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Martin Hetzl, Jakob Wierzbowski, Theresa Hoffmann, Max Kraut, Verena Zuerbig, Christoph E Nebel, Kai Müller, Jonathan J Finley, Martin Stutzmann
Solid state quantum emitters embedded in a semiconductor crystal environment are potentially scalable platforms for quantum optical networks operated at room temperature. Prominent representatives are nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond showing coherent entanglement and interference with each other. However, these emitters suffer from inefficient optical outcoupling from the diamond and from fluctuations of their charge state. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of regular n-type gallium nitride nanowire arrays on diamond as photonic waveguides to tailor the emission direction of surface-near NV centers and to electrically control their charge state in a p-i-n nano-diode...
May 24, 2018: Nano Letters
Hongxiang Wang, Wei Wang, Dandan Hu, Min Luo, Chaozhuang Xue, Dongsheng Li, Tao Wu
Reported here is a unique crystalline semiconductor open-framework material built from the large-sized supertetrahedral T4 and T5 clusters with the Mn-In-S compositions. The hybrid assembly between T4 and T5 clusters by sharing terminal μ2 -S2- is for the first time observed among the cluster-based chalcogenide open frameworks. Such three-dimensional structure displays non-interpenetrated diamond-type topology with extra-large nonframework volume of 82%. Moreover, ion exchange, CO2 adsorption, as well as photoluminescence properties of the title compound are also investigated...
May 24, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Ashish Bhattarai, Andrey Krayev, Alexey Temiryazev, Dmitry Evplov, Kevin Thomas Crampton, Wayne P Hess, Patrick Z El Khoury
Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is particularly sensitive to analytes residing at plasmonic tip-sample nanojunctions, where the incident and scattered optical fields may be localized and optimally enhanced. However, the enhanced local electric fields in this so-called gap-mode TERS configuration are nominally orthogonal to the sample plane. As such, any given Raman active vibrational Eigenstate needs to have projections (of its polarizability derivative tensor elements) along the sample normal to be detectable via TERS...
May 23, 2018: Nano Letters
Lin Zhang, Wenchen Zhou, Neil J Naples, Allen Y Yi
Chalcogenide glasses are emerging as alternative materials for low-cost and high-volume glass molding processes for infrared optics. In precision glass molding, it is well documented that the refractive index variation in the molded elements can lead to substantial amounts of aberrations. The variation has such a significant effect that the optical designs with molded lenses need to be carefully considered and compensated for index variation to achieve targeted optical performance. This research is aimed to evaluate the refractive index change of a chalcogenide glass during the molding process by both finite element method-based simulation and optical experiment...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Johannes Hartung, Henrik von Lukowicz, Jan Kinast
Varying temperatures influence the figure errors of freeform metal mirrors by thermal expansion. Furthermore, different materials lead to thermo-elastic bending effects. The paper presents a derivation of a compensation approach for general static loads. Utilizing perturbation theory, this approach works for shape compensation of substrates that operate in various temperature environments. Verification is made using a finite element analysis, which is further used to produce manufacturable CAD models. The remaining low spatial frequency errors are deterministically correctable using diamond turning or polishing techniques...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
D Mamoulakis, F Vrouvaki, V Louvari, E Galanakis
AIM: To investigate the epidemiology of childhood Type 1 diabetes mellitus in Crete over the last 25 years and to evaluate incidence trends over time. METHODS: The study included all children aged 0-14 years who live in Crete and were diagnosed during the 25-year period from 1 January 1992 to 31 December 2016. RESULTS: A total of 271 children were diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes during the 25-year period: 148 boys and 123 girls (boy:girl ratio 1...
May 23, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Young-Ik Sohn, Srujan Meesala, Benjamin Pingault, Haig A Atikian, Jeffrey Holzgrafe, Mustafa Gündoğan, Camille Stavrakas, Megan J Stanley, Alp Sipahigil, Joonhee Choi, Mian Zhang, Jose L Pacheco, John Abraham, Edward Bielejec, Mikhail D Lukin, Mete Atatüre, Marko Lončar
The uncontrolled interaction of a quantum system with its environment is detrimental for quantum coherence. For quantum bits in the solid state, decoherence from thermal vibrations of the surrounding lattice can typically only be suppressed by lowering the temperature of operation. Here, we use a nano-electro-mechanical system to mitigate the effect of thermal phonons on a spin qubit - the silicon-vacancy colour centre in diamond - without changing the system temperature. By controlling the strain environment of the colour centre, we tune its electronic levels to probe, control, and eventually suppress the interaction of its spin with the thermal bath...
