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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432975/vaccination-strategies-against-zika-virus
#1
REVIEW
Estefania Fernandez, Michael S Diamond
The epidemic emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2015-2016 has been associated with congenital malformations and neurological sequela. Current efforts to develop a ZIKV vaccine build on technologies that successfully reduced infection or disease burden against closely related flaviviruses or other RNA viruses. Subunit-based (DNA plasmid and modified mRNA), viral vectored (adeno- and measles viruses) and inactivated viral vaccines are already advancing to clinical trials in humans after successful mouse and non-human primate studies...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432740/novel-3q27-2-qter-deletion-in-a-patient-with-diamond-blackfan-anemia-and-immunodeficiency-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#2
Ebba Alkhunaizi, Brett Schrewe, Reza Alizadehfar, Catherine Vézina, Grant S Stewart, Nancy Braverman
3q27.2-qter deletion syndromes feature an overlapping set of terminal and interstitial deletions with variable congenital malformations. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is etiologically heterogeneous disorder in which one cause is dominant mutations of the RPL35A gene on 3q29. We report a child with a 3q27.2-qter deletion that contains the RPL35A gene. She had clinical and laboratory features consistent with DBA and as well, an unexplained immunodeficiency disorder. Given these unusual findings, we reviewed other patients in the literature with overlapping genomic deletions...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431465/photovoltaic-properties-and-ultrafast-plasmon-relaxation-dynamics-of-diamond-like-carbon-nanocomposite-films-with-embedded-ag-nanoparticles
#3
Šarūnas Meškinis, Domantas Peckus, Andrius Vasiliauskas, Arvydas Čiegis, Rimantas Gudaitis, Tomas Tamulevičius, Iryna Yaremchuk, Sigitas Tamulevičius
Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with embedded Ag nanoparticles (DLC:Ag) and photovoltaic properties of heterojunctions consisting of DLC:Ag and crystalline silicon (DLC:Ag/Si) were investigated by means of transient absorption (TAS) spectroscopy and photovoltaic measurements. The heterojunctions using both p type and n type silicon were studied. It was found that TAS spectra of DLC:Ag films were dependent on the used excitation wavelength. At wavelengths where Ag nanoparticles absorbed light most intensively, only DLC signal was registered...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430810/efficacy-of-fluoride-varnishes-for-preventing-enamel-demineralization-after-interproximal-enamel-reduction-qualitative-and-quantitative-evaluation
#4
Ascensión Vicente, Antonio José Ortiz Ruiz, Belén Manuela González Paz, José García López, Luis-Alberto Bravo-González
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the changes produced to enamel after interproximal reduction and subjected to demineralization cycles, after applying a fluoride varnish (Profluorid) and a fluoride varnish containing tricalcium phosphate modified by fumaric acid (Clinpro White). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 138 interproximal dental surfaces were divided into six groups: 1) Intact enamel; 2) Intact enamel + demineralization cycles (DC); 3) Interproximal Reduction (IR); 4) IR + DC; 5) IR + Profluorid + DC; 6) IR + Clinpro White + DC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430499/bc8-silicon-si-iii-is-a-narrow-gap-semiconductor
#5
Haidong Zhang, Hanyu Liu, Kaya Wei, Oleksandr O Kurakevych, Yann Le Godec, Zhenxian Liu, Joshua Martin, Michael Guerrette, George S Nolas, Timothy A Strobel
Large-volume, phase-pure synthesis of BC8 silicon (Ia3[over ¯], cI16) has enabled bulk measurements of optical, electronic, and thermal properties. Unlike previous reports that conclude BC8-Si is semimetallic, we demonstrate that this phase is a direct band gap semiconductor with a very small energy gap and moderate carrier concentration and mobility at room temperature, based on far- and midinfrared optical spectroscopy, temperature-dependent electrical conductivity, Seebeck and heat capacity measurements...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430210/folded-monocentric-imager-with-deformable-mirror-focus
