approach consists in calculating two local optima detectors, LODpBest and LODgBest. Particles which are unable to improve their personal best and global best for predefined number of successive iterations would be replaced with restructured ones...
2017: Robotics and Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151982/the-effect-of-low-magnitude-low-frequency-vibrations-lmlf-on-osteogenic-differentiation-potential-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Monika Marędziak, Daniel Lewandowski, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski, Krzysztof Kubiak, Krzsztof Marycz
Introduction: In the current study, we investigated the effect of low magnitude, low frequency (LMLF) mechanical vibrations on the osteogenic differentiation potential of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASC), taken from elderly patients. Methods: During 21 days in osteogenic culture medium, cells were periodically exposed to three different frequencies (25, 35 and 45 Hz) of continuous sinusoidal oscillation, using a vibration generator. We measured cell proliferation, cell morphology, calcium and phosphorus deposition using Almar Blue assay, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and a EDX detector, respectively...
2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151470/-polymer-gel-dosimeter
#14
Shin-Ichiro Hayashi
With rapid advances being made in radiotherapy treatment, three-dimensional (3D) dose measurement techniques of great precision are required more than ever before. It is expected that 3D polymer gel dosimeters will satisfy clinical needs for an effective detector that can measure the complex 3D dose distributions. Polymer gel dosimeters are devices that utilize the radiation-induced polymerization reactions of vinyl monomers in a gel to store information about radiation dose. The 3D absorbed dose distribution can be deduced from the resulting polymer distribution using several imaging modalities, such as MRI, X-ray and optical CTs...
2017: Japanese Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151461/-optical-computed-tomography-for-polymer-gel-dosimetry
#15
Hiraku Kawamura, Takaoki Takanashi, Yoshikazu Shimada, Yuichi Sato, Shinji Abe, Satoshi Hara
This article describes an optical computed tomography (OCT) for polymer gel dosimetry, focusing on two systems recently constructed by us. The first OCT system, which is categorized as a first-generation system, comprised a single He-Ne laser, photodiode, and mechanical stages for moving and turning gel dosimeter. Projection data per angle are acquired from turned gel dosimeter. In this system, the reconstructed image is obtained using filtered back-projection (FBP) method from projection data. The second OCT system is a 2D-OCT scanner that utilizes a light panel and a camera detector...
2017: Japanese Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151340/coupling-microchip-electrospray-ionization-devices-with-high-pressure-mass-spectrometry
#16
William M Gilliland, John Scott Mellors, J Michael Ramsey
A microchip electrospray ionization source was coupled with high pressure mass spectrometry (HPMS). A continuous atmospheric inlet consisting of a stainless steel capillary and DC ion optics was designed to conduct ions into the mass spectrometer. Infusions of amino acids and peptides were performed and detected with a miniature cylindrical ion trap (mini-CIT) based mass spectrometer operated at ≥ 1 Torr with air as the buffer gas. Detection of glycine and thymopentin (separately) demonstrated the mass range of the mini-CIT detector could span from m/z 75 to 681...
November 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151005/synthesis-of-a-novel-polymeric-magnetic-solid-phase-extraction-adsorbent-for-selective-extraction-of-amphetamine-from-urine-samples-coupled-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#17
Arezou Taghvimi, Marjan Ghorbani, Hamed Hamishehkar
A novel pH-responsive block copolymer (Poly ethylene glycol-b-poly (N,N-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate-co-maleic acid) was designed for the decoration and stabilization of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to apply as an efficient magnetic nano adsorbent for extraction of amphetamine (AM) from biological urine samples to be determined by high performance liquid chromatography ultra violet detector (HPLC-UV). Full characterization of the synthesized Polymeric magnetic nanoparticles (PMNPs) were followed by various techniques like Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM)...
November 18, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150683/null-functions-in-three-dimensional-imaging-of-alpha-and-beta-particles
#18
Yijun Ding, Luca Caucci, Harrison H Barrett
Null functions of an imaging system are functions in the object space that give exactly zero data. Hence, they represent the intrinsic limitations of the imaging system. Null functions exist in all digital imaging systems, because these systems map continuous objects to discrete data. However, the emergence of detectors that measure continuous data, e.g. particle-processing (PP) detectors, has the potential to eliminate null functions. PP detectors process signals produced by each particle and estimate particle attributes, which include two position coordinates and three components of momentum, as continuous variables...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149344/application-of-droplet-detectors-to-alpha-radiation-detection
#19
T Morlat, A C Fernandes, M Felizardo, A Kling, T A Girard, J G Marques, F P Carvalho
Superheated droplet detectors (SDDs) are traditionally employed in the detection of neutrons. In this work the focus is on the detection of alpha particles using C2ClF5 as the target liquid. The alpha-droplet interaction is examined via computational studies, and a geometric model developed to describe the expected detector response. Experiments with alpha-emitting uranium- and samarium-doped SDDs at temperatures of 5-12°C confirm that the event rate is related to the size of the droplets, and are in model agreement for temperatures below 8°C; above this temperature, the acoustic sensitivity is reduced by signal attenuation as a result of the increasing bubble population, for which the addition of an attenuation coefficient restores the agreement with experiment...
November 15, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149320/organic-scintillator-for-real-time-neutron-dosimetry
#20
Kyle A Beyer, Angela Di Fulvio, Liliana Stolarczyk, Wiktor Parol, Natalia Mojzeszek, Renata Kopéc, Shaun D Clarke, Sara A Pozzi
We developed a radiation detector based on an organic scintillator for spectrometry and dosimetry of out-of-field secondary neutrons from clinical proton beams. The detector consists of an EJ-299-34 crystalline organic scintillator, coupled by fiber optic cable to a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). Proof of concept measurements were taken with 137Cs and 252Cf, and corresponding simulations were performed in MCNPX-PoliMi. Despite its small size, the detector is able to discriminate between neutron and gamma-rays via pulse shape discrimination...
November 15, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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