May 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Subramanian B, Thanka Rajan S, P J Martin, Vijay Vaithilingam, Penelope A Bean, Margaret D M Evans, A Bendavid
Diamond like carbon (DLC) films were deposited onto Ti6Al4V and Si wafer substrates by RF plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The influence of dopants such as fluorine (F), silicon (Si), and nitrogen (N) on composition, structure, and biocompatibility was investigated. Ion scattering spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of dopant atoms in the outer-most layers of the films. Raman studies showed that the position of the G-band shifts to higher frequencies with the fluorine and nitrogen content in the DLC film, whereas the incorporation of Si into DLC induces a decrease of the position of the G peak...
May 22, 2018: Biointerphases
Jack Binns, Philip Dalladay-Simpson, Mengnan Wang, Eugene Gregoryanz, Ross T Howie
High pressure can profoundly affect electronic structure and reactivity, creating compounds between elements that do not react at ambient conditions. Lithium is known to react with gold and silver, however no copper compounds are known to date. By compressing mixtures of the elements in diamond-anvil cells, compounds of lithium and copper have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction for the first time. Pressures as low as 1 GPa lead to the formation of a complex layered phase LiCu, displaying two-dimensional kagomé lattice layers of Cu atoms...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Young-Kyun Lim, Choong-Hyun Lee, Eung-Seok Lee, Dae-Soon Lim
In the study, a hollow boron-doped diamond (BDD) nanostructure electrode is fabricated to increase the reactive surface area for electrochemical applications. Tungsten oxide nanorods are deposited on the silicon substrate as a template by the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. The template is coated with a 100 nm BDD layer deposited by HFCVD to form a core-shell nanostructure. The WOx core is finally electrochemically dissolved to form hollow BDD nanostructure. The fabricated hollow BDD nanostructure electrode is investigated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy...
May 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Matthias Bock, Pascal Eich, Stephan Kucera, Matthias Kreis, Andreas Lenhard, Christoph Becher, Jürgen Eschner
Entanglement between a stationary quantum system and a flying qubit is an essential ingredient of a quantum-repeater network. It has been demonstrated for trapped ions, trapped atoms, color centers in diamond, or quantum dots. These systems have transition wavelengths in the blue, red or near-infrared spectral regions, whereas long-range fiber-communication requires wavelengths in the low-loss, low-dispersion telecom regime. A proven tool to interconnect flying qubits at visible/NIR wavelengths to the telecom bands is quantum frequency conversion...
May 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Samuel T Westreich, Michelle L Treiber, David A Mills, Ian Korf, Danielle G Lemay
BACKGROUND: Complex microbial communities are an area of growing interest in biology. Metatranscriptomics allows researchers to quantify microbial gene expression in an environmental sample via high-throughput sequencing. Metatranscriptomic experiments are computationally intensive because the experiments generate a large volume of sequence data and each sequence must be compared with reference sequences from thousands of organisms. RESULTS: SAMSA2 is an upgrade to the original Simple Annotation of Metatranscriptomes by Sequence Analysis (SAMSA) pipeline that has been redesigned for standalone use on a supercomputing cluster...
May 21, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Soshu Kirihara, Koki Nonaka, Shoichiro Kisanuki, Hirotoshi Nozaki, Keito Sakaguchi
Three-dimensional (3D) microphotonic crystals with a diamond structure composed of titania microlattices were fabricated using ultraviolet laser lithography, and the bandgap properties in the terahertz (THz) electromagnetic-wave frequency region were investigated. An acrylic resin paste with titania fine particle dispersions was used as the raw material for additive manufacturing. By scanning a spread paste surface with an ultraviolet laser beam, two-dimensional solid patterns were dewaxed and sintered. Subsequently, 3D structures with a relative density of 97% were created via layer lamination and joining...
May 18, 2018: Materials
Jussara F Carneiro, José M Aquino, Adilson J Silva, Juliana C Barreiro, Quezia B Cass, Romeu C Rocha-Filho
The role of the supporting electrolyte - SE (Na2 SO4 ; NaCl; Na2 CO3 ; NaNO3 ; Na3 PO4 - 0.1 M ionic strength) in the galvanostatic (10 mA cm-2 ) electrochemical degradation of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin (ENRO; 100 mg L-1 ) using a filter-press flow cell with a boron-doped diamond anode was investigated (flow rate, solution volume, and temperature were kept fixed at 420 L h-1 , 1.0 L, and 25 °C, respectively). The electrochemical degradation performance with the different SEs was assessed by following up [ENRO], total organic carbon concentration (TOC), oxidation intermediates (detected by LC and LC-QqTOF), and antimicrobial activity towards Escherichia coli as the electrolyses progressed...