#6
Glenn M Schuster, William M Mellette, Joseph E Ford
We describe a catadioptric monocentric imager using an elastic central element focused by deformation of a fold mirror. We show the design of 6 mm and 12 mm focal length F/2.8 achromats and compare design performance when focusing by translating the sensor, translating the fold mirror, and by spherically deforming the fold mirror. We tested the 12 mm focal length design using a diamond turned polystyrene element as the outer meniscus lens (and mechanical mount), filled with an optical gel in contact with the central aperture and fold mirror, and demonstrate focusing by mechanical deformation of the fold mirror...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430195/a-stable-compound-of-helium-and-sodium-at-high-pressure
#7
Xiao Dong, Artem R Oganov, Alexander F Goncharov, Elissaios Stavrou, Sergey Lobanov, Gabriele Saleh, Guang-Rui Qian, Qiang Zhu, Carlo Gatti, Volker L Deringer, Richard Dronskowski, Xiang-Feng Zhou, Vitali B Prakapenka, Zuzana Konôpková, Ivan A Popov, Alexander I Boldyrev, Hui-Tian Wang
Helium is generally understood to be chemically inert and this is due to its extremely stable closed-shell electronic configuration, zero electron affinity and an unsurpassed ionization potential. It is not known to form thermodynamically stable compounds, except a few inclusion compounds. Here, using the ab initio evolutionary algorithm USPEX and subsequent high-pressure synthesis in a diamond anvil cell, we report the discovery of a thermodynamically stable compound of helium and sodium, Na2He, which has a fluorite-type structure and is stable at pressures >113 GPa...
May 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429723/pressure-self-focusing-effect-and-novel-methods-for-increasing-the-maximum-pressure-in-traditional-and-rotational-diamond-anvil-cells
#8
Biao Feng, Valery I Levitas
The main principles of producing a region near the center of a sample, compressed in a diamond anvil cell (DAC), with a very high pressure gradient and, consequently, with high pressure are predicted theoretically. The revealed phenomenon of generating extremely high pressure gradient is called the pressure self-focusing effect. Initial analytical predictions utilized generalization of a simplified equilibrium equation. Then, the results are refined using our recent advanced model for elastoplastic material under high pressures in finite element method (FEM) simulations...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429554/is-there-a-practical-role-for-bone-biopsy-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
Terrence Diamond, Grahame J Elder
Bone biopsy is currently the only means to accurately assess renal osteodystrophy and responses to therapeutic interventions. With sedation, the technique is relatively painless, and complications are uncommon. Bone biopsy should be considered when the aetiology of symptoms or biochemical abnormalities is in question, and results may lead to changes in therapy. Although it remains prudent to use antiresorptive drugs cautiously in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3a-4 and low bone mineral density, bone biopsy may not be warranted before commencing therapy in these patients...
March 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428318/bottom-up-construction-of-a-superstructure-in-a-porous-uranium-organic-crystal
#10
Peng Li, Nicolaas A Vermeulen, Christos D Malliakas, Diego A Gómez-Gualdrón, Ashlee J Howarth, B Layla Mehdi, Alice Dohnalkova, Nigel D Browning, Michael O'Keeffe, Omar K Farha
Bottom-up construction of highly intricate structures from simple building blocks remains one of the most difficult challenges in chemistry. Here, we report a structurally complex, mesoporous uranium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) made from simple starting components. The structure is comprised of 10 uranium nodes and 7 tricarboxylate ligands (both crystallographically non-equivalent); resulting in a 173.3 angstrom cubic unit cell enclosing 816 uranium nodes and 816 organic linkers-the largest unit cell found for any nonbiological material...
April 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423901/estimation-of-nanodiamond-surface-charge-density-from-zeta-potential-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#11
Zhenpeng Ge, Yi Wang
Molecular dynamics simulations of nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used to study their interactions with various biological macromolecules. Such simulations generally require detailed knowledge of the surface composition of the NP under investigation. Even for some well-characterized nanoparticles, however, this knowledge is not always available. An example is nanodiamond, a nanoscale diamond particle with surface dominated by oxygen-containing functional groups. In this work, we explore using the harmonic restraint method developed by Venable et al...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423319/tam-receptors-are-not-required-for-zika-virus-infection-in-mice
#12
Andrew K Hastings, Laura J Yockey, Brett W Jagger, Jesse Hwang, Ryuta Uraki, Hallie F Gaitsch, Lindsay A Parnell, Bin Cao, Indira U Mysorekar, Carla V Rothlin, Erol Fikrig, Michael S Diamond, Akiko Iwasaki
Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk (TAM) receptors are candidate entry receptors for infection with the Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging flavivirus of global public health concern. To investigate the requirement of TAM receptors for ZIKV infection, we used several routes of viral inoculation and compared viral replication in wild-type versus Axl(-/-), Mertk(-/-), Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-), and Axl(-/-)Tyro3(-/-) mice in various organs. Pregnant and non-pregnant mice treated with interferon-α-receptor (IFNAR)-blocking (MAR1-5A3) antibody and infected subcutaneously with ZIKV showed no reliance on TAMs for infection...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420828/y-tzp-zirconia-regeneration-firing-microstructural-and-crystallographic-changes-after-grinding
#13
Daniel Patrick Obelenis Ryan, Laiza Maria Grassi Fais, Selma Gutierrez Antonio, Gabriel Rodrigues Hatanaka, Lucas Miguel Candido, Ligia Antunes Pereira Pinelli
This study evaluated microstructural and crystallographic phase changes after grinding (G) and regeneration firing/anneling (R) of Y-TZP ceramics. Thirty five bars (Lava(TM) and Ice Zirkon) were divided: Y-TZP pre-sintered, control (C), regeneration firing (R), dry grinding (DG), dry grinding+regeneration firing (DGR), wet grinding (WG) and wet grinding+regeneration firing (WGR). Grinding was conducted using a diamond bur and annealing at 1,000°C. The microstructure was analyzed by SEM and the crystalline phases by X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
April 18, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416793/seismic-anisotropy-of-the-d%C3%A2-layer-induced-by-001-deformation-of-post-perovskite
#14
Xiang Wu, Jung-Fu Lin, Pamela Kaercher, Zhu Mao, Jin Liu, Hans-Rudolf Wenk, Vitali B Prakapenka
Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of post-perovskite (Mg,Fe)SiO3 (pPv) has been believed to be one potential source of the seismic anisotropic layer at the bottom of the lower mantle (D″ layer). However, the natural CPO of pPv remains ambiguous in the D″ layer. Here we have carried out the deformation experiments of pPv-(Mg0.75,Fe0.25)SiO3 using synchrotron radial X-ray diffraction in a membrane-driven laser-heated diamond anvil cell from 135 GPa and 2,500 K to 154 GPa and 3,000 K. Our results show that the intrinsic texture of pPv-(Mg0...