May 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Tianqiong Ma, Jian Li, Jing Niu, Lei Zhang, Ahmed S Etman, Cong Lin, Dier Shi, Pohua Chen, Lihua Li, Xin Du, Junliang Sun, Wei Wang
We report herein the first example of interpenetration isomerism in covalent organic frameworks (COFs). As a well-known three-dimensional (3D) COF, COF-300 have been synthesized and characterized by the Yaghi group in 2009 as a 5-fold interpenetrated diamond structure ( dia-c5 topology). We found that adding an ageing process prior to the reported synthetic procedure afforded the formation of an inter-penetration isomer, dia-c7 COF-300. The 7-fold interpenetrated diamond structure of this new isomer was identified by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and rotation electron diffraction (RED) analyses...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Bingming Chen, Yu Feng, Dustin C Frost, Xuefei Zhong, Amanda R Buchberger, Jillian Johnson, Meng Xu, Miriam Kim, Diane Puccetti, Carol Diamond, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou, Lingjun Li
We recently developed a novel amine-reactive mass defect-based chemical tag, dimethyl pyrimidinyl ornithine (DiPyrO), for quantitative proteomic analysis at the MS1 level. In this work, we further extend the application of the DiPyrO tag, which provides amine group reactivity, optical detection capability, and improved electrospray sensitivity, to quantify N-linked glycans enzymatically released from glycoproteins in the glycosylamine form. Duplex DiPyrO tags that differ in mass by 45.3 mDa were used to label the glycosylamine moieties of freshly released N-glycosylamines from glycoprotein standards and human serum proteins...
May 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Ondrej Audy, Lisa Melymuk, Marta Venier, Simon Vojta, Jitka Becanova, Kevin Romanak, Martina Vykoukalova, Roman Prokes, Petr Kukucka, Miriam L Diamond, Jana Klanova
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are restricted compounds that are ubiquitously detected in the environment, including indoor matrices such as air and residential dust. We report concentrations of PCBs and selected OCPs in indoor air and dust from homes in Canada (23 homes) and Czech Republic (20 homes). Indoor air concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were ∼10 times higher than that outdoors. PCB concentrations of ∼450 ng/m3 were similar in both countries, higher in homes built before the restrictions on PCBs, and had congener profiles consistent with PCB mixtures manufactured or used in each country...
May 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Achille De Battisti, Paolo Formaglio, Sergio Ferro, Mustafa Al Aukidy, Paola Verlicchi
Lab-scale experiments using real groundwater were carried out using the CabECO® reactor system in order to evaluate its suitability for producing safe water, acceptable for civil purposes. Trials were carried out in discontinuous and in continuous mode, analyzing the influence of electrical and hydraulic process parameters on the quality of treated water. The use of highly boron-doped diamond electrodes in the reactor allowed the electrosynthesis of considerable amounts of ozone. Because of the relatively high amount of chloride in the groundwater samples, a mixture of HOCl/ClO- was also synthesized...
May 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Emily A Evans-Hoeker, Esther Eisenberg, Michael P Diamond, Richard S Legro, Ruben Alvero, Christos Coutifaris, Peter R Casson, Gregory M Christman, Karl R Hansen, Heping Zhang, Nanette Santoro, Anne Z Steiner
OBJECTIVE: To determine if maternal major depression (MD), antidepressant use, or paternal MD are associated with pregnancy outcomes after non-IVF fertility treatments. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Clinics. PATIENT(S): Participants in two randomized trials: PPCOS II (clomiphene citrate versus letrozole for polycystic ovary syndrome), and AMIGOS (gonadotropins versus clomiphene citrate versus letrozole for unexplained infertility)...
May 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Thomas Meier, Saiana Khandarkhaeva, Sylvain Petitgirard, Thomas Körber, Alexander Lauerer, Ernst Rössler, Leonid Dubrovinsky
The past 15 years have seen an astonishing increase in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) sensitivity and accessible pressure range in high-pressure NMR experiments, owing to a series of new developments of NMR spectroscopy applied to the diamond anvil cell (DAC). Recently, with the application of electro-magnetic lenses, so-called Lenz lenses, in toroidal diamond indenter cells, pressures of up to 72 GPa with NMR spin sensitivities of about 1012  spin/Hz1/2 has been achieved. Here, we describe the implementation of a refined NMR resonator structure using a pair of double stage Lenz lenses driven by a Helmholtz coil within a standard DAC, allowing to measure sample volumes as small as 100 pl prior to compression...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
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