April 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415539/in-vitro-cytotoxicity-evaluation-of-nano-carbon-particles-with-different-sp-2-sp-3-ratios
#15
S S Li, B J Wu, Q Y Deng, Y B Guo, Y X Leng, N Huang
Graphitization occurs during the long-term service of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) modified artificial joint. Then, DLC wear debris, which are carbon particles with different sp(2)/sp(3) ratios and sizes ranging from the nano- to micro-meter scale produced. In this paper, to promote the application of DLC coating for artificial joint modification, the cytotoxicity of DLC debris (nano-carbon particles, NCs) with different sp(2)/sp(3) ratios was studied. The microstructure and physical characteristics of NCs with different sp(2)/sp(3) ratios were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS)...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415417/porous-45s5-bioglass%C3%A2-based-scaffolds-using-stereolithography-effect-of-partial-pre-sintering-on-structural-and-mechanical-properties-of-scaffolds
#16
Boonlom Thavornyutikarn, Passakorn Tesavibul, Kriskrai Sitthiseripratip, Nattapon Chatarapanich, Bryce Feltis, Paul F A Wright, Terence W Turney
Scaffolds made from 45S5 Bioglass® ceramic (BG) show clinical potential in bone regeneration due to their excellent bioactivity and ability to bond to natural bone tissue. However, porous BG scaffolds are limited by their mechanical integrity and by the substantial volume contractions occurring upon sintering. This study examines stereolithographic (SLA) methods to fabricate mechanically robust and porous Bioglass®-based ceramic scaffolds, with regular and interconnected pore networks and using various computer-aided design architectures...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415373/how-turbulence-fronts-induce-plasma-spin-up
#17
Y Kosuga, S-I Itoh, P H Diamond, K Itoh
A calculation which describes the spin-up of toroidal plasmas by the radial propagation of turbulence fronts with broken parallel symmetry is presented. The associated flux of parallel momentum is calculated by using a two-scale direct-interaction approximation in the weak turbulence limit. We show that fluctuation momentum spreads faster than mean flow momentum. Specifically, the turbulent flux of wave momentum is stronger than the momentum pinch. The scattering of fluctuation momentum can induce edge-core coupling of toroidal flows, as observed in experiments...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414436/pressure-temperature-phase-diagram-reveals-spin-lattice-interactions-in-co-n-cn-2-2
#18
J L Musfeldt, K R O'Neal, T V Brinzari, P Chen, J A Schlueter, J L Manson, A P Litvinchuk, Z Liu
Diamond anvil cell techniques, synchrotron-based infrared and Raman spectroscopies, and lattice dynamics calculations are combined with prior magnetic property work to reveal the pressure-temperature phase diagram of Co[N(CN)2]2. The second-order structural boundaries converge on key areas of activity involving the spin state exposing how the pressure-induced local lattice distortions trigger the ferromagnetic → antiferromagnetic transition in this quantum material.
April 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413723/physiological-effects-of-five-different-marine-natural-organic-matters-noms-and-three-different-metals-cu-pb-zn-on-early-life-stages-of-the-blue-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#19
Lygia Sega Nogueira, Adalto Bianchini, Scott Smith, Marianna Basso Jorge, Rachael L Diamond, Chris M Wood
Metals are present in aquatic environments as a result of natural and anthropogenic inputs, and may induce toxicity to organisms. One of the main factors that influence this toxicity in fresh water is natural organic matter (NOM) but all NOMs are not the same in this regard. In sea water, possible protection by marine NOMs is not well understood. Thus, our study isolated marine NOMs by solid-phase extraction from five different sites and characterized them by excitation-emission fluorescence analysis-one inshore (terrigenous origin), two offshore (autochthonous origin), and two intermediate in composition (indicative of a mixed origin)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413159/the-hippo-pathway-maintains-the-equatorial-division-plane-in-the-ciliate-tetrahymena
#20
Yu-Yang Jiang, Wolfgang Maier, Ralf Baumeister, Gregory Minevich, Ewa Joachimiak, Zheng Ruan, Natarajan Kannan, Diamond Clarke, Joseph Frankel, Jacek Gaertig
The mechanisms that govern pattern formation within the cell are poorly understood. Ciliates carry on their surface an elaborate pattern of cortical organelles that are arranged along the anteroposterior and circumferential axes by largely unknown mechanisms. Ciliates divide by tandem duplication: the cortex of the pre-division cell is remodeled into two similarly-sized and complete daughters. In the conditional cdaI-1 mutant of Tetrahymena thermophile, the division plane migrates from its initially correct equatorial position toward the cell's anterior, resulting in unequal cell division, and defects in nuclear divisions and cytokinesis...
April 16, 2017: Genetics
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